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Radio Engineers, Proceedings of the Institute of

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 1931

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Future Events

    Page(s): c2
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  • Contents

    Page(s): i
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  • General Information

    Page(s): ii
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  • Suggestions for Contributors to the Proceedings

    Page(s): iii
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  • Institute sections

    Page(s): iv
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  • Geographical Location of Members Elected August 2, 1931

    Page(s): v - vi
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  • Applications for Membership

    Page(s): vii - viii
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  • Officers and Board of Direction, 1931

    Page(s): ix
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  • G.A. Ferrie - Recipient of Institute Medal of Honor, 1931

    Page(s): 1522
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  • Institute news and radio notes

    Page(s): 1523 - 1528
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  • Radio Tracking of Meteorological Balloons

    Page(s): 1529 - 1560
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    There is a need for upper air meteorological observation at night as well as in the daytime, in cloudy and in foggy weather as well as in clear. This need has given rise to a number of interesting methods of obtaining these data, among them radio tracking of meteorological balloons. A free balloon moves in the air current prevailing at the level it occupies. A small rubber balloon, six inches or less in diameter, when inflated with hydrogen to a given excess lift will rise at a given ascensional rate to great heights. Successive determinations of the position of one of these pilot balloons provides ready means for computing the mean direction and speed of the wind in the layer of air through which the balloon has risen during the interval between determinations of position. On clear days these balloons have been followed by visual methods to heights of 20 miles. This paper deals with a radio method of determining successive balloon positions. A light transmitter, weighing about a pound, is carried up by the balloon at a known ascensional rate. Loop receivers are employed in ranging for this transmitter. The whole project involves the determination of air temperature aloft as well as air movement but the work on it so far has been limited to the development of equipment needed for the observation of wind, direction, and speed. Positions are usually determined at minute intervals. View full abstract»

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  • Some Characteristics of Thyratrons

    Page(s): 1561 - 1568
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    The fundamental characteristics of thyratrons are discussed. Comparisons are made with characteristics of high-vacuum tubes to show the outstanding advantages and limitations of the thyratron. Starting characteristics are discussed and typical examples are shown. Several types and sizes of thyratrons are described briefly. View full abstract»

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  • Twenty-Watt Aircraft Transmitter

    Page(s): 1569 - 1578
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    A transmitter for aircraft employing cw telegraph signals only is unusually effective in performance and economical in operation. By employing a special method of screen-grid modulation, phone signaling can be provided for use when phone signaling is most needed-namely, when flying in the vicinity of airports-with almost negligible additions to the cw transmitter. A rapid transfer of information is mostly needed at or near an airport. Short-range phone signaling provides for this need. When flying on regular courses, telegraphy is rapid enough. Cw telegraph signals remain 100 per cent intelligible under conditions which would be near O intelligibility for the same power phone signals. View full abstract»

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  • A Course Indicator of Pointer Type for the Visual Radio Range Beacon System

    Page(s): 1579 - 1605
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    A form of tuned-reed radio range beacon course indicator is described, called a reed converter, in which the course indications are not given by observing the two reed motions as heretofore, but by means of a zero-center pointer type indicating instrument. The motion of the two reeds generates small alternating voltages, which when rectified by oxide rectifiers and passed in opposing polarities through a zero-center indicating instrument, serve to give course indications by the deflection of the indicating instrument needle in the direction of deviation of the airplane from the course. Each reed converter unit consists of a polarized reed tuned to one of the beacon modulation frequencies. The reed vibrates between a set of driving coils which are supplied with the signal from the radio range, and also extends between a set of pickup coils, and generates a voltage in these coils. Since a null method of course indication is used, it is necessary to provide a signal volume indicator in the form of a 0-500 microammeter in the output circuit of the oxide rectifiers. Several forms of converter selector switch circuit arrangements are shown. The advantages and disadvantages of the reed converter as compared to the tuned reed indicator are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Some Acoustical Problems of Sound Picture Engineering

    Page(s): 1606 - 1614
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    The purpose of this paper is to point out that many advances in acoustical engineering have been necessary in order to understand and control adequately the conditions under which modern sound pictures are recorded and reproduced. To illustrate this point, some of the acoustical problems encountered at Bell Telephone Laboratories are discussed. The sudden and successive changes in sound intensity level to be expected in a room during the growth and decay of sound from an intermittent source are pointed out. The necessity of using the more general reverberation time formula, which was developed over a year ago, when dealing with coinparatively "dead" rooms, is indicated. One type of acoustical distortion which is due to interference is discussed together with the measures necessary to minimize it in sound pickup work. These phases of acoustical engineering have been selected for discussion from many which confront the engineer in this field. View full abstract»

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  • A Method of Representing Radio Wave Propagation Conditions

    Page(s): 1615 - 1617
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    The daylight radio transmission conditions across the North Atlantic Ocean in 1930 for wavelengths of 10,000 to 20,000 m (15-30 kc) are shown in a table based on the daily observations of the signal strength of seven European high power stations taken in Washington. It is expected that similar tables of daily transmission conditions for the years beginning with 1924 will soon be ready for publication. The object of this form of tabulation is to furnish a ready means of comparison of radio conditions with other natural phenomena-sun spots, magnetic storms, weather, etc. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Automatic Recording Equipment in Radio Transmission Research

    Page(s): 1618 - 1633
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    This is an apparatus paper describing equipment recently developed for low frequency (17.8 kc); intermediate frequency (770 kc); and high frequency (6942.5 kc) field intensity recording. The circuits employed are presented and discussed with particular reference to expedients for obtaining nearly logarithmic scales (when used with Leeds and Northrup recording potentiometers). Typical records obtained with the aid of the equipment described are presented and the salient characteristics of the high-frequtency records (which show striking evidence of skip distance phenomena) are pointed out. View full abstract»

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  • The Propagation of Short Radio Waves over the North Atlantic

    Page(s): 1634 - 1659
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    Transmission conditions for each season are shown by "surfaces" giving the received field strength as a function of time of day and frequency. These show that frequencies near 18 mc are best for daytime transmission. In summer the best frequencies for nighttime transmission are those near 9 mc. In winter an additional frequency near 6 mc is required during the middle of the night. A frequency (such as 14 mc) intermediate between the day and night frequency is useful during the transition period between total daylight and total darkness over the path. Day-to-day variations change the periods of usefulness of these frequencies. In particular the period of usefulness on 14 mc sometimes extends so that it is the best daytime frequency. Transmission conditions on undisturbed days were found to be the same for the same time of year on different years. These undisturbed transmission conditions are presented by "normal" surfaces. Comparison of these surfaces shows that the higher frequencies are less attenuated in winter. Reception on the highest frequency, 27 mc was best in winter; in summer this frequency was never heard. The effect of solar disturbances on short-wave transmission is to reduce reception on all frequencies. Sometimes the higher frequencies are the more adversely affected. Some of the, possible causes of these disturbances are discussed. From the measurements made on "static" at New Southgate, data on the variation of its field strength as a function of frequency, time of day, and season are given. View full abstract»

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  • Long-Distance Transmission of Static Impulses

    Page(s): 1660 - 1662
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The Relation Connecting Skip Distance, Wavelength, and the Constants of the Ionized Layers

    Page(s): 1663 - 1674
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    Neglecting the short-range ground ray, it is assumed that short-wave propagation is due to single or multiple total reflection between the earth and one or more ionized layers in the atmosphere. For single reflection at a single layer an equation is developed giving the wavelength in terms of the skip distance, the height of the layer and the degree of ionization of the layer. The curve represented by this equation is discussed. The equation, in conjunction with experimental data, shows the height of the layer which governs the skip distance in daylight to be about 230 km, and its ionization about 7.0×105electrons per cu. cm. It is thought that, in daylight, higher layers of greater ionization do not exist. But there may be lower ones of lesser ionization. The theory is then applied to the case of multiple reflection in daylight. The data lead to a value of 10.4 meters for the shortest useful wavelength for daylight work. The case of two or more layers is next discussed, and experimental data for darkness are used, by means of the theory, to estimate the structure of the ionized regions at night. On winter nights there appear to be at least two layers, one at a height of about 520 km and with an ionization of about 2×105electrons per cu. cm, the other at a height of the order of 40 km and with an ionization of the order of 3.5×104electrons per cu. cm. View full abstract»

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  • A Correlation of Long-Wave Radio Field Intensity with the Passage of Storms

    Page(s): 1675 - 1683
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    Variation in received field intensity of long radio waves is compared with variation of temperature, pressure, and rainfall during the passing of general storms at Washington. The results show that in general there is a definite falling off in signal intensity in front of the advancing low. This is followed by an increased intensity which persists from one to two days after the storm center passes. This indicates some real relationship between received signal strength of long waves and weather over that part of the path of the wave over which it passes shortly before reaching the receiving station. View full abstract»

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  • The Grounded Condenser Antenna Radiation Formula

    Page(s): 1684 - 1689
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    Exact formulas for the wave function and vertical electric field at the surface of the ground are derived for a vertical dipole of zero height. View full abstract»

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  • Book reviews

    Page(s): 1690
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  • Booklets, catalogues, and pamphlets received

    Page(s): 1691
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1938. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope