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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1950

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 113
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  • Sir Robert A. Watson-Watt, Vice-President, 1950

    Page(s): 114
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  • Technical Writing for Students

    Page(s): 115
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  • Conductive Plastic Materials

    Page(s): 117
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    A new class of plastic materials has been developed. The outstanding characteristic of these materials resides in the fact that they have substantial and predeterminable electrical conductivities, and yet possess the desirable general mechanical and fabrication properties of ordinary plastics. Thermosetting, thermoplastic and elastomeric variants have been produced. Representative data for one type are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is called to the significant thermal and electrical conductivities; the latter is approximately 1012 times that of a general purpose phenolic. The material follows Ohm's Law at low and moderate current densities and appears to be free of frequency variation effects. The range of resistivities covered by these conductive plastic materials is indicated. The range extends roughly from the resistivity of distilled water to values approaching that of mercury. View full abstract»

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  • A Microwave System for Television Relaying

    Page(s): 125 - 129
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    The transmission requirements for radio relay systems for television network operation are discussed. A system designed by the Philco Corporation and employing heterodyne modulation with a SAC-19 Klystron, developed by the Sperry Gyroscope Corporation for this application, is described. Western Union has installed this equipment, which operates in the 6,000-Mc common carrier band, between New York and Philadelphia, and photographs are included showing the repeater, antenna, and the results of a square-wave and CBS test patten after transmission over the circuit. View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Electronic Equipment Using Subminiature Components

    Page(s): 130 - 135
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    This article discusses briefly the advantages and disadvantages of subminiature design, and indicates the amount of space that can be saved by such design. It discusses in greater detail the major problems of design, and presents some practical suggestions concerning the methods and materials found most useful. For several years there has been an ever-increasing interest in the construction of electronic equipment using subminiature tubes and exceptionally small components. Various laboratories and development groups have collectively constructed nearly every type of applicable circuit using such components. Since the method of design using small components is somewhat different than the regular design procedure, it is felt that a review of some of the more pertinent facts is in order. The information presented here, although probably applicable in part to all subminiature tubes, is based upon experience with high-performance tubes of the heater-cathode type used in circuits where ten or more such tubes are in a single piece of equipment. Many of the data are, of course, applicable to design of compact equipment using any tube type. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Beams in Axially Symmetrical Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Page(s): 135 - 147
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    The problem considered in this paper is the formulation of the equations governing the motion of an electron beam in axially symmetrical magnetic and electric fields. The equations are obtained for the trajectories of the electrons along the outer edge of the beam for the most general case, in which there are both axial and radial components of the fields. It is shown that, as a result of symmetry, the combined effects of the electric and the magnetic fields can be expressed as a single generalized potential function which depends only on the axial and radial space co-ordinates. This permits one to express the axial and radial force components as the axial and radial components of the gradient of this potential function. Numerical solutions have been obtained by numerical integration for the trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Curves are presented in normalized form, giving the results of these solutions for cases likely to be encountered in practice. It is shown that there exists an equilibrium radius for which the net radial forces acting on the electrons is zero, and that the outer radius of the beam will oscillate about this equilibrium value, the amplitude being nonsymmetrical and depending upon the initial conditions, and the wavelength (distance between successive maxima) depending upon the amplitude. View full abstract»

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  • The Transmission and Reception of Elliptically Polarized Waves

    Page(s): 148 - 151
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    A vector parameter is defined which represents a generalization of the effective length of an antenna to include a specification of the polarization of the field radiated by the antenna. It is shown that the parameter so defined is also useful in calculating the voltage at the terminals of the antenna when it is used to receive plane waves of arbitrary (elliptical) polarization. View full abstract»

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  • The Magnetic Amplifier

    Page(s): 151 - 158
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    The "small signal" theory of the magnetic amplifier is developed under certain simplifying assumptions. Expressions for the amplification are derived in terms of electrical and magnetic quantities, and conditions for optimum amplification are obtained. The predictions of the theory are found to agree qualitatively with experimental results of other workers. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 158
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  • Receiving Tubes Employing Secondary Electron Emitting Surfaces Exposed to the Evaporation from Oxide Cathodes

    Page(s): 159 - 164
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    Previous use of secondary-emission multiplication in receiving tubes has been accompanied by difficulties with life and has been accomplished in oxide cathode tubes by shielding the secondary emitter from cathode evaporation. This shielding required a complicated tube structure and additional electrodes and leads. This paper describes methods of controlling cathode evaporation to obtain satisfactory tube life and even to enhance secondary emission gain in simple tube constructions in which the secondary emission surface is directly exposed to the oxide cathode evaporation. A 1.4-volt filament tube is described which may be operated to give a transconductance of three times the normal input transconductance, or may be operated to give the normal input transconductance with a reduction to 40 per cent of the original total battery power. The construction and characteristic curves of an indirectly heated oxide cathode tube with the dynode directly exposed to the cathode are given. A transconductance of 24 ma/volt and a wide-band figure of merit of two to three times that of conventional tubes is obtained. A high cathode temperature reduces dynode life, but a variation of ±10 per cent in heater voltage seems satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of Short Radio Waves over Desert Terrain

    Page(s): 165 - 175
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    Results are given of an experimental investigation of the effect of relatively simple topography and meteorology upon the propagation of short radio waves over an optical 26.7-mile path and a nonoptical 46.3-mile path. Two types of meteorological conditions were encountered during the course of the experiments performed in the Arizona desert. In the daytime the atmosphere was well mixed with the index of refraction distribution nearly standard. At night a small scale duct was formed, due to a temperature inversion arising from the cooling of the ground by radiation. Measurements of the vertical distribution of field strength over a 190-foot interval were made under these two meteorological conditions for frequencies of 25, 63, 170, 520, 1,000, 3,300, 9,375 and 24,000 Mc. The effect of the diurnal meteorological cycle on the field strength is discussed for both the optical and nonoptical path. Diffraction effects on the short path due to small scale irregularities of the terrain are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Spurious Modes in Coaxial Transmission Line Filters

    Page(s): 176 - 180
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    Coaxial transmission line filters in which the shunt reactive elements are conducting rods inserted between the inner and outer conductors of the series coaxial transmission line may be analyzed by the use of well-known transmission line equations if only the TEM mode propagates. When other "spurious" modes are important, the problem is not so simple. Some equations are presented for the cutoff frequencies of such spurious modes, and supporting experimental data is included. View full abstract»

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  • The Analysis of Broad-Band Microwave Ladder Networks

    Page(s): 180 - 183
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    By expressing the transmission matrix in terms of the Pauli spin matrices it has been found possible to write formulas for symmetrical ladder networks that are practical for analysis, even in the presence of gross line effect or parameter variation. These formulas are particularly useful for broad-band microwave filters. General formulas are given for the combination of 2, 3, 4, and 5 elements. Detailed formulas are also given for elements that may be described as parallel resonant structures in shunt at the center of a length of line or waveguide. An example is given illustrating the "line effect" in a low-Q structure that otherwise would show a "Butterworth" or "semi-infinite slope" characteristic. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors to the Proceedings of the I.R.E.

    Page(s): 184 - 185
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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 185
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 186 - 190
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  • Books

    Page(s): 191
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  • 1950 IRE National Convention Program

    Page(s): 192
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  • Summaries of Technical Papers

    Page(s): 193 - 211
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  • Abstracts and references

    Page(s): 212 - 224
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope