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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Systolic Designs for DCT Using a Low-Complexity Concurrent Convolutional Formulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1041 - 1050
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (745 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A reduced-complexity convolutional formulation is presented for systolic implementation of the discrete cosine transform, where N-point transform can be computed by four numbers of nearly (N/4)-point circular-convolution-like operations. The proposed algorithm not only provides a reduction of computational complexity by four times over the conventional formulation, where N-point transform is computed via (N-1)-point cyclic convolution, but also leads to concurrent pipelined execution in linear systolic arrays. It is shown that the multiplications in the processing elements can be implemented by lookup-tables using dual-port ROM. Two variants of systolic structures using ROM-based multipliers are presented for efficient implementation of the proposed algorithm. The proposed structures are found to offer significant saving of hardware, require less latency, and yield more throughput over the existing structures. Apart from simplicity and regularity, the proposed structures would also have flexibility of implementation by CORDIC circuits and canonical-signed-digit-based multipliers as well View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Distortion Analysis for Real-Time Video Encoding and Streaming Over Wireless Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1051 - 1062
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A major challenge in video encoding and transmission over wireless networks is that the channel is error-prone while the compressed video data is highly sensitive to errors. The transmission errors will cause decoding failure at the receiver side. More importantly, the transmission errors introduced in one video frame will propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path and significantly degrade video presentation quality. This type of picture distortion is called transmission distortion. In this work, we propose a control system approach to transmission distortion modeling. More specifically, we consider the wireless video transmission and decoding system as a linear system with the transmission errors as system input and the transmission distortion as output. We study the fading behavior of the impulse transmission distortion. We analyze the low-pass filtering behavior of video encoders and develop a scheme to estimate the instantaneous transmission distortion. Our extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed transmission distortion model is accurate and robust. In addition, it has very low computational complexity. More importantly, because it is a predictive model, it allows the encoder to predict the transmission distortion even before the video is compressed and transmitted. This type of transmission distortion model has important applications in resource allocation and performance optimization in real-time wireless video communication View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Rate-Control System With Three Stages for JPEG2000 Image Coding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1063 - 1073
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the conventional post-compression rate distortion (PCRD) optimum algorithm in JPEG2000 can provide excellent rate-distortion performance, it remains troublesome for VLSI design. It requires high-complexity computation and a large quantity of working memory. In this paper, a novel rate-control system for JPEG2000 image coding, which consists of three stages, is proposed to efficiently reduce the computational complexity and memory usage, as well as maintaining the high image comparable with PCRD. In the precoding stage, the rate allocation for the image tiles (RAIT) can allocate the bit rates for different image tiles based on their internal information; moreover, in order to make VLSI design easier, the image edge-detect algorithms and the prediction algorithms are used to evaluate the information of the image tiles. In the tier1 coding stage, according to the given bit rate, the rate allocation based on the rest rate distortion (RARRD) can adaptively truncate code stream based on the rest rate distortion of the current image tile and the rate-distortion (RD) slope of the current coding pass during the current code-block coding, and all of the truncated data need not be encoded and stored. In the post-coding stage, a new fast rate control with approximately optimum truncation (RCAOT) can get the approximately optimum truncation points through searching among the 256 quality layers once, which are divided based on the 8-b RD-slopes expressed by means of a logarithm. This system can not only maintain high image quality through RCAOT and RAIT but also save working memory and encoding time by means of RARRD and RCAOT. Experimental results show that, for the image which has distinct objects and background, the PSNR of the reconstructed images compressed by our rate-control system are much higher than those using PCRD; for other images, our system has the comparative effect as PCRD View full abstract»

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  • A Max-Min Fairness Congestion Control for Layered Streaming of Scalable Video

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1074 - 1085
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a best-effort networking environment, efficient and fair congestion control is highly desired for every traffic flow to share the bandwidth appropriately. This paper proposes a congestion control algorithm for user datagram protocol rate-based layered streaming of scalable video, e.g., 3-D wavelet based scalable video streaming, which provides a variety of video bit rates. This proposed congestion control mechanism, as an extension of explicit control protocol that is a newly proposed congestion control protocol believed to be superior to transport control protocol, accommodates both window-based and rate-based flows to the heterogeneous network environment which can include wired and wireless channels. This paper further introduces the notion of reserved packet length so that the traffic of layered video can better share the bandwidth of a network by taking account of the max-min fairness with other traffic View full abstract»

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  • Novel Noncontrast-Based Edge Descriptor for Image Segmentation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1086 - 1095
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an efficient video segmentation strategy based on new edge features to assist object-based video coding, motion estimation, and motion compensation for MPEG-4 and MPEG-7. The proposed algorithm utilizes the human visual perception to provide edge information. Based on the human visual perception, two edge features are introduced and described based on edge features from analysis of a local histogram. An edgeness function is derived to generate the edgeness information map by using the defined features, which can be thought as the gradient image. Then, an improved marker-based region growing and merging techniques are derived to separate the image regions. The proposed algorithm is tested on several standard images and demonstrates high efficiency for object segmentation View full abstract»

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  • Design and Fusion of Pose-Invariant Face-Identification Experts

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1096 - 1106
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the problem of pose-invariant face recognition based on a single model image. To cope with novel view face images, a model of the effect of pose changes on face appearance must be available. Face images at an arbitrary pose can be mapped to a reference pose by the model yielding view-invariant representation. Such a model typically relies on dense correspondences of different view face images, which are difficult to establish in practice. Errors in the correspondences seriously degrade the accuracy of any recognizer. Therefore, we assume only the minimal possible set of correspondences, given by the corresponding eye positions. We investigate a number of approaches to pose-invariant face recognition exploiting such a minimal set of facial features correspondences. Four different methods are proposed as pose-invariant face recognition "experts" and combined in a single framework of expert fusion. Each expert explicitly or implicitly realizes the three sequential functions jointly required to capture the nonlinear manifolds of face pose changes: representation, view transformation, and class discriminative feature extraction. Within this structure, the experts are designed for diversity. We compare a design in which the three stages are sequentially optimized with two methods which employ an overall single nonlinear function learnt from different view face images. We also propose an approach exploiting a three-dimensional face data. A lookup table storing facial feature correspondences between different pose images, found by 3-D face models, is constructed. The designed experts are different in their nature owing to different sources of information and architectures used. The proposed fusion architecture of the pose-invariant face experts achieves an impressive accuracy gain by virtue of the individual experts diversity. It is experimentally shown that the individual experts outperform the classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method on the XM2VTS fa- - ce data set consisting of about 300 face classes. Further impressive performance gains are obtained by combining the outputs of the experts using different fusion strategies View full abstract»

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  • On Appearance Based Face and Facial Action Tracking

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1107 - 1124
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we address the problem of tracking faces and facial actions in a single video sequence. The main contributions of the paper are as follows. First, we develop a particle filter based framework for tracking the global 3-D motion of a face using a statistical facial appearance model. Second, we propose a framework for tracking the 3-D face pose as well as the local motion of inner features of the face due for instance to spontaneous facial actions, using an adaptive appearance model. We allow the statistics of the facial appearance as well as the dynamics to be adaptively updated during tracking. Third, we propose a variant of the second framework based on a heuristic search. Tracking real video sequences demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed methods. Accurate tracking was obtained even in the presence of perturbing factors including significant head pose and facial expression variations, occlusions, and illumination changes View full abstract»

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  • Content-Based Retransmission for 3-D Wavelet Video Streaming Over Lossy Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1125 - 1133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In video streaming, time-varying packet loss rate leads both degradation and inconsistency to video quality. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based retransmission scheme to address the above two problems in 3-D wavelet video streaming. The fundamental idea is to consider the contents of the packets and the traffic of the Internet simultaneously to optimize the quality of service (QoS). In the encoding stage, the content information is generated and stored, based on which an intelligent hybrid decision system is designed to perform a two-step optimization in transmission. First, the scheme for retransmitting the lost packets is designed to minimize the distortion of each group of video frames (GOF). Secondly, the bandwidth used for transmitting each GOF is dynamically allocated according to the changing traffic conditions such that the quality of video is consistent. The goal is to enable the streaming system to deliver the best possible visual quality of video under the same channel conditions. Simulation results show that our proposed approach can improve the video quality (more than 2 dB) as well as reduce the quality variation significantly View full abstract»

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  • Subjective and Objective Comparison of Advanced Motion Compensation Methods for Blocking Artifact Reduction in a 3-D Wavelet Coding System

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1134 - 1141
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We compare, both objectively and subjectively, the performance of various advanced motion compensation methods, including overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC) and control grid interpolation (CGI), in a 3-D wavelet-based coding system. The motion vectors of the methods are obtained by using a sequence of 1-D dynamic programming algorithms that minimizes the cost function. Our experiment results indicate that an OBMC sequence usually has a higher peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) than other methods, while a CGI sequence usually contains the fewest blocking artifacts. We provide a simple framework that combines the OBMC and CGI sequences. The proposed hybrid method removes more than 50% of the blocking artifacts of an OBMC sequence, while simultaneously maintaining a high PSNR performance View full abstract»

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  • Fast Edge-Preserved Postprocessing for Compressed Images

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1142 - 1147
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Images are often coded using block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT), where blocking and ringing artifacts are the most common visual distortion. In this letter, a fast algorithm is proposed to alleviate the said artifacts in the DCT domain. The new concept is to decompose a row or column image vector to a gradually changed signal and a fast variational signal, which correspond to low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) DCT subbands, respectively. Blocking artifacts between adjacent LF blocks are suppressed by smoothing LF components and discarding invalid HF ones, and ringing artifacts inside HF vectors are reduced by a simplified bilateral filter. With such a process, edges are preserved while blockiness and ringing are alleviated. Analytic and experimental results confirm the robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Motion Vector Composition Scheme for Arbitrary Frame Down-Sampling Video Transcoder

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1148 - 1152
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new motion vector composition scheme, which we call spatial dominant vector selection (SDVS), for arbitrary down-sampling of precoded video using cascaded pixel domain transcoder is presented. The SDVS uses the existing relationship between pixels of a frame and its reference frame(s) via motion vectors and selects a dominant motion vector from a set of candidate vectors to minimize prediction errors. Compared with the existing methods, experimental results show performance gain, in terms of both quality and bit rate, with reduced computation. We also propose a refinement method that adaptively adjusts the search range to further improve the performance at marginal cost View full abstract»

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  • A Three-Level Parallel High-Speed Low-Power Architecture for EBCOT of JPEG 2000

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1153 - 1163
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (718 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For JPEG 2000-based multimedia systems, embedded block coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT) tier-1 has become a bottleneck for the entire system. EBCOT tier-1 is full with bit operation, so hardware implementation is more efficient in both system throughput and power consumption. In this paper, a three-level parallel high-speed power-efficient architecture for EBCOT tier-1 is proposed. This architecture is divided into bit-plane coding (BC), arithmetic encoding (AE), and first-in first-out (FIFO) that connects BC with AE and balances the different throughput between them. To improve the system throughput, three levels of parallelism in BC are adopted: 1) the parallelism among bit planes; 2) the parallelism among three pass scans; and 3) the parallelism among coding bits. AE is implemented in four pipeline stages. To achieve power efficiency, several techniques are applied: in BC, simple control logics are added to reduce computation in BC; in FIFO, memory access is reduced since AE is fed with fixed values instead of reading from FIFO; in AE, simple control logics are added to reduce computation in AE and forwarding technique combined with clock gating is adopted to reduce switching activities in the last two pipeline stages. The proposed architecture can encode one code block with size NtimesN in only around (0.35~0.46)timesNtimesN clock cycles. Experimental results, with standard test image benchmarks, show that the proposed power reduction techniques keep the same system throughput and achieve about 27% improvement in the power consumption by comparison with the architecture without these techniques View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Arbitrary Factor Video Resizing Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1164 - 1171
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new algorithm for resizing video frames in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) space. We demonstrate that a frame resizing operation can be represented as multiplication by fixed matrices and propose a computation scheme which is applicable to any DCT-based compression method. The proposed approach is general enough to accommodate resizing operations with arbitrary factors conforming to the syntax of 16times16 macroblocks. The approach is shown to possess significant computational gain over the faster known state of the art algorithms while achieving similar picture quality View full abstract»

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  • An Area-Efficient Variable Length Decoder IP Core Design for MPEG- \hbox {1/2/4} Video Coding Applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1172 - 1178
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an area-efficient variable length decoder (VLD) IP core design for MPEG-1/2/4 video coding applications. The proposed IP core exploits the parallel numerical matching in the MPEG-1/2/4 entropy decoding to achieve high data throughput rate in terms of limited hardware cost. This feature not only improves the performance of VLD, but also facilitates reducing the power consumption through lowering down the supply voltage while maintaining enough data throughput rate. Moreover, we propose a partial combinational component enabling approach for minimizing the power consumption of the proposed design. Based on 0.18-mum CMOS technology, the implementation results show that the proposed IP core operates at 125-MHz clock frequency with the cost of 13 105 gates. In addition, the power consumption of the proposed design reaches 163.4 muW operated at 12.5 MHz with 0.9-V supply voltage, which is fast enough for MPEG-1/2/4 real-time decoding on 4CIF video@30 Hz. Compared to the existing designs, the proposed IP core possesses both higher data throughput and less hardware cost View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on multiview coding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1179
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  • 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1180
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on systems biology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (146 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on multimedia data mining

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (111 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2007)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1183
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  • IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference healthcare technology (BioCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1184
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it