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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 2181
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Broadband dielectric resonator antennas excited by L-shaped probe

    Page(s): 2182 - 2189
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (933 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) designed for broadband applications and excited by L-shaped probe are presented. The L-probe is housed under an air-filled groove between the DRA and the ground plane. A 32% matching bandwidth (S11<-10 dB) is achieved with broadside radiation patterns. The new structure is constructed from the same dielectric materials. Thus, it is mechanically better than other wideband DRAs that consist of more than one dielectric material such as the stacked DRA. Some results are verified experimentally. The performance of this DRA and those fed by traditional probes and slots are investigated numerically. In addition, comparisons between L-probe excited DRAs and L-probe excited microstrip patch antennas are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Package-level integrated antennas based on LTCC technology

    Page(s): 2190 - 2197
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel package topology integrating multilayer miniaturized antennas. Such a functional package is suitable for the design of a system-on-chip device, or of system-on-package applications. A stacked patch antenna is designed and integrated in a package using a low temperature co-fired ceramic process. The overall size of the package is 10.3times10.3times1.3 mm3, and this package contains an 8.3times8.3times0.7 mm3 internal space for the integration of chip-scale packaged components. The package is mounted on a 20times20 mm2 ground plane to miniaturize the volume of the system. The antenna is designed to have two neighboring resonant frequencies at 5.264 and 5.355 GHz, resulting in a 140 MHz impedance bandwidth. However, the measured resonant frequencies occur at slightly higher frequencies due to manufacturing tolerances. Radiation patterns are similar to a conventional patch antenna. In addition, various parasitic effects rooted in the package size, ground size, antenna height, SMA connector, via misalignment, and the number of via holes and their locations are fully investigated View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating near-field radiation patterns of commercial antennas

    Page(s): 2198 - 2207
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    A source reconstruction technique from the measured near fields is proposed to obtain a set of equivalent currents that will characterize the forward and backward radiation patterns of an antenna. Once the equivalent sources are determined, the electromagnetic field at any aspect angle and distance from the antenna can be calculated. In this paper, the method is applied to the evaluation of the radiation from commercial antennas at any observation point. The electric field patterns of a DCS base station antenna at 1800 MHz and a horn antenna at 2500 MHz have been calculated and plotted at several distances from the antenna. This method can be used in characterizing the "reference volumes" or exclusion zones for transmitting antennas dealing with the maximum levels of electromagnetic radiation safe for human exposure, as stated in many national and international regulations View full abstract»

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  • Effect of antenna gain and group delay variations on pulse-preserving capabilities of ultrawideband antennas

    Page(s): 2208 - 2215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulse-preserving capabilities of ultrawideband (UWB) antennas, which are measured in terms of two parameters-the fidelity factor and the pulse width stretch ratio, are analyzed with respect to variations of the antenna gain and the group delay of the radiated field. With the degrees of the gain and the group delay variations quantified by their respective standard deviations from constant values, Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the effect of different gain and group delay functions using randomly generated Gaussian profiles. The means and the standard variations of the two performance parameter distributions are monitored and their two-dimensional profiles are specifically obtained for UWB antennas operating in 3.1-10.6 GHz. The analysis also demonstrates the use of the fidelity factor and the pulse width stretch ratio as useful characterizing parameters for UWB antennas View full abstract»

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  • Novel method of UWB antenna optimization for specified input signal forms by means of genetic algorithm

    Page(s): 2216 - 2225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel optimization procedure for the design of antennas for ultrawideband (UWB) wireless communication systems is presented. The optimization is based on the time-domain characteristics of the antenna. The optimization procedure was applied to a simplified version of the volcano smoke antenna proposed by Kraus. However, any other type of UWB antenna can be treated with the same technique. Our optimization procedure aims at finding an antenna not only with low VSWR but also a low-dispersion one which will ensure high correlation between the time-domain transmitting antenna input signal and the receiving antenna output signal. In pulse communications systems, usually an input signal form suited to a particular purpose is used. Hence, we strive to design the best antenna for a given input signal form. The optimization technique adopted here makes use of genetic algorithm (GA) search concepts. The electromagnetic analysis of the antenna is done by means of a finite-difference time-domain method using the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software View full abstract»

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  • A bandwidth enhancement technique for mobile handset antennas using wavetraps

    Page(s): 2226 - 2233
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel technique for enhancing the impedance bandwidth of wireless terminal antennas is presented. By introducing resonant short circuit transmission lines to the long sides of the chassis edges, an effective electrical shortening of the terminal ground plane is achieved. This effect has been used to realize terminal ground planes with resonant lengths at high frequencies, such as GSM 1800/1900 MHz or UMTS 2 GHz, thereby extending the impedance bandwidth. The proposed technique has been validated by simulations and measurements. Three typical applications are presented where the introduction of wavetraps improves the bandwidth and/or in-band performance View full abstract»

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  • Effects of cavities on monopole antenna current distribution and decoupling from mounting structure

    Page(s): 2234 - 2243
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    The effects of cavities located near the base of a ground plane-mounted coax-driven monopole antenna are investigated. The cavities are either embedded in the tubular antenna itself or in the region below the conducting surface. Coupled integral equations are formulated and solved to determine the distribution of current on the structure. Two primary functions of the cavities are discussed. 1) At certain frequencies the input impedance of the cavity is infinite and the current at the base of the antenna is forced to zero. A single structure may contain several cavities, each cavity having unique resonant frequencies. It is demonstrated that superposition of these cavities may provide multiple resonant frequencies within a large frequency band. The utility of base cavities in the design of an antenna that is decoupled from the ground plane on which it is mounted is discussed. 2) Regardless of frequency, the cavities affect the distribution of current on the structure and, concomitantly, the standing wave ratio and gain of the antenna. The cavities are shown to be efficient and physically-rigid tools for current-shaping and tuning coax-fed antennas. Results computed from solutions of the coupled integral equations are compared with those from physical measurements View full abstract»

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  • Array guided surface waves on a finite planar array of dipoles with or without a grounded substrate

    Page(s): 2244 - 2252
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    The existence of array guided surface waves (AGSWs) on partially finite (finite times infinite) array of dipoles in air have been demonstrated earlier; the work in this paper extends this study to fully finite (finite times finite) planar arrays both in air and on a grounded material slab of infinite extent. Effects of AGSWs on scattering characteristics are examined and a ray interpretation is provided for the edge/corner excitation of AGSWs and conventional substrate surface waves View full abstract»

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  • Sidelobe level and wideband behavior of arrays of random subarrays

    Page(s): 2253 - 2262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an extension to the concept of random antenna arrays. Three new array geometries are introduced which are intended to incorporate the wide bandwidth capability of a random array while having simplified geometry to increase their suitability for lower-cost applications. The behaviors of the periodic array of random subarrays, array of periodically rotated random subarrays, and array of randomly rotated random subarrays are each characterized probabilistically. Results indicate that subarray rotation can lower the sidelobe level of the array factor. An example of the design process is presented with calculated array factors View full abstract»

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  • Linear array of woodpile EBG sectoral horn antennas

    Page(s): 2263 - 2274
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    A technique is described for creating linear array antennas that conform to the natural stacking sequence of the woodpile electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) material. Each element in the linear array consists of a woodpile EBG sectoral horn antenna. The electromagnetic confinement mechanism within each horn antenna relies wholly on the 3-D EBG of the woodpile material. The array element has a typical sectoral horn pattern with a directional beam in one principal plane and a broader beam in the other. The bandwidth of the sectoral horn is almost equal to that of the defect EBG waveguide. Measured and theoretical results for radiation patterns, impedance bandwidth and gain of a sectoral horn antenna made from alumina are described, and theoretical results for a design made from silicon are presented. It is shown that the layer-by-layer nature of the woodpile EBG material enables sectoral horn antennas to be easily stacked together in the E-plane to create linear arrays. Analysis of the mutual coupling as a function of element separation and its effect on reflection coefficient are presented for a two-element linear array in silicon. Theoretical analyses for fixed and scanned beam linear arrays of silicon woodpile EBG sectoral horns are described and finite-difference time-domain results are compared with array theory. The fixed beam arrays are designed for high directivity while the scanned beam array enables wide angle beam steering through the use of parasitic array elements View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of dispersion in dipole-FSS loaded hard rectangular waveguide

    Page(s): 2275 - 2282
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the properties of the dipole frequency selective surfaces-loaded rectangular waveguide. The analysis is carried out by using the method of moments together with an algorithm that solves for a multilayer structure in the spectral domain. The eigenmodes are determined by searching for resonant solutions. Dispersion diagrams obtained from this approach are compared with those generated by commercial software simulations. Experimental validation is also performed View full abstract»

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  • Composite right/left-handed transmission line based compact resonant antennas for RF module integration

    Page(s): 2283 - 2291
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1061 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several electrically small resonant antennas employing the composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) are presented for integration with portable RF modules. The proposed antenna designs are based on the unique property of anti-parallel phase and group velocity of the CRLH-TL at its fundamental mode. In this mode, the propagation constant increases as the frequency decreases, therefore, a small guided wavelength can be obtained at a lower frequency to provide the small lambdag/2 resonant length used to realize a compact antenna design. Furthermore, the physical size and the operational frequency of the antenna depend on the unit cell size and the equivalent transmission line model parameters of the CRLH-TL, including series inductance, series capacitance, shunt inductance and shunt capacitance. Optimization of these parameters as well as miniaturization techniques of the physical size of unit cell is investigated. A four unit-cell resonant antenna is designed and tested at 1.06 GHz. The length, width and height of the proposed antenna are 1/19lambda0, 1/23lambda0 and 1/83lambda0, respectively. In addition, a compact antenna using a 2-D three by three mushroom like unit cell arrangement is developed at 1.17 GHz, showing that an increased gain of 0.6 dB and higher radiation efficiency can be achieved over the first prototype antenna. The same design is applied in the development of a circularly polarized antenna operating at 2.46 GHz. A 116deg beamwidth with axial ratio better than 3 dB is observed. The physical size of the proposed mushroom type small antenna and the circularly polarized antenna is 1/14lambda0 by 1/14lambda0 by 1/39lambda0 and 1/10lambda0 by 1/10lambda 0 by 1/36lambda0, respectively View full abstract»

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  • High-gain active composite right/left-handed leaky-wave antenna

    Page(s): 2292 - 2300
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel high-gain active composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial leaky-wave antenna (LWA) is presented. This antenna, which is designed to operate at broadside, is constituted by passive CRLH leaky-wave sections interconnected by amplifiers, which regenerate the power progressively leaked out of the structure in the radiation process in order to increase the effective aperture of the antenna and thereby its gain. The gain is further enhanced by a matching regeneration effect induced by the quasi-unilateral nature of the amplifiers. Both the cases of quasi-uniform and binomial field distributions, corresponding to maximum directivity and minimum side-lobe level, respectively, have been described. An active LWA prototype is demonstrated in transmission mode with a gain enhancement of 8.9 dB compared to its passive counterpart. The proposed antenna can attain an arbitrarily high gain by simple increase of the length of the structure, without penalty in terms of return loss and without requiring a complicated feeding network like conventional array antennas View full abstract»

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  • Exact geometrical optics scattering by a right-angle wedge made of double-negative material

    Page(s): 2301 - 2304
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    The scattering of a plane wave incident upon a right-angle wedge made of a metamaterial whose permittivity and permeability are the opposites of those of the space surrounding the wedge is considered. It is shown that geometrical optics yields the exact solution to this scattering problem, for a certain range of angles of incidence and arbitrary polarization View full abstract»

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  • Full time-domain DORT for ultrawideband electromagnetic fields in dispersive, random inhomogeneous media

    Page(s): 2305 - 2315
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    We investigate the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT under its French language acronym) method applied to ultrawideband electromagnetic pulses propagating in dispersive and (continuous) inhomogeneous random media where volumetric scattering effects are important. We analyze the effects of random medium statistics on the time-reversal operator (TRO) eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and on subsequent selective focusing performance. We develop and employ a full time-domain DORT by tracking the excitation eigenvectors from a singular value decomposition of the TRO over the entire bandwidth of operation. We also study effects of frequency dispersion and conduction losses on the TRO and consider dispersion/loss compensation techniques to improve DORT operation in those cases View full abstract»

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  • Dispersion properties and applications of the Coifman scaling function based S-MRTD

    Page(s): 2316 - 2325
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    We illustrate some salient dispersion properties of the Coifman scaling function based multiresolution time domain (MRTD) technique (Coifman S-MRTD) and discuss its applicability to modeling problems of interest in microwave and wireless communication engineering. Having been recently introduced, this method presents advantages similar to those of the Daubechies-based MRTD, namely highly linear numerical dispersion and finite support of the basis functions involved. It is additionally shown that inherent accuracy-computational complexity trade-offs related to with its dispersion properties can be utilized to accelerate its execution, without compromising its accuracy. Since the Coifman basis function is non-symmetric, the modeling of perfect electric conducting boundaries cannot be pursued via the image theory approach presented in the past. Therefore, a modified approach, along with its computationally efficient implementation, is proposed and validated. Several case studies and comparisons with the conventional finite-difference time-domain method demonstrate the usefulness of Coifman S-MRTD as a time-domain analysis and design tool View full abstract»

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  • An efficient full-wave method of moments analysis for RLSA antennas

    Page(s): 2326 - 2336
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Here a computationally efficient method of moments (MoM) formulation is presented for the full-wave analysis and design of radial line slot antennas (RLSAs). The method efficiency is based on an ad-hoc representation of the internal problem (electrically large circular cavity) Green's function, which is split into the sum of a parallel plate waveguide contribution and a rim effect contribution, expanded in terms of radial modes. The convergence rate of the proposed Green's function expansion is investigated both analytically and numerically with the aid of some examples. Furthermore, comparisons with a commercial general purpose MoM software were performed on a complete RLSA to demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach View full abstract»

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  • Boundary integrodifferential equations for electromagnetic scattering problems in three dimensions

    Page(s): 2337 - 2344
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On the basis of two vector representations of electromagnetic fields we introduce a new system of boundary integrodifferential equations for the solution of scattering problems in three dimensions. The unknowns of this system present two scalar functions, namely, the "null" coefficients of Atkinson-Wilcox expansion; electromagnetic field being reconstructed with these functions by means of certain recursive-differential operators. We define an algebraic analog of the equations by expanding unknowns into Fourier series with respect to spherical harmonics. Verification of the approach is done on the basis of the solution of well-known canonical problems View full abstract»

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  • Spatial and temporal distribution of the VHF/UHF radio waves in built-up land communication links

    Page(s): 2345 - 2356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a unified approach of the description of the spatial and temporal distribution of radio signals within built-up radio communication links. This approach is based on a multiparametric stochastic model, which takes into account the characteristic features of built-up terrain and peculiarities of radio wave propagation related with multiple reflections, diffraction and scattering phenomena caused by obstructions surrounding both terminal antennas, the receiver and the transmitter. To describe fast fading phenomena, we propose a new general distribution of signal strength fast fading, which successfully covers the Ricean distribution in line-of-sight (LOS) and quasi-LOS conditions and the Rayleigh distribution in no line-of-sight multipath conditions usually used for description of land communication links. This new distribution leads to a multiparametric stochastic model. Based on this model, we present a strict estimation of scales of slow and fast fading and present the corresponding correlation functions in space and time domains, which describe slow and fast signal fluctuations. Finally, the power distribution in the angle-of-arrival (azimuth) domain, following the proposed stochastic approach, is considered and analyzed, both for uplink and downlink mobile communication channels View full abstract»

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  • Annual and diurnal slant path rain attenuation statistics in Athens obtained with the synthetic storm technique

    Page(s): 2357 - 2364
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present annual/seasonal rainfall rate statistics derived from a 29-month data bank of 1 sample/min, measured by a disdrometer located inside the National Technical University of Athens Campus. We discuss both the inaccuracy and the unavailability of the measuring equipment, as well as the statistical reliability of the rainfall rate sample. Additionally, after applying the Synthetic Storm Technique on the measured rainfall rate time series, we present the first long term simulated annual/seasonal and diurnal rain attenuation statistics, at 12 GHz for a hypothetical downlink from Hellas Sat 2 to Athens. According to the results, we predict that communication downlinks working in the afternoon and early evening hours must be given an extra power margin, to compensate for high rain attenuation View full abstract»

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  • Diversity systems comparison of satellite visibility improvement for designing mobile broadcasting satellite system

    Page(s): 2365 - 2370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the experimental comparison of two diversity systems, namely, satellite diversity (Sat. D) and time-delayed diversity (TDD), in order to design a digital mobile broadcast satellite system (MBSS) using a geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) satellite. In order to design the digital MBSS using the GSO satellite, the attenuation characteristics due to urban buildings, trees, etc., must be studied. The measurements of the characteristics of diversity systems were carried out using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals with a limited elevation angle. By processing the measured data, the satellite visibility characteristics can be improved for the Sat. D and TDD systems. By using the Sat. D system, about 90% satellite visibility can be achieved in Sapporo and Asahikawa cities. Furthermore, the averaged satellite visibility can be improved by a factor of almost two by using the TDD system for the GSO satellite with a delay time of about 3~6 min. An example of the TDD system application for a quasi-zenith satellite system is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction

    Page(s): 2371 - 2380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1845 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For non-linear inverse scattering problems utilizing Gauss-Newton methods, the Jacobian matrix encodes rich information concerning the system performance and algorithm efficiency. In this paper, we perform an analytical evaluation of a single-iteration Jacobian matrix based on a previously derived nodal adjoint representation. Concepts for studying linear ill-posed problems, such as the degree-of-ill-posedness, are used to assess the impact of important system parameters on the expected image quality. Analytical singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix for a circular imaging domain is derived along with the numerical SVD for optimizing imaging system configurations. The results show significant reductions in the degree-of-ill-posedness when signal frequency, antenna array density and property parameter sampling are increased. Specifically, the decay rate in the singular spectrum of the Jacobian decreases monotonically with signal frequency being approximately 1/3 of its 0.1 GHz value at 3 GHz, is improved with antenna array density up to about 35 equally-spaced circumferentially positioned elements and drops significantly with increased property parameter sampling to more than twice the amount of measurement data. These results should serve as useful guidelines in the development of design specifications for an optimized hardware installation View full abstract»

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  • Fast and accurate algorithm for electromagnetic scattering from 1-D dielectric ocean surfaces

    Page(s): 2381 - 2391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast and accurate multigrid (MG) algorithm is presented for the direct method-of-moments (MoM) numerical simulation of radar scattering from large-scale one-dimensional (1-D) dielectric randomly rough surfaces. The proposed MG algorithm combines the desirable features of the generalized conjugate residual preconditioned iterative procedure and a parallel implementation of the spectral acceleration scheme proposed by Chou and Johnson. In addition, the paper proposes effective preconditioning schemes designed to further enhance the numerical efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The accelerated MG algorithm was benchmarked against the exact MG solution for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm facilitates scattering calculations from electrically large surfaces. Hence, the algorithm was used to assess the performance of an approximate physical-optics scattering model used for ocean forward scattering simulations at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). The validations are performed at X-band and W-band frequencies View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung