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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3161 - 3162
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  • Envelope-domain time series (ET) behavioral model of a Doherty RF power amplifier for system design

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3163 - 3172
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present an envelope-domain behavioral model of a high-power RF amplifier. In this modeling approach, we use the signal envelope information, and the behavioral model is generated using an established nonlinear time-series approach to create a time-domain model that operates in the envelope or signal domain. We have generated a model of a 200-W Doherty amplifier from measured IQ data taken using a wideband code-division multiple-access excitation; the amplifier was driven from the linear regime into saturation. The time-series model was created using a time-delay embedding identified from auto-mutual information analysis, and an artificial neural network was used to fit the multivariate transfer function. The model has been validated using measured and simulated data, and it has been used in the development of a system-level design of a digital pre-distorter View full abstract»

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  • Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3173 - 3181
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We calibrate the magnitude and phase response of equivalent-time sampling oscilloscopes to 110 GHz. We use a photodiode that has been calibrated with our electrooptic sampling system as a reference input pulse source to the sampling oscilloscope. We account for the impedance of the oscilloscope and the reference photodiode and correct for electrical reflections and distortions due to impedance mismatch. We also correct for time-base imperfections such as drift, time-base distortion, and jitter. We have performed a rigorous uncertainty analysis, which includes a Monte Carlo simulation of time-domain error sources combined with error sources from the deconvolution of the photodiode pulse, from the mismatch correction, and from the jitter correction View full abstract»

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  • Noise considerations when determining phase of large-signal microwave measurements

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3182 - 3190
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in microwave instrumentation now make it feasible to accurately measure not only the magnitude spectrum, but also the phase spectrum of wide-bandwidth signals. In a practical measurement, the spectrum is measured over a finite window of time. The phase spectrum is related to the position of this window, causing the spectrum to differ between measurements of an identical waveform. It is difficult to compare multiple measurements with different window positions or to incorporate them into a model. Several methods have been proposed for determining the phase spectrum such that multiple measurements can be effectively compared and utilized in models. The methods are reviewed in terms of the information required to determine the phase and compared in terms of their robustness in the presence of measurement noise View full abstract»

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  • Large-signal behavioral modeling of nonlinear amplifiers based on load-pull AM-AM and AM-PM measurements

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3191 - 3196
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an improved behavioral modeling technique that generates large-signal models for nonlinear amplifiers or devices based on load-pull AM-AM and AM-PM measurement datasets. The generated behavioral model characterizes the incident and scattering waveforms at two ports in the frequency domain based on the large-signal scattering function theory. The advantage of this technique is that it is derived entirely from load-pull measurements and provides an analytic method to utilize the load-pull measurements in practical designs. Examples are given to demonstrate the ability of the behavioral models to predict the load-related nonlinearities of the device-under-test View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-phase calibration of sampling oscilloscopes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3197 - 3208
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe an algorithm for determining the minimum phase of a linear time-invariant response function from its magnitude. The procedure is based on Kramers-Kronig relations in combination with auxiliary direct measurements of the desired phase response. We demonstrate that truncation of the Hilbert transform gives rise to large errors in estimated phase, but that these errors may be approximated using a small number of basis functions. As an example, we obtain a minimum-phase calibration of a sampling oscilloscope in the frequency domain. This result rests on data obtained by an electrooptic sampling (EOS) technique in combination with a swept-sine calibration procedure. The EOS technique yields magnitude and phase information over a broad bandwidth, yet has degraded uncertainty estimates from dc to approximately 1 GHz. The swept-sine procedure returns only the magnitude of the oscilloscope response function, yet may be performed on a fine frequency grid from about 1 MHz to several gigahertz. The resulting minimum-phase calibration spans frequencies from dc to 110 GHz, and is traceable to fundamental units. The validity of the minimum-phase character of the oscilloscope response function at frequencies common to both measurements is determined as part of our analysis. A full uncertainty analysis is provided View full abstract»

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  • Experimental characterization of the nonlinear behavior of RF amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3209 - 3218
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1037 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using specifically designed broadband periodic random excitation signals, the best linear approximation of RF amplifiers is measured. The proposed technique: 1) takes into account the measurement uncertainty and the nonlinear distortions and 2) detects, quantifies, and classifies the nonlinear distortions with confidence bounds. The approach is suitable for the experimental characterization of existing amplifiers View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain envelope measurements for characterization and behavioral modeling of nonlinear devices with memory

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3219 - 3226
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a calibrated four-channel measurement system for the characterization of nonlinear RF devices such as power amplifiers. The main goal of this study is to perform the characterization of the bandpass response of a nonlinear device-under-test (DUT) driven by modulated carriers. The proposed setup enables the generation of L- or S-band (1-4 GHz) carriers with a modulation bandwidth up to 100 MHz. The carrier harmonics generated by the nonlinear DUT are ignored and considered to be sufficiently filtered. This characterization setup enables calibrated time-domain measurements of the complex envelopes of both incoming and outgoing RF waves at the input and output of the DUT. This means that the fundamental and harmonic frequencies of the envelope are measured and processed. A large set of modulation formats can be generated by using a computer-controlled arbitrary waveform generator. Complex envelopes are measured by using a four-channel sampling scope. The proposed calibrated setup can be used to study or to validate linearization techniques of power amplifiers. This characterization tool is also well suited for the extraction and validation of behavioral bilateral models of nonlinear RF analog equipment exhibiting memory effects View full abstract»

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  • In-band distortion of multisines

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3227 - 3236
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multisine signals are shown to be useful for estimating distortion of communication signals. In particular, a generalized approach for the evaluation of effective in-band distortion in a nonlinear amplifier using multisine excitation is presented. The output of the nonlinearity is represented as the sum of uncorrelated components by the transformation of a behavioral model. Simulated and measured results are presented for code-division multiple-access signals View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude and phase characterization of nonlinear mixing products

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3237 - 3245
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the problem of amplitude and phase characterization of nonlinear mixing products arising from a broad class of nonlinear microwave devices. Realizing that the most difficult problem stands on the phase measurement, it starts by reviewing the most common approaches used for the phase characterization of spectral regrowth components. It is demonstrated that these methods can be viewed as correlation processes, and are so framed in a common theory. This allows a unique and universal definition of the input-output amplitude and phase relations, even for mixing products that fall on frequency positions for which there are no components present at the input, and for those arising from incommensurate excitations. Finally, it shows how that theory can be implemented in a laboratory measurement scheme, thus giving the introduced theoretical variables a practical engineering value View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance analysis of mismatched Doherty amplifiers using an accurate load-pull-based model

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3246 - 3254
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An active load-pull-based large-signal modeling approach, suitable for designing and optimizing load modulated amplifiers such as Doherty or linear amplification using nonlinear components based amplifiers, is proposed. A Doherty amplifier was designed by optimizing the dynamic loads seen by the amplifier's transistor using a large-signal load-pull-based behavior model built into computer-aided-design software. Simulation and measurement results showed good agreement, while results obtained using an empirical model of this transistor demonstrated discrepancies. The load-pull-based model was then used to study performance degradation of the Doherty amplifier when load impedance was moved out from the perfect 50 Omega. It has been shown that the load mismatch can greatly affect the linearity and efficiency performance of the amplifier unless its phase is controlled and kept within a specific range. A load mismatch system level compensator scheme, capable of restituting the linearity loss and maintaining the power-added efficiency close to its maximum range, is proposed View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency linear RF Amplifier - a unified circuit approach to achieving compactness and low distortion

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3255 - 3266
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The realization of a highly efficient linearized amplifier has emerged as a paramount issue in the design of advanced mobile handsets. In this paper, a new RF amplifier linearization scheme using a compensating transistor combination is proposed. The devised approach ably utilizes all terminals of an additional transistor that offers a unified pre-post-distortion and cubic distortion characteristic for performance improvement. Meticulous modeling along with a power-dependent Volterra series is performed to identify contributions on each mechanism under various power levels. An experimental four-tone test reveals a maximum 28-dB reduction for the intermodulation distortion at 1.95 GHz, which outperforms typical pre-distortions of 5-10 dB. A single-ended two-stage amplifier module demonstrates a state-of-the-art power efficiency of 55% with 27-dB transducer gain at 24-dBm output power. Meanwhile, the adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR 1) is maintained with good margins of -35dBc for a four-channel wideband code-division multiple-access signal under all output dynamics. Graceful degradations on modulation bandwidths, tone spacing, bias, and gain variations are also discussed, showing superb performance with virtually no dedicated retuning circuit parameters for multicarrier applications. By combining a bias control along with the proposed linearization technique, the average efficiency (12%) is 3times higher than that of the fixed bias (3.94%), demonstrating the potential utility on further prolonging battery lifetime in practical scenarios View full abstract»

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  • Modified T-shaped planar monopole antennas for multiband operation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3267 - 3270
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel modified T-shaped planar monopole antenna in that two asymmetric horizontal strips are used as additional resonators to produce the lower and upper resonant modes. As a result, a dual-band antenna for covering 2.4- and 5-GHz wireless local area network (WLAN) bands is implemented. In order to expand the lower band, a multiband antenna for covering the digital communications systems, personal communications systems, Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems, and 2.4/5-GHz WLAN bands is also developed. Prototypes of the multiband antenna have been successfully implemented. Good omnidirectional radiation in the desired frequency bands has been achieved. The proposed multiband antenna with relatively low profile is very suitable for multiband mobile communication systems View full abstract»

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  • Power-efficient switching-based CMOS UWB transmitters for UWB communications and Radar systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3271 - 3277
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new carrier-based ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter architecture. The new UWB transmitter implements a double-stage switching to enhance RF-power efficiency, reduce dc-power consumption, and increase switching speed and isolation, while reducing circuit complexity. In addition, this paper also demonstrates a new carrier-based UWB transmitting module implemented using a 0.18-mum CMOS integrated pulse generator-switch chip. The design of a UWB sub-nanosecond-switching 0.18-mum CMOS single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch, operating from 0.45 MHz to 15 GHz, is discussed. The design of a 0.18-mum CMOS tunable impulse generator is also presented. The edge-compression phenomenon of the impulse signal controlling the SPST switch, which makes the generated UWB signal narrower than the impulse, is described. Measurement results show that the generated UWB signal can vary from 2 V peak-to-peak with 3-dB 4-ns pulsewidth to 1 V with 0.5 ns, covering 10-dB signal bandwidths from 0.5 to 4 GHz, respectively. The generated UWB signal can be tuned to cover the entire UWB frequency range of 3.1-10.6 GHz. The sidelobe suppression in the measured spectrums is more than 15 dB. The entire CMOS module works under a 1.8-V supply voltage and consumes less than 1 mA of dc current. The proposed carrier-based UWB transmitter and the demonstrated module provide an attractive means for UWB signal generation for both UWB communications and radar applications View full abstract»

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  • Low-power-consumption and high-gain CMOS distributed amplifiers using cascade of inductively coupled common-source gain cells for UWB systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3278 - 3283
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A distributed amplifier with new cascade inductively coupled common-source gain-cell configuration is presented. Compared with other existing gain-cell configurations, the proposed cascade common-source gain cell can provide much higher transconductance and, hence, gain. The new distributed amplifier using the proposed gain-cell configuration, fabricated via a TSMC 0.18-mum CMOS process, achieves an average power gain of around 10 dB, input match of less than -20 dB, and noise figure of 3.3-6.1 dB with a power consumption of only 19.6 mW over the entire ultra-wideband (UWB) band of 3.1-10.6 GHz. This is the lowest power consumption ever reported for fabricated CMOS distributed amplifiers operating over the whole UWB band. In the high-gain operating mode that consumes 100 mW, the new CMOS distributed amplifier provides an unprecedented power gain of 16 dB with 3.2-6-dB noise figure over the UWB range View full abstract»

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  • Low phase-noise microwave oscillators with interferometric signal processing

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3284 - 3294
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phase-noise spectral density of a 9-GHz oscillator has been reduced to -160 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency, which is the lowest phase noise ever measured at microwave frequencies. This performance was achieved by frequency locking a conventional loop oscillator to a high-Q sapphire dielectric resonator operating at the elevated level of dissipated power (~0.4 W). Principles of interferometric microwave signal processing were applied to generate the error signal for the frequency control loop. No cryogenics were used. Two almost identical oscillators were constructed to perform classical two-oscillator phase-noise measurements where one oscillator was phase locked to another. The phase locking was implemented by electronically controlling the level of microwave power dissipated in the sapphire dielectric resonator View full abstract»

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  • A low-power up-conversion CMOS mixer for 22-29-GHz ultra-wideband applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3295 - 3300
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A double-balanced, low-power, and low-voltage dual-gate up-conversion mixer working at K-band is designed and fabricated in the UMC 130-nm logic CMOS process. The mixer achieves a 3-dB conversion-gain bandwidth of 1.8 GHz at the input IF port and a 3-dB conversion-gain bandwidth of 10 GHz at the output RF port. The mixer achieves an output referred 1-dB compression point as high as -5.8 dBm and an output referred third-order intercept point as high as 5.8 dBm, while consuming 8.0 mW from a 1.2-V supply. This study demonstrates that the implementation of low-power mixers operating in the 22-29-GHz band for ultra-wideband automotive radar applications is possible in low-cost and low-voltage logic CMOS technology View full abstract»

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  • On the effects of memoryless nonlinearities on M-QAM and DQPSK OFDM signals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3301 - 3315
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (875 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the design of RF up-conversion and down-conversion communication links, an issue of special interest is presented by the nonlinear characteristic of analog devices. In this paper, we deal with the effect of memoryless nonlinear distortion on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transceivers. We tackle the issue of calculation of the number of intermodulation products with methods from combinatorics theory and derive closed-form expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We deal with third-order nonlinearities alone though the methodology used can be extended to cover higher order nonlinear phenomena. We then proceed to deriving SNR expressions in the presence of a high adjacent channel of the same service and predict the generation of in-band tonal interference. Finally, we generalize to the case of a multichannel OFDM transceiver. In each case, bit-error-rate estimations for differential quadrature phase-shift keying and symbol-error-rate estimations for M-quadrature amplitude-modulation constellations are presented and a mapping between circuit characteristics and OFDM performance is outlined View full abstract»

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  • High-order Runge-Kutta multiresolution time-domain methods for computational electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3316 - 3326
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we introduce a class of Runge-Kutta multiresolution time-domain (RK-MRTD) methods for problems of electromagnetic wave propagation that can attain an arbitrarily high order of convergence in both space and time. The methods capitalize on the high-order nature of spatial multiresolution approximations by incorporating time integrators with convergence properties that are commensurate with these. More precisely, the classical MRTD approach is adapted here to incorporate mth-order m-stage low-storage Runge-Kutta methods for the time integration. As we show, if compactly supported wavelets of order N are used (e.g., the Daubechies DN functions) and m=N, then the RK-MRTD methods deliver solutions that converge with this overall order; a variety of examples illustrate these properties. Moreover, we further show that the resulting algorithms are well suited to parallel implementations, as we present results that demonstrate their near-optimal scaling View full abstract»

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  • Design of a dual-band bandpass filter with low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3327 - 3332
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel dual-band bandpass filter with low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology is proposed in this paper. By adopting the structure of an asymmetrical short-circuit coupled line, two open-stub lines, and two reactances, the transmission zeros, which increase the degree of isolation between the passbands, will easily appear at the higher side of two passband's skirts. The analysis of theorem and the procedure of design are described. The measurements of fabricated units match well with the electromagnetic simulation results, which is an evidence of the feasibility of the proposed filter configuration View full abstract»

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  • Design of multiple-stopband filters for interference suppression in UWB applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3333 - 3338
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A design of multiple-stopband filters is presented for the suppression of interfering signals in UWB applications. Since possible interferers can be located at fixed frequencies or within a defined frequency band, the design of both fixed and tunable narrow stopband filter sections is addressed. For multiple fixed stopband filters, bent resonators, coupled to the main line, are introduced in order to more effectively suppress harmonics. A new tunable tapped stopband section is proposed, which allows the simultaneous control of stopband frequency and bandwidth. The final multiple-stopband design combines fixed and tunable sections and simultaneously suppresses interferences from global system for mobile communication, wireless local area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, and industrial-scientific-medical applications. Measurements verify the design process View full abstract»

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  • Adjoint higher order sensitivities for fast full-wave optimization of microwave filters

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3339 - 3351
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the first time, full-wave optimization exploiting adjoint Hessian matrices is applied to the design of microwave filters and transitions. The first- and second-order sensitivities of the scattering parameters are computed analytically using the adjoint network method (ANM). The mode-matching-based ANM is applied to the generalized scattering matrices of the different filter/transition components. Analytical gradient and Hessian matrices of differentiable objective functions are expressed in terms of the first- and second-order response adjoint sensitivities. Optimization techniques exploiting second-order information such as the Levenberg-Marquardt method are applied using the adjoint first- and second-order information. Significant acceleration is achieved using these techniques over gradient-based optimization techniques such as the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method. The adjoint-based sensitivities are also exploited in efficient tolerance analysis of microwave filters View full abstract»

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  • Broadband quasi-Chebyshev bandpass filters with multimode stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3352 - 3358
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planar broadband bandpass filters of order up to 9 are synthesized based on the multimode property of stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs). Based on the transmission line theory, the modal frequencies of the SIRs are calculated based on the impedance and length ratios of its hi- and low-Z segments. In the synthesis, the SIR coupling schemes are determined by the split mode graphs. Using one, two, two, three, and three dual- or triple-mode SIRs, quasi-Chebyshev filters with four, six, six, eight, and nine transmission poles, respectively, are synthesized with a fractional bandwidth (BW) Delta=50%. Emphasis is placed not only on designing the I/O coupling structures for matching the external Q (Qext) and the circuit BW, but also on matching the resonant peaks of the circuit with the nominal Chebyshev poles. Measured results of experimental circuits show good agreement with simulated responses View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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