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Radio Engineers, Proceedings of the Institute of

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1932

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • "Old Timers," San Francisco Section

    Page(s): 196
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 197 - 212
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  • Battery Design Problems of the Air Cell Receiver

    Page(s): 213 - 227
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    The present paper deals with those design features of battery-operated radio receivers which are important from the standpoint of obtaining the maximum useful battery life. The properties of the air cell A battery are discussed with relation to receiver design. The desirability of providing adequate performance until the B batteries have fallen to a very low voltage is shown. An analysis of several means of obtaining a satisfactory rate of grid voltage reduction with falling B battery voltage is included, together with a discussion of B battery resistance. It is shown that the considerations treated control a variation in useful B battery life of the order of 50 per cent. View full abstract»

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  • The Development and Application of Marine Radio Direction Finding Equipment by the United States Coast Guard

    Page(s): 228 - 260
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    The various problems dealt with in the evolution, development, and practical application of radio direction finding equipment by the United States Coast Guard are discussed. The equipment in use at the present time is described. Difficulties encountered with marine equipment due to the electrophysical properties of vessels are explained. The methods employed in overcoming these difficulties are described. Some notes on deviation are presented along with curves and photographs showing the results obtained on various types of vessels. Deviation as a function of frequency is discussed in brief. The material presented is based on data obtained from more than one hundred direction finder installations on vessels of various types and sizes ranging from 75-foot motor boats to cutters of 3000 tons displacement. A brief description of aircraft equipment and an account of the results obtained therewith is included. The object of this paper is to present a résumé of the results obtained with modern equipment under the actual conditions encountered in service use, accompanied by such notes and comments by the author as are deemed of interest to those concerned with the development, improvement, and application of marine and aircraft radio direction finders. The fundamental principles underlying the art of direction finding by means of radio are not recounted as it is realized the reader has available numerous current publications on the subject. This paper is published by permission of the Commandant, United States Coast Guard. View full abstract»

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  • Quartz Plate Mountings and Temperature Control for Piezo Oscillators

    Page(s): 261 - 271
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    In this paper are described a number of representative types of mountings for rectangular and circular quartz plates to be used as frequency standards. Unless the movement of the quartz plate in the holder is restricted, the frequency will change with each slight jar. A satisfactory holder for mounting a long rectangular quartz plate to vibrate at its extensional mode may be made by clamping the plate along a central line perpendicular to its length between two keys, one in the face of each electrode. The electrodes are spaced by quartz washers. A plate mounted in such a holder will be constant in frequency to 1 part in 300,000. Such a mounting has not been found satisfactory for frequencies above 100 kc as the damping caused by the pressure of the keys is too great. A very satisfactory holder for mounting a cylindrical quartz plate for "thickness oscillation" may be made by clamping the plate between three screws, mounted radially 120 degrees apart in a ring so that they press into a V-shaped groove cut around the cylindrical surface of the quartz plate midway between the faces. The electrodes are spaced on either side of the quartz plate by pyrex washers. Mounted in such a way, the plate has been found to be constant in frequency to 1 part in 1,000,000 in a portable frequency standard with the addition of temperature control to the oscillating circuit. Some discussion is given to the subject of temperature control of the piezo oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Audio-Frequency Generator

    Page(s): 272 - 279
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    This paper describes in detail the construction of an audio-frequency generator, for use in making radio-frequency measurments. The variable audio-frequency output is the beat note between two sources of radio frequency; the one a piezo oscillator, and the other a variable oscillator. The output is continuously variable from 50 to 1500 cycles per second. The entire unit is assembled very compactly and the essential parts are mounted in a temperature-controlled compartment. The calibration curve is practically linear over a range of 50 cycles per second and repeated calibrations indicate that it is constant to better than 0.1 cycle per second over the entire range. View full abstract»

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  • Solar Activity and Radiotelegraphy

    Page(s): 280 - 285
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    This report to the International Research Council on solar and radio relationships shows that the relationships are closer at short wavelengths than at long, that the effect of magnetic storms, which are assumed to be due to solar action, is, in general, to weaken night signals at all wavelengths and in the medium and long-wave ranges to strengthen day signals. Curves are given which show that there is a direct correlation between the yearly averages of long waves, daylight transatlantic signals, sun spot numbers, and magnetic activity (1915-1930), a direct correlation between signals and magnetic activity averages by months (1924-1930), and an inverse correlation between sun spots and atmospheric disturbances averages by years (1918-1930). View full abstract»

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  • Investigations of Kennelly-Heaviside Layer Heights for Frequencies between 1600 and 8650 Kilocycles per Second

    Page(s): 286 - 309
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    The results of observations of the height of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer carried out near Washington, D.C., during 1930 are presented. Evidence for the existence of two layers (corresponding closely in virtual height to the E and F regions discussed by Appleton) is found during daylight on frequencies between three and five megacycles. The modification in the virtual height of the higher F layer produced by the existence of a low E layer is investigated theoretically, and the possibility of large changes in virtual height near the highest frequency returned by the E layer is pointed out. A number of oscillograms showing the characteristic types of records observed during the tests are presented together with a graph of average heights from January to October, 1930. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Stabilization of Radio Transmitters

    Page(s): 310 - 339
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    The importance of maintaining constant the frequency of radio transmitters has been universally recognized and the investigation of methods of frequency stabilization was left as a pending question after the first meeting of the C.C.I.R. The quartz-control system with thermostatic temperature control of the quartz crystal should be utilized when the highest precision (of the order of 0.001 per cent) is required in the constancy of the transmitted frequency. However, the system necessitates a complicated and expensive installation and at the same time the frequency of transmitters is not so flexible. When the highest precision is not of primary importance the following methods devised by the writers may be applied with the advantages of simplicity and lower cost of installation. These methods, fully described in the present paper, may readily be applied to a master oscillator so as to give a frequency stability of the order of 0.01 per cent. (a) Constant-frequency oscillator. In an ordinary self-oscillator, the effect of the variation in supply voltages may be minimized by simple means. Two methods have been developed for the purpose: 1. Resistance-stabilized oscillator. 2. Phase-compensated oscillator. (b) Quartz-stabilized oscillator. A quartz crystal is introduced in the grid circuit of an oscillator in such a manner that it is very loosely coupled to the oscillator but still retains its stabilizing function. Power output of the oscillator can be obtained up to 100 watts or more and thus the number of stages of amplifiers to be used in a transmitter can be reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of Harmonics in Vacuum Tube Transmitters

    Page(s): 340 - 345
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    A brief description is first given on the present state of technique concerning the suppression of harmonics radiated from vacuum tube transmitters. A simple method of eliminating the strongest one of the harmonics is then suggested, in which a parallel resonant circuit having its resonant frequency slightly lower than that of the harmonic to be eliminated is connected to the plate circuit and coupled to the main oscillatory circuit. The method has been found effective experimentally as well as theoretically. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Airplane Antennas for Radio Range Beacon Reception

    Page(s): 346 - 358
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    This paper gives the results of an investigation on the characteristics of airplane receiving antennas to determine whether an antenna arrangement could be devised which would have all the desirable electrical properties of the vertical pole antenna and yet be free from the mechanical difficulties encountered in the use of the pole antenna. The antennas studied include the inclined antenna with both forward and backward inclination, the horizontal dipole antenna, the horizontal L antenna, the horizontal V antenna, the inclined V antenna, the symmetrical transverse T antenna, and the symmetrical longitudinal T antenna. A theoretical treatment is given which enables the voltage induced by a radio range beacon transmitting station to be calculated for any receiving antenna in space. This theoretical analysis is used to determine the received voltage, course error, and localizing effect for each of the antenna types studied. An experimental study was also made to check the theoretical analysis. The results obtained by experiment check very well with the theoretical predictions for each type of antenna. The symmetrical transverse T antenna and the symmetrical longitudinal T antenna, with vertical lead-in portions, are both found to fulfill the desired requirements. Neither of these antennas show any course errors, and give the same received voltage as the vertical pole antenna having much greater actual height, thus reducing the mechanical troubles caused by vibration and ice formation. View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Page(s): 363
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  • Book reviews

    Page(s): 364
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  • Bookelts, catalogs, and pamphlets received

    Page(s): 365
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  • Radio abstracts and references

    Page(s): 366 - 373
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  • Contributors to this issue

    Page(s): 374 - 375
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1938. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope