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Human Factors in Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 1966

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Human Factors in Electronics Group

    Page(s): c2
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  • Differential Games and Manual Control

    Page(s): 133 - 137
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    Variational methods are used to solve a particular pursuit-evasion differential game. The problem involves the determination of optimal strategies for both the pursuer and evader. The performance measure is the miss distance at some fixed terminal time. Both pursuer and evader have limited control energy. The performance of a trained research pilot, for both single and two-axis control tasks is compared with that of the optimal pursuer. State vector display and ``quickened'' display are discussed. The results suggest that differential game problems could be quite useful in the study of manual control. View full abstract»

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  • A ``Critical'' Tracking Task for Manual Control Research

    Page(s): 138 - 145
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    A ``critical'' tracking task is developed in which a human operator is required to stabilize an increasingly unstable first-order controlled element up to the critical point of loss of control. Servo theory and operator describing function measurements are used to validate the basic assumptions, and an automatically paced critical task mechanization is described. The results show that the task does constrain the operator's behavior as intended, and that the critical instability depends primarily on the operator's effective time delay while tracking. A number of applications for the critical task are reviewed, including secondary workload research, control and measurement of operator and controlled element gain, and display research. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Minor Alcohol Stress on Decision Processes in a Step-Tracking Task

    Page(s): 145 - 150
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    Twenty men were tested in step-input tracking. Minor stress was imposed by moderate alcohol dosage and an incompatible directional relation between control and display. Some target movements demanded a response in an improbable direction and posed a choice between long delay in response and a movement in the wrong direction. The duration of response latency (rl) and the number of directional errors revealed a Ss preference for accuracy or speed and his ability to estimate probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Man-Machine Interface for the Driver-Vehicle System

    Page(s): 150 - 157
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    A control stick with a built-in tactile aiding device was tested in a simulated car-following situation. The tactile device gave the driver of a following car information—headway and relative velocity—concerning the state of a lead car. Experimental results (relative velocity and headway variance) with the simulator were compared with those obtained using conventional automobile controls in a similar situation. Sizeable reductions in these quantities, 55 and 85 percent, respectively, were obtained when the tactile display was partially quickened. Some evidence indicated that the driver behaved as an amplifier when using such a display. View full abstract»

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  • A Queueing Model of Many-Instrument Visual Sampling

    Page(s): 157 - 164
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    In the present paper we will discuss the task of a pilot (namely of a high performance jet plane) sampling the information given to him by the instruments on his panel. We will present a model that attempts to explain and match the behavior of pilots under actual flight conditions. This model is based on the concept of the different instruments competing for the attention of the pilot. Some may be unimportant under a given flight condition, but many should be looked at, the urgency of doing so being measured by the risk incurred if the corresponding value is beyond a certain threshold. Costs are assigned to each instrument; at each sampling instant the decision as to what instrument to look at is based on comparing for the different instruments the combined effect of both the probability of exceeding the threshold and a cost of exceeding that threshold. Effectively, the instruments queue for the pilot's attention; the instrument with the highest priority at each instant is then served (looked at). View full abstract»

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  • Operator Noise in a Discrete Signal Detection Task

    Page(s): 164 - 173
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    Man's ability to detect visual signals in noise is the concern of this paper. An operator is presented a computer generated two dimensional binary—or ``dot''—display and is asked to indicate the presence or absence of a ``signal.'' Previously developed signal detectability theory is expanded. A model of the operator as a threshold detector hampered by a Gaussian noise source is developed. The noise source is defined by two parameters—first and second moment operator factors, ε and ϒ. The most important parameter, ϒ, is investigated experimentally and found to be essentially independent of signal to noise ratio, SNR. This is interpreted to mean that the noise source decrements the actual SNR by 2 to 3 dB and that the operator sets a near optimum decision threshold as a function of SNR. View full abstract»

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  • An Inclusive Classified Bibliography Pertaining to Modeling the Human Operator as an Element in an Automatic Control System

    Page(s): 174 - 181
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    This paper comprises a bibliography of some two hundred entries, selected from a total collection of almost five hundred references pertaining to the human operator, which are concerned specifically with modeling the human operator as an element in an automatic control system. To enable systematic utilization of the material, the important papers are classed in Section A, the Bibliography Subject Index, under major subheads, and then arranged chronologically within each subject category. Included within these categories are many of the original papers dealing with human operator models, including British and U. S. classified reports produced after World War II, which have since been declassified. Up-to-date private-industry reports, which are generally difficult to learn of or locate, are included, as is a wealth of material stemming from federal agencies, principally NASA. Section B comprises the actual bibliography. View full abstract»

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  • Communications

    Page(s): 182 - 183
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 184 - 185
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  • IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics

    Page(s): 185
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  • Statement of editorial policy

    Page(s): 185
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