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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1949

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Information about the Society

    Page(s): 1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2
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  • General Information

    Page(s): 2
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  • Contents of Volume 37 - 1949

    Page(s): 3 - 7
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  • Index to authors

    Page(s): 8 - 9
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  • Index to book reviews

    Page(s): 9
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  • Index to subjects

    Page(s): 10 - 19
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  • Nontechnical index

    Page(s): 20 - 22
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): [1]
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  • Stuart L. Bailey, President, 1949

    Page(s): 2
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  • The Electron-Wave Tube-A Novel Method of Generation and Amplification of Microwave Energy

    Page(s): 4 - 10
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    A novel method of generation and amplification of microwave energy is described, based on space-charge interaction of electron streams of different velocities. The electron streams are generated within a common space which, in the presence of electrons, behaves as a unidirectional transmission medium having negative attenuation. The basic theory of the new method is developed, and formulas and curves are given for propagation constant, electronic, gain, and bandwidth which can be achieved with the device based on the new method. This device is called the "electron-wave tube." The design and performance of the "two-beam"-type and the "single-beam"-type experimental electron-wave tubes are described. Electronic gains of the order of 80 db at a frequency of 3000 Mc and electronic bandwidths of over 30 per cent have been observed in experimental electron-wave tubes. It is pointed out that, since no passive circuit is required in the amplifying region of the electron-wave tube, the new method is important in the development of tubes for millimeter waves. View full abstract»

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  • Communication in the Presence of Noise

    Page(s): 10 - 21
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    A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically. Messages and the corresponding signals are points in two "function spaces," and the modulation process is a mapping of one space into the other. Using this representation, a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect. Formulas are found for the maxmum rate of transmission of binary digits over a system when the signal is perturbed by various types of noise. Some of the properties of "ideal" systems which transmit at this maxmum rate are discussed. The equivalent number of binary digits per second for certain information sources is calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Multiplex Employing Pulse-Time and Pulsed-Frequency Modulation

    Page(s): 22 - 28
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    A microwave communication system giving two-channel voice transmission over a single carrier is described. Diplexing is accomplished by the use of two types of modulation, rather than by time or frequency division. One channel is transmitted by a form of pulse-time modulation using 1-microsecond pulses at a mean repetition rate of 10 kc, and the other channel by frequency modulation of the pulsed microwave carrier (FM burst). The addition of the pulsed-FM channel requires no additional carrier power or change of duty cycle. Cross talk is negligible. The double system is applicable to most of the common forms of pulse-time modulation. Time-division techniques are as applicable as in systems employing pulse-time modulation alone. If a time-division index of n is employed, i.e., that necessary to give n channels in a straight pulse-time time-division multiplex system, the employment of the diplex system described gives 2n channels. Compared to a straight pulse-time time-division system giving 2n channels, the double-modulation system results in economies in synchronizing equipment, and provides a better signal-to-noise ratio on the pulse-time portion of the system, but requires some additional bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of the Superregenerative Amplifier

    Page(s): 29 - 33
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    A very general solution of a superregenerative circuit from which reception of almost any type of modulation can be analyzed is derived. Familiarity with this impedance method of analysis should result in a clear physical picture of superregenerator operation. Examples are worked out on the basis of an ideal control wave form, revealing the fundamental limitations inherent in a super-regenerative amplifier. It is shown that the minimum realizable static bandwidth of a superregenerator is 0.89 fq./ Although the ideal wave form can only be approached in practice, it serves as a useful analytical tool in clarifying how the various factors affect the operation of a superregenerator. View full abstract»

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  • Some Slow-Wave Structures for Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Page(s): 34 - 40
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    A comparison of four slow-wave propagating structures for traveling-wave tubes is made. Recent experimental performance of several types of tubes using two of these circuits is given. Amplifier performance of helix tubes at 10,000 Mc, and wide-tuned oscillator performance (1.5 to 1) with second-harmonic output around 20,000 Mc are described. The analysis, construction, and performance of a 10,000-Mc disk-loaded-rod tube are presented. Apertured-disk and spiraled-waveguide structures are discussed briefly and compared with the helix and disk-loaded rod. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 40
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  • A Theory on Radar Reflections from the Lower Atmosphere

    Page(s): 41 - 43
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    A theory is presented, supported by several sample sets of data, which indicate that the curious phenomenon dubbed "angels" (radar reflections from the lower atmosphere) may be attributed to sharp changes in the dielectric constant. The required magnitudes of the changes are computed from reflection theory and compared to sample meteorological data obtained from rapid-response instruments. The near-discontinuities in the dielectric constant are produced by atmospheric turbulence. It is proposed that the observed radar reflections are the result of turbulent motion in the lower atmosphere. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Maximum Usable Frequency from Long-Distance Scatter

    Page(s): 44 - 47
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    A method of predicting the maximum usable frequency by means of observation of long-distance (2F) scatter is presented. Thelocations of the scattering sources are fixed by comparison of experimental observation with theoretical calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Square-Wave Analysis of Compensated Amplifiers

    Page(s): 48 - 58
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    A complete analysis of a single-stage compensated video-frequency amplifier is presented. In this amplifier high-frequency compensation is obtained by the use of a shunt peaking coil in series with the plate load resistance, and low-frequency compensation is obtained by using a resistance-capacitance network in series with the plate load resistance. Both square-wave and sine-wave input voltages to the amplifier are considered. The square-wave analysis consists of a determination of the output wave shape when a symmetrical square wave is applied to the input. Equations for the output wave shape are derived and put in such a form that the output wave shape may be plotted for any desired frequency of input square wave. Output wave shapes are drawn for a number of typical operating conditions, and the corresponding frequency- and phase-response curves are drawn for comparison. The effect of the cathode impedance, assumed negligible in the square-wave analysis, is considered briefly in a separate section, and its effect on low-frequency compensation is discussed. Derivations of many of the equations used are found in the Appendix. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 58
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  • Contributors to the Proceedings of the I.R.E.

    Page(s): 59
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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 60 - 61
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 62 - 66
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  • Books

    Page(s): 66
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope