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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 56
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Introduction to the Issue on Optical Communications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 467 - 468
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  • Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 469 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the progress of optical communication systems, and especially the constraints brought by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmissions and increased bit rates, new ways to convert the binary data signal on the optical carrier have been proposed. It appears clearly now that several of the methods proposed by research laboratories will be applied into commercial products soon due to the large improvements generated. This paper intends to summarize some of the most interesting proposed modulation formats for high bit rate (especially 40 Gb/s) WDM transmissions View full abstract»

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  • High-capacity undersea long-haul systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 484 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews technologies and techniques that have been used in deployed long-haul wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems and emerging technologies that could be used for the next generation of cost-reduced systems. The overview of current generation technologies starts with a discussion of modulation formats, focusing on the superior properties of the chirped return to zero on-off shift keying (CRZ-OOK) modulation format. The use of 10-Gb/s CRZ-OOK modulation format together with advanced fiber types, more powerful forward error correction (FEC), and broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifiers resulted in the deployment of dense WDM systems with capacities per fiber in terabits per second range and trans-Pacific reach. Demand for the systems with large design capacity led to further development of broadband optical amplifiers. Laboratory demonstrations successfully expanded transmission into the full C-band and later in the C and L transmission bands. The current market conditions dictate the need for reducing the first cost of an installed system rather than reaching record capacity per fiber. Reducing first cost can be achieved by reducing the amount of optical amplifiers in the cable by utilizing an excess performance margin provided by available RZ-OOK technology. Further improvements would be possible if more powerful FEC and modulation formats with better receiver sensitivity are used. For example, the RZ differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation format with 3-dB better receiver sensitivity and better nonlinear tolerance to large amounts of accumulated dispersion is a very promising technology. This paper will review long-haul transmission results using RZ-DPSK and will compare the transmission properties of RZ-DPSK signals versus RZ-OOK signals. Due to superior receiver sensitivity, the RZ-DPSK modulation format can be an enabling technology for 40-Gb/s per channel transoceanic transmission View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of nonstationary return-to-zero pulses in dispersion-managed systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 497 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)  

    We describe an analytical framework for return-to-zero (RZ) propagation in dispersion-managed fiber systems. The pulses may generally not follow the same periodicity as that of the dispersion map (i.e., nonstationary evolution), which can complicate the design and monitoring of such systems. We show that a phase-plane representation of pulses is useful in identifying as well as predicting the salient features of this multiscale and nonlinear evolutionary behavior. Numerical calculations of RZ pulse-train propagation over 4000 km are carried out to demonstrate the correspondence of theory and simulation View full abstract»

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  • Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 505 - 520
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we review the recent progress in transmission experiments by employing optical phase conjugation (OPC) for the compensation of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear impairments. OPC is realized with difference frequency generation (DFG) in a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) waveguide, for transparent wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) operation with high conversion efficiency. We discuss extensively the principle behind optical phase conjugation and the realization of a polarization independent OPC subsystem. Using OPC for chromatic dispersion compensation WDM 40-Gb/s long-haul transmission is described. As well, transmission employing both mixed data rates and mixed modulation formats is discussed. No significant nonlinear impairments are observed from the nonperiodic dispersion map used in these experiments. The compensation of intrachannel nonlinear impairments by OPC is described for WDM carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) transmission. In this experiment, a 50% increase in transmission reach is obtained by adding an OPC unit to a transmission line using dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) for dispersion compensation. Furthermore, the compensation of impairments due to nonlinear phase noise is reviewed. An in-depth analysis is conducted on what performance improvement is to be expected for various OPC configurations and a proof-of-principle experiment is described showing over 4-dB improvement in Q-factor due to compensation of nonlinear impairments resulting from nonlinear phase noise. Finally, an ultralong-haul WDM transmission of 22times20-Gb/s return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) is discussed showing that OPC can compensate for chromatic dispersion, as well as self-phase modulation (SPM) induced nonlinear impairments, such as nonlinear phase noise. Compared to a "conventional" transmission link using DCF for dispersion compensation, a 44% increase in transmission reach is obtained when OPC is emplo- - yed. In this experiment, we show the feasibility of using only one polarization-independent PPLN subsystem to compensate for an accumulated chromatic dispersion of over 160 000 ps/nm View full abstract»

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  • Low-Crosstalk 103 Channel ,\times, 10 Gb/s (1.03 Tb/s) Wavelength Conversion With a Quasi-Phase-Matched LiNbO _3 Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 521 - 528
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  

    We propose a low-crosstalk multichannel wavelength conversion scheme based on a parametric process. Simultaneous wavelength conversion of 25 GHz spaced 103 channeltimes10 Gb/s (1.03 Tb/s) wavelength-division multiplexing signals with an 8- and 4-nm guard band is successfully demonstrated by using a quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguide. The method is evaluated both theoretically and experimentally View full abstract»

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  • Field demonstration of up to 640 gb/s (64 ch/spl times/10 gb/s) GWP switching networks with a QPM-LN wavelength converter in JGN II test bed

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 529 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    The first field experiment of virtual grouped-wavelength-path switching is successfully demonstrated by using polarization-independent multichannel wavelength conversion in a quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguide and an 8times8 matrix switch. Contention resolution functionality is confirmed by using wavebands composed of 25GHz spaced, 8- or 64-ch, 10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing signals, transmitted through field-installed fibers in Japan Gigabit Network II optical test bed View full abstract»

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  • Noise figure of parametric wavelength conversion with quasi-phase-matched LiNbO/sub 3/ waveguide

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 536 - 543
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB)  

    An analytical model of the noise accumulation in a chain of parametric wavelength converters is proposed. Signal-to-noise electrical power ratio is analytically given as a function of node number k in a chained transparent node system that consists of optical amplifiers, parametric wavelength converters, and several loss elements including optical transmission fiber with parameters of pump light excess noise betap, and average photon numbers per unit time of pump light and input signal langnprang, and langn0rang, respectively, and spontaneous emission factor of optical amplifier nsp. The signal-to-noise degrades inversely proportional to node number k with the coefficient defined by NF(1)=2nsp+betaplangn0 rang/langnprang when k is lower than langn0rang/Bo, where Bo represents optical bandwidth. The noise figure dependence on pump light quality betap/langnprang and average photon number of input light langn0rang in a single stage configuration are experimentally evaluated using Er-doped fiber amplifiers and quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate waveguide parametric wavelength conversion View full abstract»

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  • Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 544 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent progress in forward error correction (FEC) for optical communications is reviewed. The various types of FEC are classified as belonging to one of three generations. A third-generation FEC, based on a block turbo code, has been fully integrated in very large scale integration, and thanks to the use of 3-bit soft decision, a net coding gain of 10.1 dB was demonstrated experimentally. That has brought a number of positive impacts to existing systems. The Shannon limit is discussed for hard and soft decision decoding. The interplay between FEC and error bursts is discussed. Fast polarization scrambling with FEC has been effective in mitigating polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The error count function has proved useful for the adaptive equalization of both chromatic dispersion and PMD View full abstract»

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  • Low-density parity-check codes for 40-gb/s optical transmission systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 555 - 562
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we compare performance of three classes of forward error correction schemes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission systems. The first class is based on the concatenation of Reed-Solomon codes and this is employed in the state-of-the-art fiber-optics communication systems. The second class is the turbo product codes with Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghen component codes. The application of these codes in optical communication systems was extensively studied by Sab and Lemarie, and Mizuochi The third class is the low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that have attracted much attention over the past decade. We present enhanced decoding algorithms for Turbo product codes and LDPC codes that use probability density function of output sequences instead of calculating initial likelihood ratios assuming (inaccurate) Gaussian or chi-square approximation. The analysis in this paper shows that the LDPC codes perform better than the other codes in the waterfall region at bit error rates as low as 10-9. We also presented error floors results obtained by analyzing decoding failures of hard-decision iterative decoders View full abstract»

