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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3257 - 3258
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  • Lightpath concentrators for all-optical networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3259 - 3267
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In some deployments of all-optical networks, it is necessary to concentrate the lightpaths from some fibers to fewer fibers. An NtimesM lightpath concentrator is an optical component for this purpose, and it concentrates the lightpaths from N incoming fibers to M outgoing fibers. In this paper, three designs of NtimesM lightpath concentrators are proposed. The first design is a generalization of optical crossconnects, and it requires MtimesM optical switches. The second design incorporates the concept of partial concentration so that it requires only mtimesm optical switches (where m<M) at the expense of a larger blocking probability. The switch size m can be selected to make a tradeoff between cost and performance. In the third design, it is assumed that small lightpath concentrators are available, and these concentrators are used as building blocks to construct large lightpath concentration networks View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic provisioning of availability-constrained optical circuits in the presence of optical node failures

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3268 - 3279
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    This paper investigates what impact optical node failures may have on wavelength-division-multiplexed networks, in which reliable end-to-end optical circuits are provisioned dynamically. At the node level, the optical cross-connect (OXC) equipment availability measure is estimated using proven component level availability models. At the network level, end-to-end optical circuits are provisioned only when the level of connection availability required by the application can be guaranteed. With the objective of yielding efficient utilization of the network resources, i.e., fibers and OXCs, circuit redundancy is achieved by means of shared path protection (SPP) switching, in combination with differentiated reliability (DiR). The resulting optimal routing and wavelength assignment problem is proven to be NP-complete. To produce suboptimal solutions in polynomial time, a heuristic technique is presented, which makes use of a time-efficient method to estimate the end-to-end circuit availability in the presence of multiple (link and node) failures. Using the proposed heuristic, a selection of representative OXC architectures and optical switching technologies is examined to assess the influence of the node equipment choice on the overall network performance View full abstract»

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  • Optical orthogonal code construction using rejected delays reuse for increasing SubWavelength-switching capacity

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3280 - 3287
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using a mathematical proof, the authors establish that in element-by-element greedy algorithms based on extended set representation of optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), smaller delay elements rejected during a construction step can be accepted in later steps. They design a novel algorithm that exploits this property and call it the rejected delays reuse (RDR) greedy algorithm. They show that employing the RDR method leads to code lengths that are shorter than those achieved for OOCs constructed using the classical greedy algorithm for the same code weight and the same number of simultaneous codes constraints. They then define a quantitative measure (factor) for OOCs efficiency based on its ability to expand subwavelength-switching capacity. They call this factor the expansion efficiency factor. They use this factor to show that reducing the code length, for the same code constraints, enhances the capacity of subwavelength optical code switched networks View full abstract»

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  • Impact of number of angles on the performance of the data vortex optical interconnection network

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3288 - 3294
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reducing communication latency in multiprocessor interconnection networks can increase system performance on a broad range of applications. The data vortex photonic network reduces message latency by utilizing all-optical end-to-end transparent links and deflection routing. Cylinders replace node storage for buffering messages. The cylinder circumference (measured as number of angles) has a significant impact on the message acceptance rate and average message latency. A new symmetric mode of usage for the data vortex is discussed in which a fraction of the angles is used for input/output (I/O), and the remainder is used for "virtual buffering" of messages. For single-angle injection, six total angles provide the best performance. Likewise, the same ratio of 5 : 1 purely routing nodes versus I/O nodes is shown to produce greater than 99% acceptance, under normal loading conditions for all other network sizes studied. It is shown that for a given network I/O size, a shorter height and wider circumference data vortex organization provides acceptable latency with fewer total nodes than a taller but narrower data vortex. The performance versus system cost is discussed and evaluated, and the 5 : 1 noninjection-to-injection angle ratio is shown to be cost effective when constructing a system in current optical technology View full abstract»

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  • Cost optimal configuration of optical networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3295 - 3302
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to address the challenges of tackling the ever-increasing demand for data and voice services while facing diminishing financial returns from deployed networks, efficient utilization of available resources in optical networks is required. In this paper, an efficient set of algorithms is developed for selecting a cost-optimal subset of commercially available fixed or parameterized modules such as dispersion compensation modules and optical amplifiers subject to a wide range of engineering and financial constraints. A comprehensive analysis is performed on these algorithms, and their applicability is confirmed by carrying out simulation experiments to allocate resources for typical optical links View full abstract»

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  • Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3303 - 3321
    Cited by:  Papers (62)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (669 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With high-bandwidth and on-demand applications continuing to emerge, next-generation core optical networks will require significant improvements in capacity, configurability, and resiliency. These advancements need to be achieved with architectures and technologies that are scalable with respect to network cost, size, and power requirements. To investigate the limitations of extending today's solutions to meet these goals, a North American backbone network with a tenfold growth in traffic is modeled. The results of this paper illuminate at least three areas that will potentially require innovative solutions, namely 1) transmission modulation formats, 2) switching granularity, and 3) edge traffic grooming. In addition to probing issues related to increased capacity, configurability is also examined, mainly in the context of switching architectures. Advanced network protection is discussed as well, at a high level. A central theme is how to harness the trend of optics scaling better than electronics. Throughout this paper, potential advancements in architecture and technology are enumerated to serve as a foundation for the research needed to attain the goals of next-generation core networks View full abstract»

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  • On intranode impairments and engineering rules for an optical label switching router supporting an FSK/IM labeling scheme

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3322 - 3333
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1285 KB)  

    This paper presents a study on intranode impairments and engineering rules for a label switching router supporting intensity modulated (IM) optical payload data signals labeled by using frequency-shift key (FSK) modulation. Engineering rules and design guidelines are presented regarding the choice of system parameters such as IM extinction ratio, FSK frequency deviation, alignment of optical filtering stages, label swapping, and node cascadability. The presented rules are derived from insights obtained from computer simulations and experimental validation for a 10-Gb/s IM payload signal View full abstract»

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  • Optical pulse generation using guided-wave electrooptic modulator with resonant electrodes and polarization reversal

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3334 - 3340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on optical pulse generation using a new guided-wave electrooptic (EO) phase modulator with long resonant electrodes and polarization reversal. Adopting polarization-reversal structure to a guided-wave EO modulator with long standing-wave resonant electrodes, high-efficiency optical modulation is obtained by the compensation of the transit-time effect. By operating a fabricated EO phase modulator with a large amplitude modulation signal, optical sidebands over 100 GHz were obtained. Furthermore, optical pulse trains of an ~ 25-ps pulsewidth and a 15.28-GHz repetition frequency were successfully obtained by controlling the generated optical sidebands by use of an optical synthesizer View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous multiplexing and demultiplexing of wavelength-interleaved channels in DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3341 - 3352
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simultaneous multiplexing and demultiplexing (MUX/DEMUX) scheme for wavelength-interleaved millimeter-wave 37.5-GHz-band fiber-radio channels spaced at 25 GHz has been proposed. The proposed MUX/DEMUX technique potentially realizes simple, compact, and low-cost central office and remote nodes by avoiding the use of wavelength-selective pre- and postprocessing hardware. The novel scheme incorporates an arrayed-waveguide grating with multiple loop-backs between the input and the output ports, in addition to multiple optical circulators and optical isolators. The multiplexing functionality of the proposed technology enables a carrier subtraction technique and consequently reduces the carrier-to-sideband ratios of the multiplexed channels. Multiplexing of the uplink channels generated via several methods is demonstrated experimentally. These techniques include generation of the channels by using the optical carriers that correspond to wavelengths spaced at the free spectral range (FSR) or multiples of the FSR from the downlink (DL) optical carriers and reuse of the DL optical carriers that are recovered by applying a wavelength reuse technique (lambdaUL =lambdaDLplusmnntimesFSR, where n=0,1,2,3,...). The demultiplexing functionality of the proposed scheme that separates the 37.5-GHz-band wavelength-interleaved DL channels spaced at 25 GHz is also demonstrated. In addition, the effect of optical crosstalk on the transmission performance of the demultiplexed channels is also characterized experimentally View full abstract»

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  • Two-photon absorption for optical clock recovery in OTDM networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3353 - 3362
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors describe the design and performance of an ultrafast optical clock recovery system that is based on two-photon absorption (TPA) in a silicon avalanche photodiode. Unlike many other optical clock recovery techniques, the system is shown to be polarization insensitive, broadband, low jitter, and scalable to high data rates. Moreover, the system is simple, economical, and suitable for integration with silicon electronics. Successful operation of the system is reported for speeds up to 80 Gb/s and transmission distances up to 840 km using a recirculating loop. The authors introduce a new dithering detection scheme that dramatically improves the dynamic range and decreases polarization and wavelength dependence, without introducing an additional timing jitter. The system achieves a dynamic range of 10 dB and optical bandwidth exceeding 35 nm View full abstract»

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  • Power penalty due to the amplitude and phase response ripple of a dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating for chirped optical signals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3363 - 3369
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB)  

    A concise method is presented for rigorously calculating the power penalty due to the combined implications of the amplitude and phase response ripples of a dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating and the chirp of the transmitted optical signal. By using trigonometric series to represent the ripples, the calculated penalty can be positive or negative, as obtained in numerical simulations and measurements, depending on the signal chirp and ripple within the modulated signal bandwidth. An approximate upper bound on the power penalty is also presented as an extension of earlier results that always yield positive penalties. Calculated and measured results are compared for two 10-Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) signals with distinct chirp properties View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of transmission performance of 40-gb/s conventional DCS-RZ signals and DCS-RZ signals generated from phase-modulated duobinary signals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3370 - 3375
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB)  

    A 40-Gb/s duobinary carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (DCS-RZ) signal format generated from phase-modulated (PM) duobinary signals by using a phase modulator and an external intensity modulator is proposed. The transmission performance of the proposed DCS-RZ format is theoretically investigated. The proposed DCS-RZ format can produce a signal bandwidth similar to that produced by the conventional DCS-RZ format generated from conventional duobinary signals using low-pass filters. However, the receiver sensitivities of the proposed DCS-RZ format can be improved by about 2 dB more than those of the conventional DCS-RZ format due to high extinction ratio and nonlinear tolerance. Due to a short pulse of the proposed DCS-RZ format, the tolerance of the first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) for the format can be improved by about 1 dB up to the differential-group-delay (DGD) value of 16 ps View full abstract»

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  • All-optical wavelength-path service with quality assurance by multilayer integration system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3376 - 3383
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the future all-optical network controlled by generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS), the wavelength path between end nodes will change dynamically. This inevitably means that the fiber parameters along the wavelength path will also vary. This variation in fiber parameters influences the signal quality of high-speed-transmission system (bit rates over 40 Gb/s). Therefore, at a path setup, the fiber-parameter effect should be adequately compensated. Moreover, the path setup must be completed fast enough to meet the network-application demands. To realize the rapid setup of adequate paths, a multilayer integration system for all-optical wavelength-path quality assurance is proposed. This multilayer integration system is evaluated in a field trial. In the trial, the GMPLS control plane, measurement plane, and data plane coordinated to maintain the quality of a 40-Gb/s wavelength path that would otherwise be degraded by the influence of chromatic dispersion. It is also demonstrated that the multilayer integration system can assure the signal quality in the face of not only chromatic dispersion but also degradation in the optical signal-to-noise ratio by the use of a 2R regeneration system. Our experiments confirm that the proposed multilayer integration system is an essential part of future all-optical networks View full abstract»

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  • Phase diversity receivers for homodyne detection of optical DQPSK signals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3384 - 3391
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phase diversity (PD) receivers are an elegant option to handle the phase noise at homodyne detection and are especially interesting when used as wideband tunable wavelength-division multiplexing receivers. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, they were proposed and investigated for binary modulation formats (amplitude-shift keying, differential phase-shift keying, and frequency-shift keying). In this paper, a homodyne PD receiver for differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) modulation is analyzed, which provides a promising alternative to presently investigated DQPSK-direct-detection receivers and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation View full abstract»

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  • All-optical multiple logic gates with XOR, NOR, OR, and NAND functions using parallel SOA-MZI structures: theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3392 - 3399
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors have proposed, simulated, and experimentally demonstrated all-optical multiple logic gates using two parallel semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures that enable simultaneous operations of various logic functions of XOR, NOR, OR, and NAND. The proposed scheme, which is optimized by adjusting the optical gain and phase differences in SOA-MZI structures with creative and systematic method, has great merits to achieve the reshaped output pulses with high extinction ratio and enable the high-speed operation at over 10 Gb/s through performance enhancement of SOAs. Its validity is confirmed through simulation and experiments at 2.5 and 10 Gb/s, respectively View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of thermal limitations in high-speed microcavity saturable absorber all-optical switching gates

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3400 - 3408
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB)  

    The limitations owing to device heating and thermo-optic effects in high-speed quantum-well microcavity saturable absorber devices are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A simplified theoretical description of the device electronic, thermal, and optical properties is developed and applied to the modeling of the device switching characteristics for reamplification + reshaping step (2R) all-optical regeneration. These predictions are compared to nonlinear optical measurements performed with switching pulses of fixed duration and variable repetition rate on two devices with significantly different thermal properties. It is shown that proper optimization of the device thermal properties is crucial to avoid the degradation of device performance at high bit rate. It is also shown that the negative effects of optically induced heating on the switching contrast may be compensated to some extent by operating the device on the long wavelength side of the microcavity resonance View full abstract»

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  • Payload-envelope detection and label-detection integrated photonic circuit for asynchronous variable-length optical-packet switching with 40-gb/s RZ payloads and 10-gb/s NRZ labels

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3409 - 3417
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A photonic integrated circuit that performs 40-Gb/s payload-envelope detection (PED) and 10-Gb/s label detection for asynchronous variable-length optical-packet switching is demonstrated. The circuit consists of an InP photonic integrated device combined with electronic GaAs and InP devices on a carrier. Asynchronous variable-length optical packets with 40-Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) payloads and 10-Gb/s non-RZ (NRZ) labels are processed by the circuit. The circuit outputs a PED electrical signal that represents the temporal location of the payload and a 10-Gb/s electrical signal representing the optical label. The optical label is detected error free. The PED signal has a rise/fall time of 3-ns and 150-ps jitter. The PED signal was also used to erase and rewrite the optical labels error free View full abstract»

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  • Physically constrained routing in 10-gb/s DWDM networks including fiber nonlinearities and polarization effects

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3418 - 3426
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic optical communication systems require fast assessment of the signal quality of the desired path through the network. This paper presents an analytical approach for describing the Q-factor due to linear (group velocity dispersion, noise, and polarization-mode dispersion) as well as the dominant nonlinear effects in 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero ON-OFF keying transmission systems View full abstract»

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  • Tunable highly birefringent bandgap-guiding liquid-crystal microstructured fibers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3427 - 3432
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new type of nematic liquid-crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap-guiding fiber for single polarization or high-birefringence guidance is proposed. Numerical studies demonstrate that modal birefringence can be tuned by proper selection of the structural and material parameters as well as by the application of an external electric field in conjunction with the specific liquid-crystal anchoring conditions View full abstract»

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  • Angular Dependence of the Frequency Response of an Extrinsic Fabry&#8211;P&#201;rot Interferometric (EFPI) Fiber Acoustic Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3433 - 3438
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    Extrinsic Fabry-Peacuterot interferometric (EFPI) fiber acoustic sensors have been successfully employed in partial discharge detection in a power transformer. In this paper, the angular dependence of the sensor's frequency response is investigated. The interaction between the applied pressure and the EFPI fiber sensor immersed in a fluid was modeled by finite element methods. The angular dependence of the sensor's frequency response was obtained by a coupled structure acoustic analysis in ANSYS and compared to both the soft baffle and unbaffled models and experimental results in a 1-m tank. The measured bandwidth of the sensor's angular dependence of the frequency response is in good agreement with the simulation results with a plusmn3deg 3-dB bandwidth difference and a 0.4-dB difference within a plusmn45deg incident range View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of reflection-transmission grating based 2DIO wavelength router

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3439 - 3447
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB)  

    This paper presents an analytic study of a single-mode linear reflection-transmission-grating (RTG)-based two-dimensional-integrated-optic (2DIO) NtimesN wavelength router. To determine its performance, the optical field propagation in the router is simulated using a slab waveguide based on the ABCD matrix theory for low diverging Gaussian beams. In predicting the limits of operation, sources of crosstalk are determined, and their dependence upon fabrication errors such as mask alignment errors is also analyzed. Methods to minimize these are discussed. Finally, the model shows that the device is equally suitable for coarse and dense wavelength division multiplexing applications View full abstract»

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  • Scattering from periodic arrays of cylinders by Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3448 - 3453
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB)  

    A simple and efficient numerical method for computing the transmission and reflection spectra of periodic arrays of cylinders is developed. For each unit cell containing a cylinder, only the wave field on the edges of the unit cell is computed. For multilayered structures, a marching scheme based on a pair of operators is developed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs