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Radio Engineers, Proceedings of the Institute of

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1936

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Institute of Radio Engineers - Forthcoming Meetings

    Page(s): c2
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  • Contents

    Page(s): i
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  • General Information

    Page(s): ii
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  • Institute sections

    Page(s): iii
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  • Geographical Location of Members Elected October 7, 1936

    Page(s): iv
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  • Applications for Membership

    Page(s): v - vi
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  • Officers and Board of Directors

    Page(s): vii
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  • Samuel Montgomery Kintner

    Page(s): 1404
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 1405 - 1426
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  • Electronic Music and Instruments

    Page(s): 1427 - 1463
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    Electronic music and instruments, with an incubation period of about forty years since their early beginnings, are now rapidly growing into a final commercial stage. During 1935 retail sales of these new musical instruments exceeded two million dollars in the United States alone. This paper presents for the first time in this country a review of traditional musical instruments, their advantages and limitations, additional principles which must be considered in creating, and controlling sounds to make music. The various principles for generating musical tones and for varying their musical character are described. The historical development of electronic music instruments are traced, and the most important modern instruments are described in some detail. View full abstract»

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  • A Power Amplifier for Ultra-High Frequencies

    Page(s): 1464 - 1483
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    A consideration of the special problems encountered at ultra-high frequencies has led to the design of a push-pull power pentode, useful as an amplifier, frequency multiplier, and modulator at frequencies of 300 megacycles per second and below. Unusual construction features include the mounting of two pentodes in the same envelope with interconnected screen and suppressor grids, complete shielding between the input and output circuits with no common leads, and provision for cooling all grids while maintaining extremely small interelectrode spacings. The electrical characteristics depart from the conventional mainly in the low value of lead inductances and the high value of the grid input resistance at ultra-high frequencies. The second part of the paper describes a single stage amplifier unit built for testing the tube at frequencies between eighty and 300 megacycles, and the associated apparatus for measuring input impedance, gain, and harmonic distortion. The results given indicate that by using this new tube it is possible to construct stable amplifiers at ultra-high frequencies up to 300 megacycles, having gains of twelve to twenty-five decibels per stage and delivering several watts of useful power. Stability and distortion compare favorably with those obtained from conventional tubes at much lower frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Oscillations of Hollow Quartz Cylinders Cut along the Optic Axis

    Page(s): 1484 - 1494
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    Hollow quartz cylinders cut along the optic axis have been excited to vibrate at five fundamental frequencies, corresponding to radial, circumferential, longitudinal, torsional, and transverse vibrations. Empirical relations connecting the dimensions of the cylinders and the frequencies of the different modes of vibrations are formulated. All of these modes of vibrations have been confirmed by examination under polarized light and with lycopodium powder. View full abstract»

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  • A Harmonic Method of Intercomparing the Oscillators of the National Standard of Radio Frequency

    Page(s): 1495 - 1500
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    A method of precisely measuring the frequency difference between two frequency standards which have nominally the same fundamental frequency is outlined. The application of this method to the continuous intercomparison of the piezo oscillators in the primary frequency standard maintained by the National Bureau of Standards is described. The customary method of measuring the frequency difference between two piezo oscillators utilizes the beat frequency between the two standards at the fundamental frequency or one of the harmonics. The method described utilizes the frequency produced by heterodyning two consecutive harmonics to obtain any desired precision of frequency comparison without necessitating the operation of any circuits at exceedingly high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • This Matter of Contact Potential

    Page(s): 1501 - 1513
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    The term "contact potential," when used in connection with thermionic vacuum tubes, has come to include certain combinations of spurious voltages which affect the operation of the tube. The combination which is effective depends upon the method of measurement used or upon the application to which the tube is put. The combinations which are effective are grouped under four heads: (1) floating element potential, (2) floating, shunted element potential, (3) effective current cutoff, and (4) calculated correction potential. The first three are points upon the current-voltage characteristic of the element while the fourth is the correction term appearing in the equation giving plate current as a function of the applied voltages. The true nature of contact potential is also pointed out. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of the Characteristics of Noise

    Page(s): 1514 - 1521
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    It is well known that when smooth noise such as hiss is passed through or generated in a radio-frequency amplifier, the root-mean-square output is proportional to the square root of the frequency band width. Experiments are described which show that the peak value of the hiss is also proportional to the square root of band width. The crest factor (defined as the ratio of the amplitudes of the highest peaks to the root-mean-square value) was found to be equal to 3.4 and independent of band width. When the noise is caused by impulse excitation with decay trains not overlapping, the result is quite different. The root-mean-square amplitude is still proportional to the square root of frequency band passed; however the peak amplitudes are directly proportional to the first power of the frequency band. This result is verified mathematically and experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi Transients in Class B Audio-Frequency Push-Pull Amplifiers

    Page(s): 1522 - 1541
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    Although class B audio-frequeny amplifiers have been analyzed by many previous investigators, the effect of the leakage inductance of the output transformer or choke in producing quasi transients, i.e., exponential terms which recur periodically, has passed unnoticed. This paper gives equations for determining these quasi transients in the wave forms of the plate voltage, the plate current, and the output current, when the amplifier has reached a permanent state. The theoretical relations are derived from fundamental relations involving the tube characteristic, which is assumed to be linear, and the circuit external to the tubes. An equivalent circuit based on three-circuit transformer theory is also given to show the physical significance of the different terms in the equations. Cathode-ray oscillograms are presented in support of the theoretically calculated curves. View full abstract»

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  • Booklets, catalogs and pamphlets received

    Page(s): 1542
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  • Contributors to this issue

    Page(s): 1543 - 1544
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1938. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope