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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date Aug. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 1049
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Special Issue on Plasma-Based Surface Modification and Treatment Technologies

    Page(s): 1050 - 1051
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  • A Nonperturbing Real-Time In Situ Plasma Diagnosis Technique Using an Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES)

    Page(s): 1052 - 1058
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    An optical emission spectrometer (OES) is utilized to measure the sheath thickness (i.e., dark space) of a pulsed glow discharge in a nonperturbing real-time in situ manner. The ion density can be obtained based on the sheath thickness measurements because the ion density is a function of the sheath thickness and applied voltage. Because this method is simple and straightforward, most of the issues involved with a conventional Langmuir probe measurement are eliminated. The ion density measured by this technique was compared with that measured by a time-delayed time-resolved Langmuir probe technique and with measurements simulated by PDP1 plasma simulation code. A good agreement between the measurements taken by the different tools has been demonstrated. Therefore, this method is suitable for a better plasma-based process, which monitors process controllability and repeatability View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition on a Dielectric Wedge

    Page(s): 1059 - 1065
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    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a dielectric object is not straightforward to simulate because the surface will be charged during the process. The one-dimensional analytic equation developed by Emmert [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Process. Phenom., vol. 12, pp. 880, 1994] cannot be applied to a two-three-dimensional dielectric object. In this paper, the author develops a numerical model that can handle the surface charging effect of a complex dielectric object. The model is used to simulate the metal PIII and deposition of a dielectric wedge. The potential of the internal volume of the wedge is solved by Laplace's equation, the boundary between the wedge and metal plasma is handled by Gauss' law, and the bulk metal plasma region is simulated by the hybrid model of particle-in-cell ions and Boltzmann distribution of electrons. It shows that the equilibrium steady-state ion sheath formed by the sample stage biased at -8 kV is modified by the thinner dielectric wedge with the height of 0.03 m. The tip of the dielectric wedge is touched by the main stream of the metal plasma View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogen Effect on Nitriding Process of 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Page(s): 1066 - 1073
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    A series of plasma nitriding experiments has been conducted on AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples at temperatures ranging from 400 degC to 515 degC using continuous dc glow discharge plasma in an N2-H2 gas mixture. H2 percentages in the gas mixture were changed from 0% to 50% relative to the total gas pressure, which is ranging from 3 to 9 torr in the nitriding reactor. The discharge current was adjusted to be 100 mA. The treatment time was varied from 15 min to 4 h. The structure and composition of the plasma nitrided surface layer were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Also, the microhardness technique was used for testing the surface microhardness of the nitrided samples. Effect of H 2 percentage on the surface microhardness and on the thickness of the nitrided layer of the treated samples was studied. A pronounced increase of the surface hardness of the samples that are nitrided in N2-H2 gas mixture than that are nitrided in N2 only. The hardness increases sharply when H 2% is about 5%, then it slightly decreases again and saturates by further increasing of H2% until it reaches 50% in the gas mixture. Also, the thickness of the nitrided layer increases by increasing H2% content. The nitrided phases; gamma'-Fe 4N and epsiv-Fe2-3N, which are decomposed from the metastable supersaturated phase (S-phase), and CrN were observed and the grain size of the nitrided phases was in the order of tenth of nanometers View full abstract»

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  • Nitrogen-Implanted Silicon Oxynitride: A Coating for Suppressing Field Emission From Stainless Steel Used in High-Voltage Applications

    Page(s): 1074 - 1079
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    In this paper, the authors examine the field emission performance of stainless steel polished to varying degrees, both before and after being coated with a nitrogen-implanted silicon oxynitride layer. The deposition procedure utilizes the simultaneous sputtering of silicon dioxide from a dielectric quartz window and ion implantation of nitrogen from an RF inductively coupled plasma. Here, the scanning field emission microscopy results indicate that prior to being coated, the number of emission sites increased drastically from 12 to more than 300 as the surface roughness increased from 4 to 64 nm, corresponding to polishing with 1-mum diamond paste to 15-mum (600 grit) silicon carbide paper. However, after being coated with nitrogen-implanted silicon oxynitride, all the samples displayed zero to five emission sites at electric field strengths at least three times higher than the uncoated stainless samples. Thus, neither the roughness of the underlying stainless steel nor that of the top surface of the coating had an effect on suppressing field emission. Depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy determined that the 0.24-mum-thick silicon oxynitride coating contained approximately 15% nitrogen. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of a coated silicon wafer confirmed this stoichiometry and bonding. The technical impact of this work is that coating the large contoured stainless steel surfaces with a nitrogen-implanted silicon oxynitride layer may eliminate the need for expensive labor-intensive polishing procedures currently used in high-voltage electrode structures, such as those found in electron injectors View full abstract»

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  • Annealing Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Layer Synthesized by N Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Page(s): 1080 - 1083
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    A silicon oxynitride layer was obtained on a polished silicon wafer surface by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation. Oxygen is provided by the residual gas in the implantation chamber (base pressure of 3times10-5 mbar) and is also implanted as the main impurity. As-implanted Si samples were analyzed by high-resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which indicated the formation of a SiOxNy layer of about 30 nm with varying x and y, along the depth of the treatment layer. AES also provided concentration profiles of the implanted elements at the as-implanted stage. Annealing of samples from a batch of such oxynitrided Si samples was carried out at different temperatures ranging from 200 degC to 1060 degC. The AES analysis of these annealed samples indicated a significant escape of the implanted nitrogen atoms (starting already at 200 degC), but even at 1060 degC, there was a very thin (about 12 nm) remaining layer of the silicon oxynitride, which is probably in crystalline form. Results from high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements also corroborate the aforementioned results View full abstract»

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  • Topography Evolution of Dielectric Thin Films on Grating Surfaces in Oblique Deposition by Multiple Sources (ODMS)

    Page(s): 1084 - 1093
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    Optical properties of a reflective grating depend sensitively on the microscopic profile of grating surfaces. In manufacturing processes of reflective gratings, dielectric thin film deposition may be used to form desired surface profiles of gratings that are made from the standard molding processes. To predict surface profiles of dielectric films deposited by sputtering processes, a numerical simulation code based on the shock-tracking method has been developed and applied to TiO 2 thin film deposition processes by the oblique deposition by multiple sources (ODMS) method. From the comparison of simulation data with experimental observations, the numerical simulation code has been confirmed to be able to predict the overall profiles of deposited films with reasonable accuracy. Sample simulation and experimental results are presented, and a possibility of further improvement of the simulation algorithm is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Surface Degradation of Silicone Rubber Exposed to Corona Discharge

    Page(s): 1094 - 1098
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    This paper describes the surface degradation of unfilled high-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (HTV-SR) resulting from creeping corona discharges under atmospheric pressure. In this paper, HTV-SR specimens were exposed to corona stress generated by a parallel needle-plate electrode system; furthermore, physicochemical analyses were conducted on the surface layer of SR before and after corona discharge treatment. The results showed that the plasma impingement from the corona discharge can cause physical and chemical damages to the SR surface. In addition, it was demonstrated that instead of hydrophobic CH 3 groups, hydrophilic OH groups that are by-products of aging may be formed on the surface of aged SR; furthermore, the corona discharge plays an important role in the loss of hydrophobicity View full abstract»

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  • Influence of \hbox {O}_{2} Flow Rate on Structure and Properties of \hbox {MgO}_{x} Films Prepared by Cathodic-Vacuum-Arc Ion Deposition System

    Page(s): 1099 - 1104
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    Magnesium-oxide (MgOx) films have been prepared by a cathodic-vacuum-arc ion deposition system operated in an intermediate frequency pulse mode of substrate bias voltage at a mixed atmosphere of O2 and Ar. The O2 flow was adjusted in a range of 180-240 sccm at a fixed O2/Ar flow rate of 20. The structure, composition, morphology, and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering technique, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra, respectively. Results show that the crystal orientation and grain size of the samples strongly depends on O2 flow rate. Growth of Magnesium-oxide films prefers MgO (200) and MgO (220) orientation at a smaller and larger O2 flow rate of 180 and 220 sccm, respectively. Transparent MgOx films used as the protective layer for alternating-current plasma display panel are obtained at optimal deposition conditions View full abstract»

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  • A Study of ZrN/Zr Coatings Deposited on NiTi Alloy by PIIID Technique

    Page(s): 1105 - 1108
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    ZrNx/Zr ceramic/metal coatings were deposited onto NiTi shape-memory alloy using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique in order to prolong the service lifetime of NiTi implants in clinical application. The surface characteristics and microstructure were investigated by atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The results showed that the coating surface has a mean roughness of 7.487 nm and root-mean-square roughness of 9.065 nm over the area the image and a cubic face-centered lattice of NaCl-type ZrN0.83 coating was obtained. The electrochemical test demonstrated that the ZrN0.83 /Zr coating can greatly improved the corrosion-resistant property in Hank's solution, which has a great significance for the biomedical application of NiTi alloy View full abstract»

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  • Self-Assembled Nanotiles of Heteroepitaxial SiC on Si

    Page(s): 1109 - 1111
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    Using an organometallic ion-beam deposition technique, self-assembled silicon carbide (SiC) nanotiles were fabricated on Si wafers. Nanosized semiconducting tiles are important in electronics and photonics technologies and will be applicable for single-electron and microlight-emitting devices. The SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor used for UV light emitters and power devices. While many fabrication trials have been performed for silicon and germanium nanodots, to the authors' knowledge, no prior reports of a heteroepitaxial growth of SiC nanodots or nanotiles have been made View full abstract»

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  • Surface Modification of Thin Rods by Theta-Pinching Metallic Plasmas

    Page(s): 1112 - 1115
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    Metallic-ion deposition on the surface of a thin dielectric rod is successfully demonstrated by using a small theta-pinch device. This method needs no application of a negative potential and has few limits on the surface irregularities of the treatment objects. A single-turn coil surrounding a glass tube of 16.6 mm in inner diameter is excited by a capacitor discharge circuit. Nitrogen gas is filled up to 10 Pa and pre-ionized before triggering the capacitor discharge. The plasma is concentrated and expanded repeatedly with the coil current of 15-kA peak and 1.54-mus periods. Through the interaction between the expanding plasma and a metalized film placed at the inner wall of the tube, the metallic ions are generated and introduced into the pinching plasma and utilized for deposition. The pinching time of the plasma is around 0.25 mus obtained from a streak photograph. Polytetrafluoroethylene rods of 3 mm in diameter are placed at the center of the tube and exposed to the pinching plasma. An electron-probe microanalyzer analysis shows that the thickness of a deposited gold is around 10 mum after 400 shots of the discharges View full abstract»

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  • DLC Film Fabrication on the Inner Surface of a Cylinder by Carbon Ion Implantation

    Page(s): 1116 - 1120
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    To synthesize good diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the inner surface of a cylinder, C2H2 plasma should be generated uniformly in the cylinder. In this study, glow discharge C2H2 plasma was generated by a high pulsed bias voltage applied on the cylinder, and ions were accelerated and implanted into the sample by the same bias. The effect of pulse frequency of the bias and working pressure on the discharge characteristics was investigated. In addition, the ball-on-disk test and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-deposited DLC films. The test results show that wear resistance of samples increases with the applied voltage, and the friction coefficient of DLC films lies in the range of 0.15-0.20 View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Study on Dose Distributions of the Ball Bearing Treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Page(s): 1121 - 1126
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    A two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) model was used to study plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process of the ball bearing. In the simulation, distributions of the normalized potential and the accumulated incident dose were calculated. In addition, the relationship among the minimum distance between neighboring ball bearings without sheath overlap, the implantation voltage, the plasma density, and the pulsewidth was obtained. When the voltage is -10 kV, the plasma density is 2.95times108 cm-3 and the pulsewidth is 10 mus; the minimum distance without sheath overlap is 38.0 cm. To evaluate the model, the potential in the sheath was measured using a probe. Experimental results are in agreement with the calculated values. The simulation results reveal that a large number of ions are implanted into the top part of the ball bearing, which shows bad dose uniformity. When the ball bearing is revolved during PIII treatment, the dose uniformity can be improved to 91.25% at least View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of Magnetic-Field-Enhanced Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Cylindrical Geometry

    Page(s): 1127 - 1135
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    Recent studies have demonstrated that the sheath dynamics in plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is significantly affected by an external magnetic field. In this paper, a two-dimensional computer simulation of a magnetic-field-enhanced PIII system is described. Negative bias voltage is applied to a cylindrical target located on the axis of a grounded vacuum chamber filled with uniform molecular nitrogen plasma. A static magnetic field is created by a small coil installed inside the target holder. The vacuum chamber is filled with background nitrogen gas to form a plasma in which collisions of electrons and neutrals are simulated by the Monte Carlo algorithm. It is found that a high-density plasma is formed around the target due to the intense background gas ionization by the magnetized electrons drifting in the crossed EtimesB fields. The effect of the magnetic field intensity, the target bias, and the gas pressure on the sheath dynamics and implantation current of the PIII system is investigated View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Microstructure on Nitriding Properties of Stainless Steel

    Page(s): 1136 - 1140
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    Very hard and wear-resistant layers are formed after energetic nitrogen insertion into stainless steel. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of the microstructure is presented. Nitrogen implantation was performed in austenitic, martensitic, and ferritic steels with the samples investigated with respect to formation of expanded phase, nitrogen depth distribution, hardness, and wear. Microstructure strongly affects the diffusion in austenite and has negligible effect in the case of martensitic/ferritic transformations View full abstract»

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  • Effects of the High-Temperature Plasma Immersion Ion-Implantation Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    Page(s): 1141 - 1147
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    Nitrogen implantation into Ti alloys at higher temperatures improves their mechanical and corrosion resistance properties by forming a thicker nitride layer. In this paper, two different sets of Ti-6Al-4V samples were plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)-treated using nitrogen plasma, varying the treatment time from 30 to 150 min (800 degC) and the process temperature from 400 degC to 800 degC (t=60 min). Nanoindentation measurements of the PIII-treated samples at 800 degC during 150 min showed the highest hardness value, 24 GPa, which is about four times bigger than untreated sample hardness. The N penetration at these conditions reached approximately 150 nm as analyzed by Auger spectroscopy. On the other hand, the lowest passive current density (3times10-7 Amiddotcm-2) was obtained for a PIII-treated sample during 30 min at higher temperature (800 degC). The corrosion resistance of this sample is almost the same as for the untreated specimen. Corrosion behavior evidenced that in strong oxidizing media, all PIII-treated samples are more corrosion resistant than the untreated one. PIII processing at higher temperatures promotes smoothing of the sample surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analyses of the untreated samples identified the two typical Ti phases, Ti alpha and Ti beta. After the implantation, Ti2N and TiO2 phases were also detected View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Polymer Film as a Model Interlayer for Polymer Composites

    Page(s): 1148 - 1155
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    In this paper, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process that is useful for the preparation of thin and ultrathin films of controlled mechanical properties is identified. Plasma-polymerized films of vinyltriethoxysilane were deposited on planar substrates and analyzed using nanoindentation measurements of the Young's modulus of the films, adhesion bonding at the film/glass interface, chemical composition, and structure. The modulus of the plasma polymer film can be controlled simply by the effective power fed into the capacitive-coupled low-pressure plasma. The single film was tested as an interlayer in glass fiber (GF)/polyester composites. GF bundles were surface modified by plasma polymer in a unique technological system, enabling continuous processing of the bundle. GF/polyester composites in the form of short beams were manufactured using the coated fibers and tested according to the standard test method. By increasing the interlayer modulus, the short-beam strength was enhanced up to 112% compared with the untreated GFs, and this enhancement was also supported by an improvement in interfacial bonding View full abstract»

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  • Time-Resolved Ion and Electron Current Measurements in Pulsed Plasma Sheaths

    Page(s): 1156 - 1159
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    In this paper, time-resolved Langmuir-probe measurements of both electron and ion currents in the transient sheath region adjacent to a plasma ion implantation target pulsed to negative high voltages are reported. A fast (i.e., greater than the ion-acoustic speed) initial sheath expansion is observed followed by a slower propagation at the ion-acoustic speed into the bulk plasma. It has been observed that the ion density exhibits perturbation near the ion plasma frequency several microseconds prior to its depletion View full abstract»

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  • Si–N–O Films Synthesized by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (PIII&D) for Blood-Contacting Biomedical Applications

    Page(s): 1160 - 1165
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    Silicon-Oxynitride (Si-N-O) films were fabricated on silicon wafers by silicon cathodic arc combined with plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. The blood compatibility of the films was assessed by platelet-adhesion test and fibrinogen conformational change measurements to evaluate the viability of the materials in biomedical engineering. Significantly, a better platelet-adhesion behavior, as manifested by a smaller number and weaker aggregation as well as pseudopodium, was observed on the Si-N-O samples compared to the low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon, which is the most common material used in blood-contacting biomedical devices such as artificial heart valves. Enzyme-linked-immunoassay measurements that disclose fibrinogen conformational changes show results that are consistent with the platelets' behavior, which is believed to be involved in the activation process. The good blood compatibility of the films can be attributed to the high hydrophilicity and surface free energy arising from the Si-N, Si-N-O, and Si-O bonding states. The interfacial reactions between fibrinogen, platelets, and material surface are discussed from the perspective of thermodynamics. The promising blood compatibility of the Si-N-O films is of both scientific and commercial interests in biomedical engineering View full abstract»

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  • Dense Gas Discharge With Runaway Electrons as a New Plasma Source for Surface Modification and Treatment

    Page(s): 1166 - 1174
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    Experimental results on runaway electron generation with an energy of 20-350 keV at nanosecond discharge in air under normal conditions are presented. Physical conditions are specified for the efficient generation of runaway electrons in dense gas using this type of discharge. A subrelativistic electron beam is obtained in air under normal conditions with an output aperture of 4times33 cm2 and a current amplitude of 2 kA. Experimental results on atmospheric discharge with runaway electrons (ADRE) application for bacteria decontamination on the surface of solid states including the inside of tight polymeric packings are described. Essentially, a higher surface sterilization capacity by the ADRE (with energy up to 300 keV and current amplitude up to 700 A) in comparison with other types of discharges is obtained. The basic biophysical mechanisms determining the ADRE sterilization futures are discussed View full abstract»

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  • In Situ Optical Emission Spectroscopic Investigations During Arc Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Thermal Plasma

    Page(s): 1175 - 1182
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    Investigations using in situ precursor spectroscopy during the growth of nanoparticles of iron oxide by thermal plasma induced gas phase condensation method have been shown to be useful for correlating the size of nanoparticles with existing plasma parameters. The relative abundance of ionized Fe species inside the plasma plume is seen to directly establish the relation between particle size, arc current, arc length, and ambient pressure of the reacting oxygen gas. The argon plasma from a transferred arc reactor is made to impinge on the anode that is allowed to vaporize and react with oxygen. The spectral line profiles of both Ar and Fe along the plasma column during the synthesis of nanoparticles have been proved to be useful in understanding the growth mechanism. Band intensities of FeO molecular states indicated the inverse relation with particle sizes that have been correlated to the two competitive processes in which energy is released, namely: 1) one involving the radiative transition and 2) the other that of the growth by coagulation. Atomic Boltzmann plots are used for estimating the temperatures of the zones, whereas particle sizes have been inferred using transmission electron microscopic measurements View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Ion Implantation on DLC Preparation Using PBIID Process

    Page(s): 1183 - 1189
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    This paper discusses the effects of ion implantation on a diamond-like carbon (DLC) preparation using a hybrid process of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) using superimposed RF and negative high-voltage pulses. Adhesion strength of a DLC film on A-5052 and SUS304 was enhanced by carbon ion implantation to substrate materials. Cross section of interface between the DLC film and substrate was observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the amorphouslike mixing layer of graded carbon component and substrate materials was produced in the ion-implanted region of substrate and the oxide layer on the substrate surface was destroyed. Besides the reduction of residual stress in the DLC film, the formation of amorphouslike mixing layer and the destruction of oxide layer led to the enhancement in adhesion strength of the DLC film. Residual stress, sp3 fraction, hardness, density, and hydrogen content of the DLC films deposited from acetylene and toluene plasma have the variation with negative pulsed voltage for ion implantation View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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