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  • Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 563 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a phase-diversity homodyne receiver that which can cope with multilevel modulation formats. The carrier phase drift is estimated with digital signal processing (DSP) on the homodyne-detected signal, entirely restoring the complex amplitude of the incoming signal. Our DSP-based phase-estimation scheme consists of a simple and demultiplexable architecture that allows the system to reach significantly higher performance than conventional optical delay detection. Since the whole optical signal information is preserved with our receiver, various kinds of postprocessing of the received signal become possible. For example, we can demultiplex wavelength-division/optical time-division multiplexed channels and compensate for group velocity dispersion of fibers as well as the nonlinear phase noise in the electrical domain. We also experimentally evaluate the performance of our receiver. Our offline bit-error rate experiments show the feasibility of transmitting polarization-multiplexed 40-Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying signals over 200 km with channel spacing of 16 GHz, leading to spectral efficiency of 2.5 b/s/Hz View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 571 - 580
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)  

    Sensitivities of several direct-detection multilevel modulation formats, including M-ary differential phase-shift keying (M-DPSK), M-ary differential amplitude-phase-shift keying (M-DAPSK), and M-ary differential polarization-phase-shift keying (M-DPolPSK) are systematically calculated. The theory is based on a unified mathematical framework for direct-detection receivers using optical delay interferometers and balanced detectors. Results quantitatively elucidate the tradeoffs between these direct-detection multilevel modulation formats as well as the classic multilevel modulation format, M-ary amplitude-shift keying (M-ASK). Although the conventional bit error rate estimation method based on the eye Q-factor with Gaussian approximation is not accurate enough for DPSK and DQPSK, it is found to be reasonably accurate for M-DPSK with M>8 and in M-DPolPSK View full abstract»

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  • Optical DPASK and DQPSK: a comparative analysis for linear and nonlinear transmission

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 581 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB)  

    The performance of two multilevel modulation formats, differential-phase-amplitude shift-keying (DPASK) and differential quadrature-phase-shift keying (DQPSK), is compared for linear and nonlinear channels. For DPASK, the optimal extinction ratio is derived for both linear and nonlinear transmission. It is shown that for single-channel transmission, DQPSK outperforms DPASK in linear channels, whereas DPASK achieves better performance when nonlinear impairments are present View full abstract»

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  • Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying with external modulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 589 - 595
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-speed external modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) is presented. In external frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation using single-sideband modulation technology, an optical upper/lower sideband (USB/LSB) component with respect to a carrier frequency is selectively generated. However, the FSK-modulated signal has phase discontinuities at the timings of frequency shifts. To overcome the problem, we propose a synchronous control technique that enables continuous phase modulation. In the external CPFSK modulation, the USB/LSB is allowed to shift to the other state when their phases coincide with each other. It is shown that CPFSK with a zero-to-peak frequency deviation of 0.5times(bit rate) is achieved with this synchronous control. Occupant bandwidth is less than half that of the externally modulated incoherent FSK with phase discontinuities. At a modulation speed of 10 Gb/s, higher order sidelobes are highly suppressed by more than 20 dB at the 20-GHz offset, comparing to a conventional binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). By the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with balanced photodetection, receiver sensitivity is 3-dB greater than that of an on-off keying, as well as a BPSK. In this paper, we report on the experimental demonstration of CPFSK modulation/demodulation. A six-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed, 10-Gb/s CPFSK modulation/demodulation was successfully demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Performance of 20 Gb/s quaternary intensity modulation based on binary or duobinary modulation in two quadratures with unequal amplitudes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 596 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    2times10 Gb/s quaternary intensity modulation signals (4-IM) can be generated by combining two modulation signals with unequal amplitudes in quadrature phases or orthogonal polarizations. Two 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) amplitude-shift keying (ASK) signals and a quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulator allow to generate 4-IM with the same bandwidth as an NRZ-ASK signal (QASK). Measured sensitivity at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 and chromatic dispersion (CD) tolerance are -21.6 dBm and ~+130 ps/nm, respectively. Two duobinary 10-Gb/s data streams and a QPSK modulator allow to generate a 9-constellation point quaternary intensity signal (QDB), with the same bandwidth as a duobinary signal. A stub filter with frequency response dip at 5 GHz was used to generate the duobinary signals. Detected as a 4-IM, this scheme features a sensitivity and a CD tolerance of -21.2 dBm and ~+140 ps/nm, respectively. By combining the two duobinary 10-Gb/s data streams with unequal amplitudes in orthogonal polarizations, a 9-constellation point quaternary intensity signal was also obtained (QPolDB). Sensitivity and CD tolerance were -20.5 dBm and ~+340 ps/nm, respectively. They became -18.4 dBm and ~+530 ps/nm, respectively, when the frequency response dip of the stub filter was changed to 6 GHz. A polarization and phase-insensitive direct detection receiver with a single photodiode has been used to detect all generated quaternary signals as 4-IM signals View full abstract»

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  • On the use of electrical precompensation of dispersion in optical single-sideband transmission systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 603 - 614
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB)  

    The use of electrical predistortion in optical single-sideband (OSSB) transmission systems is proposed to extend the tolerance to fiber dispersion impairment. Due to the spectral properties of OSSB signals, a simple electrical dispersive line can be used to mitigate the fiber dispersion, reducing the complexity of electrical predistortion methods proposed recently for optical modulations other than OSSB. Carrier-suppressed and carrier-unsuppressed optical modulations can be compensated by such technique, extending the range compared to previously reported works on fiber dispersion mitigation after direct detection using OSSB signals, where only carrier-unsuppressed modulations can be effectively compensated. The use of electrical precompensation is investigated for three signaling formats: Nonreturn to zero, return to zero, and alternate mark inversion (AMI). Due to distortion occurring in the sideband suppression process, signaling formats with reduced duty cycles present improved performance as a consequence of enhanced tolerance to intersymbol interference. Using such formats with electrical predistortion, the reach limitation arises not from fiber dispersion but from nonlinear impairments and optical noise accumulation. Using AMI and ideal electrical predistortion, distances greater than 1200 km of standard single mode fiber are achieved at 10 Gb/s with bit error ratio (BER) lower than 10-12 , without using optical dispersion compensation. Introducing accurate models for the electrical dispersive lines, the transmission distance is reduced to 720 km for BER lower than 10-12 View full abstract»

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  • Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 615 - 626
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in optical technology now allow practical reconfigurable wavelength networks to be constructed. These networks use wavelength-switching components to dynamically route wavelengths, and provide a level of flexibility and scalability previously not possible. Other components such as low-noise optical amplifiers, electronic dispersion compensators, and advanced modulation techniques simplify system operation, increase capacity, and extend reach. From an application perspective, the architecture of optical transport networks is evolving based on the requirement to support a higher bandwidth access infrastructure. The network architecture also needs to provide the flexibility to incrementally expand on the basis of customer demand and to provide key features such as optical broadcast to lower the cost of video services. The development of new architectures for optical transport networks and how these networks are influenced by critical system parameters and emerging component technologies is reviewed View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the complexity of mesh nodes by using reflective wavelength-selective switches

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 627 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB)  

    We show that if one applies the constraint of symmetric demands in a network, then one can significantly simplify the wavelength-switching hardware at mesh nodes. We show designs for nodes of degree-3 through -6. All required components are commercially available. We experimentally demonstrate two designs View full abstract»

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  • The INIM system: in-service non-intrusive monitoring for QoS-enabled transparent WDM

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 635 - 644
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and experimental implementation of an in-service performance monitoring system that uses a combination of non-intrusive spectral optical performance monitoring and Internet protocol (IP) metrics and is based on a low-complexity, distributed architecture. Apart from guaranteeing QoS in real time (less than 1 s) in an IP/wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) dynamic network, the system provides link-state information for impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment. Another novel aspect is the nature of the service level agreements proposed, which are "all-optical" (transparent). Performance delays of the system are evaluated in a real test bed featuring dense WDM and transparent optical add-drop multiplexers. Strategies to estimate link-state parameters from real-time monitoring information are also proposed View full abstract»

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  • Prebooking reservation mechanism for next-generation optical networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 645 - 652
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)  

    In future wavelength-division multiplexed networks, wavelength resources are efficiently utilized by statistical multiplexing and dynamic lightpath provisioning. In order to provide desired blocking probability and the ease of quality of service provisioning, this paper concentrates on the end-to-end connection acknowledged optical burst switching (OBS) protocols, and proposes a prebooking mechanism to improve the lightpath bandwidth efficiency, which consequently, reduces the blocking probability and better supports latency-sensitive traffic. The prebooking mechanism excludes lightpath acknowledgement delay from the lightpath holding time by "prebooking" each aggregated burst/flow based on the estimated characteristics of arriving traffic. More specifically, a burst length prediction and reservation strategy is proposed and analyzed for the widely observed self-similar incoming traffic. The simulation results show that the proposed excessive reservation strategy is able to achieve low bit loss caused by the prediction error. In addition, the proposed mechanism is also investigated with constant bit rate traffic in a large mesh backbone, such as NSFNET. The results demonstrate that in large networks, the proposed prebooking mechanism is able to bring significant benefits in terms of blocking probability and lightpath bandwidth efficiency. For example, with a maximum acceptable end-to-end delay of 90 ms and a 10 -4 bit loss tolerance, our prebooking mechanism yields approximately double the supported traffic load relative to the familiar wavelength-routed OBS architecture View full abstract»

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  • Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 653 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    A novel fine scheduling algorithm is introduced for upstream bandwidth allocation in an Ethernet-based passive optical network. This scheduling algorithm consists of an inter optical network unit (ONU) scheduler at the optical line terminal (OLT) and an intra-ONU scheduler at each ONU. In the inter-ONU scheduling, a novel GATE/REPORT approach is introduced to eliminate the unused remainders without transmission delay and maximize the utilization of bandwidth. Our novel intra-ONU scheduler gives fair bandwidth allocation to the queues of different priorities for each user in a hierarchical and decentralized way. Numerical results have shown that our overall scheduling algorithm can fulfill various requirements of delay and throughput for the transmission of multimedia traffic for each end user View full abstract»

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  • Optical multiplexing technologies for access-area applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 661 - 668
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes optical multiplexing technologies expected to be applied to access-area networks. First, these technologies are broadly categorized into wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA), and possible variants are described in a comparison to time-division multiple access (TDMA). Next, their typical performances reported so far are overviewed in relation to the light sources utilized. While it is well known that WDM/OCDMA exhibits higher performance with laser sources, it is pointed that WDM/OCDMA with incoherent light sources are interesting alternatives for access-area applications. Two multiplexing methods that use incoherent light sources are introduced in more detail; one is spectrum-sliced WDM and the other is coherence-multiplexed CDMA. After the introduction of transmission experiments, their performance limitations are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Photonics for switching and routing

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 669 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB)  

    The ongoing growth of data traffic from existing and new applications poses a challenge to the packet-switched network infrastructure. High-capacity transport can be achieved in such networks by using dense wavelength-division-multiplexed systems, and reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers allow the optical layer to provision wavelength-based circuits between routing nodes. However, construction of the high-capacity packet routers provides significant scaling issues due to complexity, interconnect, and thermal limits. In this paper we will not seek to cover all aspects of optical packet switching and routing but outline some of the challenges facing the construction of such future routers and describe the role photonics can have in overcoming some of these issues. We will discuss how photonics' primary role will be to provide interconnection between racks of electronic routing elements and describe how fast wavelength switching can provide a high-capacity distributed switch fabric that will allow these packet routers to scale to higher capacities. The fast wavelength switching can be seen as the packet analog of wavelength-based circuit switching of today's transparent optical networks View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University