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Human Factors in Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Human Factors in Electronics Group

    Page(s): c2
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  • Spelled Speech as an Output for Computers and Reading Machines for the Blind

    Page(s): 175 - 181
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    The development of a speech display system for the blind built around the TX-0 and PDP-1 computers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is described. The system, dubbed ``SPANC,'' was designed to permit the application of a variety of sound compression techniques to be used. Spelled-speech alphabets and displays were developed. An investigation of the letter sounds was carried out for the purpose of revealing the positions where cuts could be made so as to achieve high reading rates yet retain smooth coalescence. Identification of the positions of these cuts could be made with gross features of the acoustic waveform. Cuts of more than 50-ms duration could be made in the region of the articulatory transitions for the consonants, and very acceptable representations of the letter sounds could be obtained by preserving this region for the vowels. Finally, the overlapping of letter utterances as a compression technique was accomplished with subjects experiencing very little difficulty for overlaps corresponding to reading rates of 90 and 120 words per minute. View full abstract»

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  • Internal Models and the Human Instrument Monitor

    Page(s): 181 - 187
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    A general structure for the quantitative modeling of human operator behavior is discussed. The primary features of this structure are 1) the mathematical description of the updating of operator information state by an internal model of the environment, and 2) the assumption of optimal behavior on the basis of current state of information. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Study of Human Operator Models and Closed-Loop Analysis Methods for High-Speed Automobile Driving

    Page(s): 187 - 201
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    The investigation described in this paper was aimed at obtaining information about the way in which the human being controls an automobile at high speed on a winding road. A dynamic systems approach was taken, and three different classes of models were postulated. The optimal models in these classes were then obtained for data taken from three subjects in a driving simulation which projected a large moving roadway image. View full abstract»

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  • Two-Dimensional Manual Control Systems with Separated Displays

    Page(s): 202 - 209
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    The results of a current study of multi-variable manual control systems are presented. The objectives of this study are to investigate the human controller's behavior in multivariable control situations and to develop models of the controller which take into account both the monitoring and the control functions that he typically performs in such systems. View full abstract»

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  • Human Performance in a Cross-Coupled Tracking System

    Page(s): 210 - 217
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    Human tracking performance in a two-axis system with cross-coupling was evaluated by modeling the human operator with an asymmetric lattice network. A spectral analysis technique was developed to precisely identify each element of the network. Approximate identification is possible by using a less complex model matching technique. View full abstract»

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  • The Adaptive Response of the Human Controller to Sudden Changes in Controlled Process Dynamics

    Page(s): 218 - 223
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    A model is presented for the process by which a trained human controller detects, identifies, and adapts to changes in the gain and polarity of a compensatory velocity control system. The results of some experiments designed to test the model against actual human behavior are described. The features of the model which are explicitly tested are: 1) A detection process in which contemporary signal detection theory is applied to a variable which represents the difference between observed and expected system response to control movements; and 2) An identification process in which the human controller chooses that member of an ensemble of mental models of the controlled process which best accounts for the observed system behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Muscle Action Potential and Hand Switch Disjunctive Reaction Times to Visual, Auditory, and Combined Visual-Auditory Displays

    Page(s): 223 - 226
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    Muscle action potential and hand switch disjunctive reaction times of three male subjects to visual, auditory, and combined visual-auditory display were observed. Muscle action potential responses were found to be considerably faster than hand switch responses. Within each response mode, reaction times with the combined display were faster than visual display reaction times. View full abstract»

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  • Rotary Dial and Thumbwheel Devices for Manually Entering Sequential Data

    Page(s): 227 - 231
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    A rotary telephone dial and a device consisting of ten thumbwheel switches in a single array were compared in terms of user speed, accuracy, and preference. Where a completely different telephone number was used during each trail, the thumbwheel device took 20 to 60 percent longer than the rotary dial and was disliked by nine out of ten subjects. In contrast, where the successive trials involved telephone numbers with the same prefix, the thumbwheel device took 40 to 60 percent less time than the rotary dial and was preferred by eight out of ten subjects. Error rates were low and the same on both devices. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of Quasi-Linear Pilot Models

    Page(s): 231 - 249
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  • A Laboratory Display System Suitable for Man-Machine Research

    Page(s): 250 - 253
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    There is a definite need in man-machine system research for a display system capable of projecting large images and capable of taking computer signals as inputs. This need has not been met in the past, except by equipment that is prohibitively expensive for most man-machine researchers. View full abstract»

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  • Motor unit myoelectric control

    Page(s): 253 - 254
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    The voluntary contractions of unassociated muscles are under the control of the pyramidal system and may be subjected to control and training. The nature and exercise of this control and its relation to fixed "path" habits in animals has been discussed by Lorens (1965). In essence, Lorenz hypothesizes a set of innate genetically transmitted 'basic movement elements. These elements are linked together to achieve arbitrary complex motions in a manner analogous to the association of subroutines in a large program. The linkage, initially exploratory and tentative, is transformed into a smooth and coordinated overall movement by an adaptive process which rejects redundant and superfluous elements of motion and substitutes compatible elements. A strikingly similar behavior is exhibited by animals in learning a path through a maze; here again hesitant and awkward behavior becomes confident and continuous as superfluous movements are eliminated with increased experience. It is shown that myoelectric control systems can be based on the path habit hypothesis. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 255 - 257
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  • Reviews of current literature

    Page(s): 258 - 259
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  • Statement of editorial policy

    Page(s): 259
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  • Institutional listings

    Page(s): 259
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