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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1943

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1a
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  • Electronic Applications

    Page(s): 527
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  • Harold Alden Wheeler

    Page(s): 528
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  • Radio-Frequency Heating Applied to Wood Gluing

    Page(s): 529 - 537
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    Dielectric heating by radio-frequency power has been established as a practical means for rapidly gluing wood with thermosetting adhesives. To the radio engineer, such an application involves the correlation of power concentration, frequency, voltage gradient, dielectric constant, and power factor for the determination of reasonable operating parameters. An equation is developed showing the interdependence of these factors. Pertinent data on the dielectric properties of several kinds of wood are included covering a suitable range of frequency and for the temperatures and moisture contents commonly encountered. The nonuniform heating likely to occur in large presses because of standing waves on the electrodes can be eliminated by "multiple tuning" in which each of several inductors tunes a section of the press electrodes to parallel resonance. A coupling network is evolved for feeding a tuned press so that variations in press capacitance during the gluing cycle become unimportant to the loading of the oscillator. Means for measuring the temperature at the glue line during the application of radio-frequency power are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Heat-Conduction Problems in Presses Used for Gluing of Wood

    Page(s): 537 - 548
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    The application of heat-flow equations to the heat-flow problems in wood-gluing presses is considered. By means of a transmission-line analogy, the solution of heat-flow problems with internally generated heat is greatly simplified. The general equation is set up and applied specifically to the problem of radio-frequency heating of wood, while the wood is contained between two cool plates. Comparison of this type of heating with the usual hot-plate-press method reveals important advantages for the radio-frequency method. The formulas developed have been illustrated by means of curves based upon the constants of wood. However, the general equations apply as well to the heating of any other insulating material, where the heating by radio frequency is done by essentially a dielectric-loss phenomena. View full abstract»

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  • The Distribution of Current along a Symmetrical Center-Driven Antenna

    Page(s): 548 - 567
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    The cylindrical, center-driven antenna is analyzed as a boundary-value problem of electromagnetic theory. An integral equation in the current (originally obtained in a different way by Hallén) is derived. Its solution is outlined briefly and the general formula is given. Complete curves for the distribution of current for a wide range of lengths and ratios of length to radius are given. These include curves showing the components of current in phase with the driving potential difference and in quadrature with this, and curves giving the magnitude of the current and its phase angle referred to the driving potential difference. The conventionally assumed sinusoidal distribution of current is shown to be a fair approximation for extremely thin antennas and for thicker antennas which do not greatly exceed λ/2 in length. View full abstract»

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  • Some Aspects of Radio Reception at Ultra-High Frequency: Part IV. General Superheterodyne Considerations at Ultra-High Frequencies

    Page(s): 567 - 575
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    This paper presents a general survey of the problems encountered in the mixer or converter stage of superheterodyne receivers, particularly at ultra-high frequencies. The application of a strong local-oscillator voltage causes a periodic variation of the signal-electrode transconductance as a consequence of which intermediate-frequency-current components appear in the output circuit when a signal is also impressed upon the signal electrode. It is demonstrated that intermediate-frequency-current components are present in the output, which differ from the signal frequency by integral multiples of the local-oscillator frequency, if the Fourier analysis of the signal-electrode transconductance contains components which are integral multiples of the local-oscillator frequency. Methods of determining the conversion transconductance for so-called fundamental and harmonic conversion are given. It is shown that the noise output and input loading of a mixer stage are given by averaging these quantities over a local-oscillator cycle. A discussion of mixer gain is included, with a demonstration that the gain of a mixer stage is given approximately by the product of the conversion transconductance and the impedance of the output circuit (for high-output-impedance tubes). Considerations regarding image rejection and the undesirability of radiation of oscillator power lead to the conclusion that high intermediate frequencies are desirable. An extended discussion of whether to use an amplifier or mixer stage in the first stage of a superheterodyne receiver is included. If the received signal is strong, one should convert immediately, unless image rejection or the prevention of oscillator radiation necessitate the use of radio-frequency stages. View full abstract»

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  • Some Aspects of Radio Reception at Ultra-High Frequencies: Part V. Frequency Mixing in Diodes

    Page(s): 575 - 582
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    Although the diode is one of the simplest forms of vacuum tube, the behavior of the diode mixer in superheterodyne reception has not been well understood. One reason for this is that the conversion process is more complex than in other mixers in that it is bilateral, a radio-frequency input voltage giving an intermediate-frequency output current and the resulting intermediate-frequency output voltage in turn giving a radio-frequency current in the input. Analysis of the behavior leads, however, to a very simple equivalent circuit consisting of a symmetrical π circuit of three conductances whose magnitudes are determined by the average diode conductance and by the conversion conductance of the diode. The present paper derives this circuit and uses it to find the conversion loss of the converter stage both with and without input circuit loss. The results, although arrived at independently, are in agreement with the recent publication of James and Houldin. If the conversion loss is to be held small, the diode must be operated so as to obtain the highest ratio of conversion conductance to average conductance. The upper limit of this ratio is unity and this is attained only when the mixer-stage impedance is infinite. Thus, circuit losses prevent the attainment of the condition of no conversion loss, in practice. The signal-to-noise ratio of a receiver whose input stage is a diode converter is not determinable accurately because of uncertainties in the diode noise behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 582
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  • The Institute of Radio Engineers Incorporated

    Page(s): 583
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 584 - 585
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  • Books

    Page(s): 585 - 587
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  • Institute Committees-1943

    Page(s): 588 - 589
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  • Institute Representatives in Colleges - 1943

    Page(s): 589
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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 590
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  • Membership

    Page(s): 34a - 50a
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  • Positions open

    Page(s): 52a - 60a
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope