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Human Factors in Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Sept. 1963

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Professional Technical Group on Human Factors in Electronics

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Table of contents]

    Page(s): 1
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  • Guest editor [Duane McRuer]

    Page(s): 2
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  • Manual control issue introduction

    Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • Man-Machine System Simulation for Flight Vehicles

    Page(s): 4 - 14
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    A procedure for conducting a meaningful simulation of a man-machine system is presented and illustrated by various specific examples. The relationship of the various types of simulators to their use is outlined and desirable detailed characteristics are delineated. The tradeoffs between simulator complexity, realism and the interrelation of various feedback sensing cues (motion, visual or tactile) are discussed and the necessity of validating the simulation by use of a variable stability and variable control system aircraft is noted. It is shown that as the problem to be studied becomes more complicated or the questions asked of the simulation become more quantitative, the simulator characteristics must become more flight-like, since in the last analysis the best place to ask the question is when the pilot and the vehicle are immersed in the true environment (i.e., flight). View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Pilot Ratings of Multi-Axis Control Tasks from Single-Axis Data

    Page(s): 15 - 17
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    Techniques for predicting pilot ratings for multi-axis control tasks using single-axis rating data are evaluated. A method based on a nonlinear relationship between pilot rating and pilot generated lead time constant obtained from human response studies is shown to give excellent results. View full abstract»

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  • Studies of Manual Attitude Control: Control-Device/Display Content Comparisons

    Page(s): 17 - 24
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    Experimental simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of displayed information content and hand control device configuration on the ability of pilots to stabilize the attitude of a tumbling space vehicle and to maintain a fixed attitude while external torques were being applied. Four pilot-engineers performed both tasks in a fixed-base manned space vehicle simulator which was mechanized to provide three degrees of angular freedom. Four types of hand control devices and two display content conditions were investigated. Results indicated that the amount of displayed information was a powerful variable for both tasks. A strategy or technique for accomplishing the stabilization maneuver was evolved which approached an optimum solution in terms of energy expenditure or fuel consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Manipulative Control with Transmission Delay

    Page(s): 25 - 29
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    The nature of remote manipulation is briefly discussed and several manipulator devices are described. The problem of manipulation with delay is considered, and an experiment to determine the effect of delay on completion time for a simple manipulative task is reported. It appears that under certain circumstances the time required with delay can be predictd from performance measures which are independent of delay. View full abstract»

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  • Manual Flight Control System Functional Characteristics

    Page(s): 29 - 38
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    The functional characteristics of a manual flight control system which a controls engineer must consider are presented and discussed. Each factor is treated as a separate entity, with its effect on other functional characteristics noted. The application of the functional characteristics in the design of the control system is explained. Some of the pitfalls and problems to be avoided are discussed. Application of systematic analysis of each characteristic has been found to be a necessary step in the evolution of satisfactory manual flight control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Variable Feedback Experiments Testing a Sampled Data Model for Eye Tracking Movements

    Page(s): 38 - 51
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    A sampled data model is presented to describe the action of the control system for directing human gaze at a moving target. The plausibility of the model is supported by its successful prediction of experimental tracking characteristics under variable effective visual feedback. The feedback is altered by addition of an external signal from measured eye position to target position, and its effects on the frequency and transient responses of the model and the experimental records are compared. View full abstract»

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  • The Normality of Signals and Describing Function Measurements of Simple Manual Control Systems

    Page(s): 52 - 55
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    The distribution functions of amplitude of the error, response and remnant signals in a simple, compensatory, manual control system were computed for a variety of input signal bandwidths and spectral shapes. χ<R>2</R> goodness-of-fit tests of the normality of these distributions were performed. Distribution functions of the measured values of several transformations of the describing functions for the human operator and for the closed-loop system were also computed and compared to a normal distribution in order to find the form that was most nearly normal. View full abstract»

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  • On the Limits of Manual Control

    Page(s): 56 - 59
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    Theoretical predictions and experimental data for the limits of manual control of unstable oscillatory second-order controlled elements are presented. At the limits of manual control, amplitude distributions of the system error and operator output were nearly Gaussian. The quasi-linear describing function model of the human operator implied from analysis of the experimental measurements indicates that the operator was capable of generating equalization equivalent to a double lead and that, for certain controlled elements, he adopted a response behavior analogous to quasiprecognitive tracking with a compensatory display. View full abstract»

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  • Observed Pilot-Vehicle Loop-Closure Characteristics For Hovering Aircraft Control

    Page(s): 60 - 63
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    The parameters in an a priori form of the pilot describing function have been measured for pitch axis stabilization in a hovering aircraft simulation. Controlled element characteristics of static gain and damping were varied, using an input disturbance representative of atmospheric turbulence at very low altitudes. The pilot describing function parameters were measured during each run by an analog mechanization of the method of steepest descent. The results show that, for a given level of damping, the pilot adjusts his gain as the airframe static gain changes in order to hold a constant forward-loop gain. This value of forward-loop gain increases as damping decreases, thus maintaining a relatively well-defined band of open-loop cross-over frequencies between 1 and 2 rad/sec. The pilot utilizes lead in order to provide a phase margin between 20° and 60°. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 64 - 65
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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 65
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