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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1948

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Information about the Society

    Page(s): i
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): ii
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  • General information

    Page(s): ii
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  • Contents of Volume 36 - 1948

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): [1]
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  • Benjamin E. Shackelford, President-Elect, 1948

    Page(s): 2
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  • Technical Journalism

    Page(s): 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • High-Frequency Plated Quartz Crystal Units

    Page(s): 4 - 7
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    A description is given of the general problems relating to the development of high-frequency plated crystal units and of methods used for supporting the quartz blank and adjustment to frequency by the use of evaporated gold. View full abstract»

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  • The Ionospheric Eclipse of October 1, 1940

    Page(s): 8 - 15
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    This discussion presents the variations in the critical frequencies of the various ionospheric layers over Queenstown, South Africa, during the total solar eclipse of October 1, 1940, and compares them with the normal-day data. It is shown that recombination and diffusion cannot completely explain the phenomena in the F2layer and that the cooling of the atmosphere by the eclipse may be of major importance. A theory of the formation of the E layer is proposed to account for the observed variations during the eclipse and at night. Minimum values of the apparent recombination coefficients for the E, F1, and F2layers were 1.2·10-8, 6·10-9, and 6·10-11cm.3/electrons per second, respectively. Some of the present data are compared with those, previously unpublished, which resulted from a similar expedition to Kazakstan, U.S.S.R., in 1936. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Amplitude-Stabilized Oscillators

    Page(s): 16 - 19
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    The performance of generalized amplitude-stabilized oscillators is analyzed in terms of an amplitude-stability parameter, or stability figure of merit. Theoretical possibilities of stabilization with ballast tubes, lamps of various types, and thermistors are described, together with a novel oscillator circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Velocity-Modulation Tubes for Reception at U.H.F. and S.H.F.

    Page(s): 19 - 23
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    Upon introduction of the notions of gain and noise figure, it appears that preamplifier stages using velocity-modulation tubes are unsuitable at u.h.f. and s.h.f. under operational conditions considered hitherto. A special arrangement, connected with such a tube and consisting of three electrode pairs spaced along the electron stream, is considered in this paper. The first pair is connected to a resonance cavity or line, constituting a pre-circuit. The second pair is connected to the input, and the third pair to the output circuit. It can be shown that the transfer of initial spontaneous velocity fluctuations to density fluctuations along the electron stream may be neglected. The reverse effect is considered in an appendix, and it also is negligible under practical conditions. It is shown that, by the use of a properly detuned pre-circuit, the noise figure may be reduced from a few thousand to, say, 10 under optimal conditions, retaining gain figures of, say, 100. The usefulness of the arrangement under consideration is discussed and estimated to be favorable under actual conditions of operation. With traveling-wave tubes noise figures below 10 are thought to be attainable by application of the present device. View full abstract»

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  • Phase and Amplitude Distortion in Linear Networks

    Page(s): 24 - 36
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    All practical communication networks exhibit distortions from the ideal linear phase and flat amplitude (all-pass) characteristics. When linear phase together with finite amplitude bandwidth prevail, the build-up time of the step transient response equals the reciprocal of twice the amplitude bandwidth. However, when phase distortion together with all-pass amplitude characteristics prevail, the finite (rather than zero) step-response build-up time is ascribed to the concept of phase bandwidth. Certain relations between phase and amplitude bandwidths are shown necessary to avoid step and impulse transient response overshoot arising from excessive phase distortion. In particular, attention is confined to networks comprising identical sections in cascade. For most cases of practical interest, it is shown that, as the number of sections increases, cascaded networks have a transmission characteristic approaching that of three networks in cascade. The first network is distortionless and accounts for the pure delay in the system. The other two networks, which account for the distortion in the system, are of two basic species: (1) all-pass networks with a monotonic phase distortion proportional to ωn, and (2) zero-phase-shift networks with a monotonic attenuation proportional to ωm. Graphs are given of the impulse and step transient responses for such networks with monotonic phase and attenuation distortion. From these are obtained important design data such as the phase bandwidth, the overshoot in the transient responses, the narrowing in effective bandwidth obtained on cascading, etc. An important design parameter determining the transient behavior is the phase distortion at the frequency of amplitude cutoff. View full abstract»

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  • Design Principles of Amplitude-Modulated Subcarrier Telemeter Systems

    Page(s): 36 - 41
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    Of the many multichannel radio telemeter systems that are being used for the instrumentation of airplanes and guided missiles, one of the simplest employs a separate amplitude-modulated audio subcarrier for each channel. In this paper a rational basis for the design of such systems is presented. The problems of multichannel overload, cross talk from adjacent channels, filter design criteria, and signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. The principal contributions of the paper are (1) a new criterion for multichannel overload which is easy to use and is simply related to single-signal overload; and (2) a demonstration that, contrary to general opinion, nothing is gained by spacing filter midband frequencies in such a way that harmonics of lower subcarriers fall outside the pass bands of higher-frequency channel filters. This fact is basic for successful design of an amplitude-modulated subcarrier telemeter because it permits subcarrier frequencies to be spaced much more closely than would otherwise be possible, and so results in improved signal-to-noise ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Trigonometric Components of a Frequency-Modulated Wave

    Page(s): 42 - 49
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    The exact solution of the differential equation of a variable-capacitance (or variable-inductance) resonant circuit is given, in a form having a clear physical meaning, and allowing an accurate numerical computation. The explicit expression of the output voltage, as well as the expressions of the charge, and of the current, are written in terms of the two parameters of the nondissipative circuit. The stability of the solutions is discussed, and it is noted that the regions of instability are in number only one-half of those which might be presumed in an investigation of the problem by an approximating Mathieu equation. From the rigorous solutions, approximate expressions are deduced which are valid in the case of small percentages of modulation. The exact results are compared, in a numerical discussion with those of the approximate formulas, as well as with the usual expressions, involving Bessel Functions. The case of the dissipative circuit is discussed briefly, both in the general case and in the case where the dissipative term is comparatively small. View full abstract»

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  • Class-A Push-Pull Amplifier Theory

    Page(s): 50 - 52
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    Two tubes operating in push-pull, class-A1, will produce more than twice the power output of a single tube using the same operating voltages, and with optimum load values in each case. This is demonstrated analytically by means of an equivalent circuit. The change in load impedance seen by one tube due to the effect of coupling to the other tube is considered and used to explain the results obtained. Experimental data are presented to verify the theory. View full abstract»

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  • Methods of Tuning Multiple-Cavity Magnetrons

    Page(s): 53 - 56
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    Several methods have been developed for tuning multiple-cavity magnetron oscillators over wide frequency ranges. The most successful of these involves simultaneous variation of both the inductance and capacitance of all the resonant cavities by a single tuning motion. Tuning ranges of better than 1.4 to 1 have been obtained with good efficiency throughout. As an example, a magnetron is described which tunes from 760 to 1160 megacycles, delivering over 2 kilowatts continuous-wave power at any frequency setting. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of the Circular Diffraction Antenna

    Page(s): 56 - 60
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    The object of this investigation is a study of the electromagnetic field produced by a diffraction antenna in the form of a circular gap made in a conducting plane. An e.m.f. is applied across the gap. The method of investigation is based on the classical diffraction theory by Fresnel and Kirchhoff. The expressions for E and H are obtained and applied to the calculation of electric field intensity at a great distance, and the directive patterns are plotted. The current distribution in the screen is then studied and the expression for the gap admittance is obtained. The surface current density appears as a sum of an infinite number of partials or wave modes. The radiation conductance rises step-wise with increasing radius like the radiation conductance of an oscillating sphere excited at the equator. View full abstract»

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  • A New Type of Waveguide Directional Coupler

    Page(s): 61 - 64
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    A type of waveguide directional coupler is described which has been carefully measured over a 12 per cent wavelength band centered at 3.3 centimeters. It combines the advantages of high directivity, low input standing-wave ratio, ease of design, and universality of application. Sufficient theory is given to explain the principles of its operation, and to allow its performance to be duplicated at other wavelengths. A number of design and performance curves are included. View full abstract»

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  • The Series Reactance in Coaxial Lines

    Page(s): 65 - 69
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    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of a reactance placed in series with the inner conductor of a coaxial line. It was found that capacitive reactances appear in parallel with the inserted series reactance, and in parallel with the resultant impedance of the line at the point where the series reactance is placed. These capacitances can be determined experimentally, and in usual cases are found to be between 10-14and 10-12farads. The results of these data have been extended to show the capability of the series reactance as a matching network in coaxial lines, and also its use with hollow cylindrical dipoles. In the course of this investigation it was necessary to determine the capacitance appearing at a step discontinuity in the inner conductor of a coaxial line. The results are in good agreement with values predicted in a previous paper. View full abstract»

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  • Tracing of Electron Trajectories Using the Differential Analyzer: Introduction

    Page(s): 69 - 70
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    The differential analyzer is used to give a graphical solution of electron paths in the magnetron and triode oscillators with d.c. and r.f. applied anode potential. A d.c. space charge is approximated in the magnetron; otherwise no space charge is included. The results are of interest in explaining experimental results. In particular, the magnetron paths show a marked tendency towards synchronism, and the triode results indicate that the required peak cathode emission is larger than was supposed. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors to the Proceedings of the I.R.E.

    Page(s): 84 - 87
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope