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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 5 • Date May 1946

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 213
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Engineer's Social Responsibility

    Page(s): 214
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    Increasingly the position of the engineer, not only as a technically skilled producer but also as an element in a more effectively co-ordinated social system, becomes of major importance and interest. It is accordingly greatly to the benefit of our readers that we present an analysis of this segment of the life of the professional engineer ably prepared by a recent Director of the Institute, who is himself a Vice-President of Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. View full abstract»

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  • David Beach Smith, Chairman-Philadelphia Section, 1946

    Page(s): 215
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  • An Introduction to Loran

    Page(s): 216 - 234
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    In less than five years, loran, the American embodiment of a new method of navigation, has grown from a concept into a service used by tens of thousands of navigators over three tenths of the surface of the earth. Even under the stress of military urgency, the direct development cost of this system has been less than two per cent of the seventy-five million dollars so far spent for operational equipment. The first part of the present paper describes the history of this program as an example of the efficient "mass production" of research and development under the National Defense Research Committee. A second section deals with the fundamental concepts of hyperbolic navigation and gives some details regarding the kinds of equipment now employed for transmission, reception and interpretation of pulse signals for this service. The third part of the paper discusses the potential usefulness of hyperbolic navigation and suggests some of the many devices which will simplify the navigation of the future and enhance its reliability. The final section mentions the organizational problem immediately before us. View full abstract»

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  • Army-Navy Precipitation-Static Project: Part IV-Investigations of Methods for Reducing Precipitation-Static Radio Interference

    Page(s): 234 - 240
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    Investigations of methods for control of precipitation static are discussed. Because of difficulties associated with careful studies of the performance of antistatic devices on aircraft flying in natural charging conditions, methods were devised that permitted natural conditions to be simulated in fair-weather flights and in a laboratory hangar constructed especially for this purpose. Studies showed that interfering noise associated with the use of bare-wire antennas was roughly proportional to the amount of corona-current discharge. It was found that the use of antennas insulated with polyethylene provided comparatively static-free radio reception by preventing corona discharge from the antenna. Correlated ground and flight experiments showed that, unless the corona discharge occurs at areas adjacent to antennas, little noise is produced in the radio receiver. The characteristics of several types of electrostatic dischargers, intended to reduce the equilibrium potential of the airplane for a given charging condition, were examined. The dry-wick discharger recently adopted by the military services was found to give the best over-all electrical and mechanical performance. View full abstract»

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  • Army-Navy Precipitation-Static Project: Part V-The High-Voltage Characteristics of Aircraft in Flight

    Page(s): 241 - 247
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    The important high-voltage electrical characteristics of aircraft in flight are determined from (a) flight operations in precipitation areas; (b) flight operations using a new artificial charger to electrify the airplane in flight; (c) high-voltage experiments on the airplane supported in a giant hangar; and (d) theoretical analysis. It is shown how the fundamental electrical constants of the airplane may be approximately determined and how these may be used to forecast the high-voltage behavior of a flying aircraft. It is shown that, at a given altitude, the current I discharged by an airplane in flight is of the form I = AE + B(E2-E02) where E is the magnitude of the electric field as measured on the belly and A, B and E0are constants. The electrical capacitance of an aircraft in flight is about 20 per cent of the wing span expressed in centimeters. View full abstract»

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  • Army-Navy Precipitation-Static Project: Part VI High-Voltage Installation of the Precipitation-Static Project

    Page(s): 247 - 254
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    A special artificial-lightning generator has been developed through the University of Minnesota co-operation with the Naval Research Laboratory, to provide accurate laboratory duplication of thunderstorm-cloud field conditions. Conditions of electrical-field stress before the lightning discharge are produced by an automatically controlled transition of a generator of high-voltage direct current into a surge generator, resulting in a doubled field stress and a surge breakdown with lightning current characteristics. The combination is thus very suitable for studying certain phases of aircraft operation, particularly communications, under controlled laboratory conditions, corresponding to flight under electrical-storm conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on a Simple Transmission Formula

    Page(s): 254 - 256
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    A simple transmission formula for a radio circuit is derived. The utility of the formula is emphasized and its limitations are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinearity in Frequency-Modulation Radio Systems Due to Multipath Propagation

    Page(s): 256 - 265
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    A theoretical study is made to determine the effects of multipath propagation on over-all transmission characteristics in frequency-modulation radio circuits. The analysis covers a simplified case where the transmitted carrier is frequency-modulated by a single modulating frequency and is propagated over two paths having relative delay and amplitude differences. Equations are derived for the receiver output in terms of the transmitter input for fundamental and harmonics of the modulating frequency. Curves are plotted and discussed for various values of relative carrier- and signal-frequency phase shift and relative amplitude difference of the received waves. The results show that a special kind of amplitude nonlinearity is produced in the input-output characteristics of an over-all frequency-modulation radio system. Under certain conditions, sudden changes in output-signal amplitude accompany the passage of the input-signal amplitude through certain critical values. Transmission irregularities of this type are proposed as a possible explanation of so-called "volume bursts" sometimes encountered in frequency-modulation radio circuits. In general, it appears that amplitude and frequency distortion are most severe where the relative delay between paths is large and the amplitude difference is small. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E.

    Page(s): 269 - 270
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  • Corrections

    Page(s): 270
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 271 - 279
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  • Books

    Page(s): 277 - 280
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  • Moral Reflections

    Page(s): 281
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    First Page of the Article
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  • David C. Kalbfell, Chairman-San Diego Section, 1946

    Page(s): 282
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  • IRE War Participation

    Page(s): 283
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Navy Radio and Electronics during World War II

    Page(s): 284 - 287
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    This paper reviews briefly some of the uses to which Navy radio and electronic equipment were put during the recent war, and emphasizes the importance to the Navy of developments which have taken place in these fields. Two chronological records are quoted from action reports to illustrate the importance of such equipment to successful naval engagements. View full abstract»

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  • CBS Studio Control-Console and Control-Room Design

    Page(s): 287 - 295
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    Heretofore, it has been the general practice, both in the United States and abroad, to assemble the audio equipment components used for broadcasting and motion-picture sound studio operation in so-called relay racks or cabinets. These assemblies were generally supplemented with a control console, separate from the equipment racks, but connected thereto with a suitable multipair shielded cable. While convenient from the viewpoint of servicing and of utilizing "standard" interchangeable panels of equipment, an assembly of this nature is wasteful of studio control-room floor space, does not result in the optimum location of the numerous controls generally considered essential for modern network-originating program operations, and architecturally is seldom attractive. The studio control console described in this paper incorporates in one unit all the equipment normally contained in two or three relay racks and an associated control panel. In addition, it includes the many accessories that present-day, elaborate program production demands. Furthermore, these facilities are assembled in a compact, readily accessible, relatively small unit which does not sacrifice any of the flexibility of the old-style assembly; in fact, the console provides many new conveniences. The equipment differs from any consolettes and desk-type equipment heretofore developed in the type of construction employed and the extent of the facilities involved. If maximum advantage is to be taken of a carefully designed control console, it is essential that certain architectural features be incorporated in the control-room layout. Some of the features that enter into these considerations are discussed and their correlation with console design indicated. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Liquid Dimethylsilicones to Produce Water-Repellent Surfaces on Glass-Insulator Bodies

    Page(s): 296 - 302
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    The need to render ceramic surfaces water-repellent in certain electrical applications under high humidities is discussed. Organosilicon compounds have been found to make ceramic surfaces water-repellent. The nature of a family of such compounds, the dimethylsilicones, is briefly described. Methods of preparing and treating glass surfaces with silicones are presented. Results of tests on treated and untreated glass-insulator bodies are presented in detail. The advantages of the treatment as tested under adverse conditions such as immersion in sea water are shown. View full abstract»

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  • An Ionization Gauge of Simple Construction

    Page(s): 302 - 305
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    A-new ionization gauge is described for measuring pressures from 10-4to less than 10-8millimeters of mercury. Except for a multiplying factor of 10, it gives a direct reading of residual air pressure. The gauge employs two plates, as the electron and ion collector, respectively. They are located on opposite sides of the filament, but equidistant from it. This allows easy outgassing of parts, either by electron bombardment or by radio-frequency heating. A protective shield in front of the ion collector aids in reducing the electrical leakage to that element. Danger of filament burnout due to vacuum leaks has been removed by the choice of an oxide-coated filament. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant-Cavity Measurements

    Page(s): 305 - 312
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    Satisfactory methods are described for measuring the resonant frequency, Q, and shunt resistance of resonant cavities. Some of the wavemeters and other equipment developed for these measurements are described. The methods of determining resonant frequencies permit moderate accuracy in absolute measurements and very high precision in the comparison of the resonant frequencies of two cavities. Three methods of measuring Q are described which are similar in principle but different in detail. Shunt resistance has been determined by two methods which are convenient and reliable. By inverting these methods, the dielectric constants and dielectric conductivities of liquids and gases can be measured. View full abstract»

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  • Cylindrical Shielding and Its Measurement at Radio Frequencies

    Page(s): 312 - 322
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    The effectiveness of shields from the point of view of the wave theory of shielding is discussed. Specific consideration is given to cylindrical shielding against low-impedance fields and its measurement at radio frequencies. Various methods and concepts of measurement are discussed briefly; inadequacy of probe-type tests and the advantages of an integrating-type test are pointed out. Equipment of the integrating type suitable for production testing of specimens of cylindrical shielding from 3/16 to 2 inches diameter at 3 megacycles is described and illustrated. With this equipment, shielding effectiveness of the unknown is determined in terms of the effectiveness of a specified rigid metal-tube standard. Sensitivity is sufficient, to measure the leakage through 0.024 inch of copper at the test frequency. A shielded room is not required. Experimental results obtained with this and similar equipmen from 200 kilocycles to 10 megacycles are given. Tests at various frequencies on thin-wall copper tubes of different thicknesses are shown to be in agreement with the results predicted by theory. Included are data on metal tubes, wire braids, coaxial cable, and flexible-shielding conduits. Test results are shown to be independent of current through the specimen, receiver gain or adjustment, and various other factors. Results are shown also, in general, to be independent of the length of specimen tested and its impedance. Various factors affecting test results are considered and formulas are given for correcting results obtained on exceptional specimens having abnormally high resistance. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors to Waves and Electrons Section

    Page(s): 323 - 324
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope