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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 441
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Efficient compact 2-D time-domain method with weighted Laguerre polynomials

    Page(s): 442 - 448
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (229 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient time-domain method based on a compact two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method combined with weighted Laguerre polynomials has been proposed to analyze the propagation properties of uniform transmission lines. Starting from Maxwell's differential equations corresponding to the compact 2-D FDTD method, we use the orthonormality of weighted Laguerre polynomials and Galerkin's testing procedure to eliminate the time variable. Thus, an implicit relation, which results in a marching-on-in-degree scheme, can be obtained. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the hybrid method, we compare the results with those from the conventional compact 2-D FDTD and compact 2-D alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) FDTD methods. The hybrid method improves the computational efficiency notably, especially for complex problems with fine structure details that are restricted by stability constrains in the FDTD method View full abstract»

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  • Feature selective validation (FSV) for validation of computational electromagnetics (CEM). part I-the FSV method

    Page(s): 449 - 459
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    A goal for the validation of computational electromagnetics (CEM) is to provide the community with a simple computational method that can be used to predict the assessment of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) data as it would be undertaken by individuals or teams of engineers. The benefits of being able to do this include quantifying the comparison of data that has hitherto only been assessed qualitatively, to provide the ability to track differences between model iterations, and to provide a means of capturing the variability and range of opinions of groups and teams of workers. The feature selective validation (FSV) technique shows great promise for achieving this goal. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the FSV method, setting it firmly in the context of previous comparison techniques; it suggests the relationship between validation of graphically presented data and the psychology of visual perception. A set of applicability tests to judge the effectiveness of computer-based CEM validation techniques is also proposed. This paper is followed by a detailed comparison with visual assessment, which is presented in Part II View full abstract»

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  • Feature selective validation (FSV) for validation of computational electromagnetics (CEM). part II- assessment of FSV performance

    Page(s): 460 - 467
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    The feature selective validation (FSV) method has been proposed as a technique to allow the objective, quantified, comparison of data for inter alia validation of computational electromagnetics. In the companion paper "Feature selective validation for validation of computational electromagnetics. Part I-The FSV method," the method was outlined in some detail. This paper addresses two specific issues related to the implementation of the FSV method, namely "how well does it produce results that agree with visual assessment?" and "what benefit can it provide in a practical validation environment?" The first of these questions is addressed by comparing the FSV output to the results of an extensive survey of EMC engineers from several countries. The second is approached via a case study analysis View full abstract»

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  • RF radiation properties of printed-circuits boards in a GTEM cell

    Page(s): 468 - 475
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    The behavior of reradiated fields from printed-circuits boards (PCBs), with the radar cross section being the main parameter of interest, is investigated in this paper. A rigorous approach to predict radiation from PCBs in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell is presented. The analysis is based upon the use of the reciprocity theorem in combination with the method of moment applied to the scattered field, thus yielding a generalized impedance matrix, whose determinant represents the characteristic polynomial of the scattering system. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by investigating some canonical circuit configurations and structures illustrating sources of fundamental electromagnetic interference mechanism. The validity and the accuracy of the analysis becomes obvious in view of the one-to-one correlation with measurements View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of radiation losses and emission from a bent wire by a network model

    Page(s): 476 - 484
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    This paper presents the modelling of the radiation characteristics of bent wires calculated through various approaches. The total radiation loss from a bent wire and the distributions of these losses are calculated analytically, leading to a rapid estimation of the maximum E field in the far field via directivity estimates. Also, an expanded Hertzian dipole approach based on the Cartesian frame is formulated, which facilitates the calculation of the E field in both the near field and the far field, and determines the radiation patterns from the bent interconnect by a simplified numerical process. Detailed radiation patterns from bent wires with various bend angles are presented in three-dimensional (3-D) parametric views and two-dimensional (2-D) polar views. The radiation characteristics are analyzed and compared to the simulations from Expert MiniNEC. Good agreement is observed View full abstract»

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  • Application of asymptotic waveform evaluation to eigenmode expansion method for analysis of simultaneous switching noise in printed circuit boards (PCBs)

    Page(s): 485 - 492
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    In this paper, the asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is first applied to the conventional eigenmode expansion method for characterizing a power/ground (P/G) plane pair and analyzing the simultaneous switching noise on such plane pairs for printed circuit boards or multichip modules. The application of AWE avoids a large number of iterations in computing the impedance frequency response of a P/G plane pair structure and greatly reduces the computation time. Meanwhile, to obtain an accurate solution in an entire frequency range, we employ the complex frequency hopping technique which can help select multiple expansion points. In addition, the proposed approach can also be used to characterize the P/G plane pair structures with irregular shapes. Three examples demonstrate its high efficiency and good accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical approach of the assessment of the EM field in the vicinity of aperture antennas

    Page(s): 493 - 501
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    In this work, an assessment of the influence of the field probes on the uncertainty in the measurements of the electric and magnetic field in the vicinity of aperture antennas is presented. A uniform aperture distribution is considered because the field of a tapered distribution aperture can be reduced to that of a uniform one. Moreover, the effect of probe size and configuration is presented through a comparison between the theoretically calculated and the expected values. Field probes of a single or more perpendicular dipoles are investigated. The maximum permissible length of the dipoles for an accurate field assessment depends on the field's gradient. In the regions where the relative amplitude and phase of the electric field along the measuring device does not exhibit considerable variation, even half-wavelength dipoles can be used. It is also found that probes with sizes less than 0.1lambda ensure measurement uncertainty less than 0.5 dB for field variation up to 7 dB/lambda View full abstract»

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  • Immunity tests of implantable cardiac pacemaker against CW and pulsed ELF fields: experimental and numerical results

    Page(s): 502 - 515
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    The aim of the present work is to investigate pacemaker (PMK) immunity against high-level extremely low frequency (typically 50 Hz) magnetic fields that can be found in industrial environment where high power machines operate. To that purpose, a test bench has been set up using a Helmholtz coil for producing extremely low frequency magnetic fields and a trunk simulator rightly fed by cardiac signals. A widely used PMK was tested, and results have been reported, under different operating conditions, for both continuous waves and variously pulsed excitations. A numerical tool has also been developed to analyze the realized test bench, based on a proper discretization of a human trunk simulation and on the construction of an equivalent three-dimensional (3-D) network. Numerical results have showed a good agreement with the experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the equal-delay topology for transformers and hybrid networks

    Page(s): 516 - 521
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    A complete scattering matrix representation for the ideal equal-delay topology for transformers and hybrid networks is presented. It is shown that while the operation of the hybrid as a 180deg power combiner, current balun, or voltage balun is essentially frequency independent, the operation as a 0deg power combiner or splitter is not. Instead, the isolation between the 0deg and 180deg ports is finite and frequency dependent. Moreover, the reflection coefficient at the sum port is nonzero and frequency dependent. These characteristics lead to the conclusion that while the equal-delay 180deg power splitter/combiner is fundamentally frequency independent, its 0deg counterpart is limited to operation well below the fundamental quarter-wave frequency of the constituent transmission lines. Full three-port scattering parameter representations, which are compatible with the calibration and analysis approach given in the CISPR 16-1 specification, are given for the three fundamental transformer and balun types derivable from the equal-delay hybrid: 1 the Guanella voltage balun, 2 the Guanella current balun, and 3 the 180deg power divider or terminated hybrid balun, as specified in the CISPR 16-1 specification View full abstract»

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  • Coupling model and impedance calculation of the steel ground loops with proximity effect

    Page(s): 522 - 529
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    This paper focuses on the coupling model and the coupling impedances between two circuits with a common ground of a steel plane. By adopting a two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic model, the influence of the skin and the proximity effects are considered. In the case of a strong proximity effect due to the exterior wires, the distribution of the electromagnetic field inside and outside a steel plane is analyzed, and an equivalent coupling circuit model of two circuits with a common steel plane is built. The analytical solution of the coupling impedances and its frequency characteristics are calculated based on the proposed model. The solution is validated by the numerical solutions and the measurement results in the frequency range of 40 Hz-15 M Hz. The influence of the proximity due to nearby wires is severe in high-frequency situations, and the internal impedance of the steel plane changes up to 100 times compared to that of the isolated steel plane View full abstract»

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  • Revision, extension, and validation of Jordan's formula to calculate the surge impedance of vertical conductors

    Page(s): 530 - 536
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    Jordan's formula to calculate the surge impedance of vertical conductors is revised and extended to take into account systems with multiple conductors. Experimental data and the hybrid electromagnetic model are applied in order to validate the derived expressions. Additionally, Jordan's formula is successfully used in the representation of an actual tower as a multiconductor vertical system. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of the derived expressions if an engineering analysis of direct strikes over elevated strike objects is required View full abstract»

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  • Relation between the amplitude probability distribution of an interfering signal and its impact on digital radio receivers

    Page(s): 537 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New emission limit requirements are needed to protect digital communication systems from radiated interference. Traditionally, standard emission requirements have focused on protecting analog amplitude modulated radio services. However, developments in digital technology require emission limit requirements adapted to protect digital radio communication services. The amplitude probability distribution (APD) of the envelope or the quadrature components of an interfering signal has been shown to be related to the bit error probability of some digital radio receivers. However, a general description of the APD of an interfering signal and its impact on digital coherent radio receivers has not been presented. The aim of this paper is to clarify this relationship for a larger group of digital radio receivers. A method of incorporating the APD in conventional error expressions developed for digital coherent radio receivers in additive white Gaussian noise is presented. Furthermore, the relation between the maximum error probability for different digital modulation schemes and the APD is described, which allows definition of emission requirements on the APD View full abstract»

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  • Uncertainty evaluation of an in vivo near-field exposure setup for testing biological effects of cellular phones

    Page(s): 545 - 551
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    In designing an in vivo near-field exposure setup for testing biological effects of cellular phones, one generally uses a small still animal because a plastic holder is used to restrain it. One also takes no account of the exposure box with radio wave absorbers as well as the plastic holder. In this paper, for the in vivo exposure setup developed in the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), which was used for testing the promoting effect of 1.439- and 1.95-GHz digital cellular phones on rat brain carcinogenesis, we investigated the effects of the above-mentioned factors on the dosimetry design using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with an anatomical rat model. As a result, we found that the specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged in the brain was 18% higher at maximum than the previously designed level due to the existence of the exposure box and the plastic holder and that the variation due to the rotation of the rat's head inside the plastic holder was within 10%. The backward movement of the rat along the plastic holder was more serious, which yielded a decrease of nearly 20% for the average SAR in the brain View full abstract»

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  • Effect of amplitude modulation of the CDMA IS-95 signal on SAR measurements

    Page(s): 552 - 562
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    Miniature probes employed for specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements are typically calibrated using a sinusoidal waveform (SW), even though they may be employed to measure a wide variety of communication signals with complex waveforms. This paper shows that the compression produced by the nonlinear response of the probe versus SAR, due to its diode detector, may introduce a significant overestimation of the SAR produced by CDMA IS-95 waveforms when the diode detector operates well into the compression region. This finding is demonstrated theoretically, verified numerically and experimentally, and physically interpreted. The effect is typically small and may be neglected in many practical circumstances involving low-power RF energy emitters, such as mobile phones or two-way dispatch radios View full abstract»

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  • Specific absorption rates in a flat phantom in the near-field of dipole antennas

    Page(s): 563 - 568
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    National and international regulatory bodies require compliance testing procedures for hand-held wireless telephones. The IEEE has promulgated a compliance verification procedure (P1528) to be followed in verifying whether a wireless phone is compliant with international standards. Manufacturers are required to assess the maximum near-field exposures that phones might produce in the head of a user. A recent intercomparison of the testing procedure has involved the cooperation of 15 government and industrial laboratories. These laboratories measured the 1- and 10-cm3 cubic volume-averaged specific absorption rates (SARs) in a flat phantom filled with a standardized lossy dielectric fluid. The phantom absorber was placed in the near field of a custom dipole antenna. In support of this effort, we have performed a theoretical analysis of the expected SARs in the measurement system, which has allowed comparison with experiment. We have also been able to compare the 1and 10-cm3 volume-averaged SARs for cubic and maximum SAR volumes. There is generally good agreement between experimental and theoretical SAR spatial patterns, and SARs averaged over 1- and 10-cm3 cubic volumes. The 1- and 10-cm3 average SARs in the shapes giving maximum SARs are about 35% larger compared to cubic volumes View full abstract»

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  • Correlation between maximum temperature increase and peak SAR with different average schemes and masses

    Page(s): 569 - 578
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    This paper investigates the correlation between maximum temperature increases and peak spatial-average specific absorption rates (SARs), calculated by different average schemes and masses. For evaluating the effect of mass on the correlation properly, a three-dimensional Green's function is presented. From our computational investigation, no best average mass for peak spatial-average SAR exist from the aspect of the correlation with maximum temperature increase. This is attributed to the frequency dependent penetration depth of EM waves. Maximum temperature increase in the head including the pinna is reasonably correlated with peak spatial-average SARs for most average schemes and masses considered in this paper. Maximum temperature increase in the head only (excluding the pinna) is reasonably correlated with peak 10-g SARs for the average schemes considered in this paper. The rationale for this result is explained using the Green's function. The point to be stressed here is that the slope correlating them is largely dependent on the average scheme and mass. Additionally, good agreement is observed in the slopes obtained by using two head models, which have been developed at Osaka University and Nagoya Institute of Technology. However, weak correlation is observed for the brain, which is caused by the difference of the positions where peak SAR and maximum temperature increase appear. The 95th percentile values of the slope correlating maximum temperature increases in the head or brain and peak spatial-average SAR are quantified for different average schemes and masses View full abstract»

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  • International intercomparison of specific absorption rates in a flat absorbing phantom in the near-field of dipole antennas

    Page(s): 579 - 588
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    This paper reports the results of an international intercomparison of the specific absorption rates (SARs) measured in a flat-bottomed container (flat phantom), filled with human head tissue simulant fluid, placed in the near-field of custom-built dipole antennas operating at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. These tests of the reliability of experimental SAR measurements have been conducted as part of a verification of the ways in which wireless phones are tested and certified for compliance with safety standards. The measurements are made using small electric-field probes scanned in the simulant fluid in the phantom to record the spatial SAR distribution. The intercomparison involved a standard flat phantom, antennas, power meters, and RF components being circulated among 15 different governmental and industrial laboratories. At the conclusion of each laboratory's measurements, the following results were communicated to the coordinators: Spatial SAR scans at 900 and 1800 MHz and 1 and 10 g maximum spatial SAR averages for cubic volumes at 900 and 1800 MHz. The overall results, given as mean standard deviation, are the following: at 900 MHz, 1 g average 7.850.76; 10 g average 5.160.45; at 1800 MHz, 1 g average 18.44plusmn1.65; 10 g average 10.14plusmn0.85, all measured in units of watt per kilogram, per watt of radiated power View full abstract»

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  • New mathematical descriptions of ESD current waveform based on the polynomial of pulse function

    Page(s): 589 - 591
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    The transient near-field of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) is strongly affected by the discharge current waveform. After analyzing several typical mathematical descriptions of the ESD current for the contact mode, two new mathematical descriptions of ESD current were constructed according to the polynomial of pulse function. These descriptions have the continuity of the first derivative at t=0 and are time-integrable. They proved to have little relative error compared to the IEC61000-4-2 standard View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous gain measurements on wide-band ridge horn

    Page(s): 592 - 594
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    A rigorous measurement effort on the gain estimation of a wideband double-ridge horn antenna in the 2.0- to 4.8-GHz frequency range is presented. A systematic uncertainty analysis is carried out View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of coupled nonuniform transmission lines using Taylor's series expansion

    Page(s): 594 - 600
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    A new method is introduced for the frequency domain analysis of arbitrarily loaded lossy and dispersive nonuniform coupled transmission lines. We assume that the per-unit-length matrices are known and can be expressed by a converged Taylor's series. All known per-unit-length matrices, as well as the voltages and currents, are expanded in Taylor's series. The solutions of voltages and currents are obtained after finding the unknown coefficients of the series. The validity of the method is verified using the analysis of some special kinds of coupled lines View full abstract»

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  • Effect of size, orientation, and eccentricity of mode stirrers on their performance in reverberation chambers

    Page(s): 600 - 602
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    We analyze the effect of the dimensions, aspect ratio, orientation, and eccentricity of rotation of a rectangular surface element on its performance as a mechanical mode stirrer in a reverberation chamber. Stirring performance is quantified by the number of coherence cells traversed by this surface during the stirring process. Concentrically as well as eccentrically rotating elements are investigated. The dependence of stirring sensitivity coefficients on the width-to-wavelength ratio and the aspect ratio is different for both cases. The radius of the orbit and the orientation of the surface element relative to the orbit are found to have a major influence View full abstract»

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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 603 - 604
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch