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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 2 • Date Feb 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 5 of 5
  • Planetary influences on electrical engineering

    Page(s): 230 - 237
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    The author describes how Maxwell's equations are indebted to observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The electromagnetic relations were derived in terms of a medium with `small but real density' and with the capability of yielding elastically, but the mechanical origin to which the curl and div equations trace back is a surprise to many engineering students. Maxwell developed his ability to deal with waves by starting his career with a four-year study of the rings of Saturn, which constitute a rare, elastic medium subject to internal inverse-square forces. Applying the laws of motion, Maxwell deduced that electricity and magnetism should combine to support what he called an electromagnetic wave, whose velocity in that medium he could calculate. Meanwhile, observations of Jupiter's satellites revealed that light has a finite velocity. Knowing this value, Maxwell was able to propose that light itself might be electromagnetic. These foundations of modern electrical engineering thus rest firmly on astronomical observation of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Astronomy has continued to contribute to many branches of electrical engineering View full abstract»

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  • Model based processing of signals: a state space approach

    Page(s): 283 - 309
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    This paper is a tutorial on linear, state space, model-based methods for certain nonlinear estimation problems commonly encountered in signal and data analysis. A prototypical problem that is studied is that of estimating the frequencies of multiple, superimposed sinusoids from a short record of noise-corrupted data. The approach expounded however, is applicable to a vast range of nonlinear signal analysis problems and applications in direction finding and damped sinusoid retrieval are dealt with in some detail. The benefits that result from using a state space description of the signal are highlighted in this paper. It is shown that state space models provide an elegant tool for exposing the structure present in the problem. The approach also allows for robust parameterization of the model with respect to finite precision errors. The robustness of the parameter set is complemented by the availability of numerically robust tools to estimate the parameters. The resulting algorithms are compatible with multiprocessor implementations View full abstract»

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  • On-line power system security analysis

    Page(s): 262 - 282
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    A broad overview of on-line power system security analysis is provided, with the intent of identifying areas needing additional research and development. Current approaches to state estimation are reviewed and areas needing improvement, such as external system modeling, are discussed. On-line contingency selection has become practical, particularly for static security. Additional work is necessary to identify better indices of power system stress to be used in on-line screening filters for both static and dynamic security analysis. Use of optimal power flow schemes to recommend optimal preventive and corrective strategies is presented on a conceptual level. Techniques must be further developed to provide more practical contingency action plans, which include real-world operating considerations and use a reasonably small number of control actions. Techniques must be developed for costing operating variables which are not easily quantified in dollars. Soft or flexible constraints and time variables must be included in the preventive and corrective strategy formulation. Finally, the area of on-line transient and dynamic security analysis is presented View full abstract»

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  • Layer assignment for printed circuit boards and integrated circuits

    Page(s): 311 - 331
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    The layer assignment problem arises in printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit (IC) design. It involves the assignment of interconnect wiring to various planes of a PCB or to various layers of interconnect wires in an IC. This paper reviews basic techniques for layer assignment in both PCBs and ICs. Two types of layer assignment are considered: (1) constrained layer assignment in which routing of interconnections is given and the objective is to assign wires to specific layers, and (2) unconstrained, or topological, layer assignment, in which both the physical routing of interconnections and assignment of the wires to layers is sought. Various objective functions, such as via minimization and minimization of signal delays through interconnect lines are discussed View full abstract»

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  • High-speed digital signal processing and control

    Page(s): 240 - 259
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    An attempt is made to organize and survey recent work, and to present it in a unified and accessible form. The need for a new approach suitable for high-speed processing is discussed in the context of several applications in control and communications, and a historical perspective of the use of difference operators in numerical analysis is presented. The general systems calculus, based on divided-different operators is introduced to unify the continuous-time and discrete-time systems theories. This calculus is then used as a framework to treat the three problems of system state estimation; system identification and time-series modeling; and control system design. Realization aspects of algorithms based on the difference operator representation, including such issues as coefficient rounding and implementation with standard hardware, are also discussed View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University