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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
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  • Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology [Book Review]

    Page(s): 11 - 12
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine - July-Aug. 2006

    Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents - Vol 25 No 4

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Ethics and the FDA

    Page(s): 13 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB)  

    This paper discusses the role of ethics in the Food and Drug Administration's approval process. The fundamental reasons for having a regulatory agency for food and medical products are ethical: concern for the safety and welfare of consumers. These basic ethical principles require a substantial number of regulations, guidances, procedures, and policies. If consumers of medical products are to be protected, every step of the process by which medical products are developed, tested, and marketed must be regulated View full abstract»

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  • From bench to bedside

    Page(s): 18 - 19
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  • Quantitative EEG assessment

    Page(s): 20 - 25
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    The authors present quantitative results to support the idea that hypothermia-related changes in the brain's electrical activity can be objectively tracked in real time by quantitative EEG (qEEG). This presents the potential for qEEG as a real-time monitoring technique to evaluate hypothermia therapy for brain injury. The potential ability of qEEG to provide an objective estimation of injury and recovery is also presented. This may be used to stratify the degree of injury sustained by the brain. The use of IQ in the preliminary work presented here showed that the qEEG measure indicates that EEG data under hypothermia contained more information than those under normothermia. In the longer term, the authors hope that the qEEG tool may be useful in the intensive care setting as a simple and easy-to-interpret measure that will enhance bedside care View full abstract»

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  • Micro- and macrostructure of sleep EEG

    Page(s): 26 - 31
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    Electroencephalogram (EEG) provides important and unique information about the sleeping brain. Polysomnography was the major method of sleep analysis and the main diagnostic tool in sleep medicine. The standard interpretation of polysomnographic recordings describes their macrostructure in terms of sleep stages, delineated according to R&K scoring criteria. Several descriptors of sleep microstructure rely on the quantification of sleep spindles and slow wave activities, detection of arousals, etc. However, these descriptors are usually assessed by means of substantially different signal processing (or visual) methods. This hinders possibilities of combining their results into a coherent description of the sleep process. This study proposes a solution to these problems in terms of a framework based upon adaptive time-frequency approximations - a recent, advanced method of signal processing. The proposed approach provides compatibility with the visual EEG analysis and standard definitions of EEG structures and describes both the macro- and microstructure of sleep EEG. Adaptive time-frequency approximations of signals calculated by means of the matching pursuit (MP) algorithm allow for the discrimination between series of unrelated structures and oscillatory activity. The detection, parametrization, and description of all these features of sleep are based upon the same unifying approach View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of the cortical connectivity patterns during the intention of limb movements

    Page(s): 32 - 38
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    The problem of the definition and evaluation of brain connectivity has become a central one in neuroscience during recent years as a way to understand the organization and interaction of cortical areas during the execution of cognitive or motor tasks. In this article, we propose the use of the directed transfer function (DTF) method on cortical signals estimated from high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. An application of the proposed technique to the estimation of the cortical connectivity pattern in normal subjects and in one spinal-cord-injured patient is also provided View full abstract»

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  • Intraoperative neurological monitoring

    Page(s): 39 - 45
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    Intraoperative neurological monitoring (INM) is the evaluation of the nervous system within the operating room (OR) environment. In this paper, the INM system is tested in a clinical setting in comparison with conventional somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) monitoring. The study results demonstrate the capability of the INM system in extracting clearer and more stable SEP signals. The high SNR of SEP signals collected in various clinical environments, including the OR, makes the INM system a robust platform for continuous monitoring. While the current use of EP monitoring is limited to intermittent analysis by a highly trained clinical neurophysiologist, the authors believe in changing this paradigm by developing continuous monitoring systems, such as the INM system, capable of automated quantitative EP analysis. This noninvasive monitoring modality will allow for a wider range of use in clinical practice. Based on volunteer and clinical patient studies, the INM monitoring system demonstrates much greater reliability and accuracy via the artifact rejection and denoising strategies. It provides more strategic filtering options for different situations under which the clinical SEP response signal could be greatly contaminated and distorted. Furthermore, the INM system offers a promising approach to signal extraction in real-time monitoring during SEP research View full abstract»

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  • Integration of EEG/MEG with MRI and fMRI

    Page(s): 46 - 53
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    This article discusses different approaches that have been proposed for multimodal neuroimaging, with special emphasis on the integration of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional MRI (fMRI). Some applications will be shown to illustrate the efficacy and importance of these techniques in clinical and neuroscience studies. Finally, some remaining challenges and problems in the multimodal integration will be discussed View full abstract»

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  • Functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Page(s): 54 - 62
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    The purpose of the this article is to describe an emerging neuroimaging technology, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs), which has several attributes that make it possible to conduct neuroimaging studies of the cortex in clinical offices and under more realistic, ecologically valid parameters. fNIRs use near-infrared light to measure changes in the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the cortex. Although fNIR imaging is limited to the outer cortex, it provides neuroimaging that is safe, portable, and very affordable relative to other neuroimaging technologies. It is also relatively robust to movement artifacts and can readily be integrated with other technologies such as EEG View full abstract»

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  • Computer-assisted arthroplasty using bioengineered autografts

    Page(s): 63 - 69
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    Recent advances in tissue-engineered cartilage open the door to new clinical treatments of joint lesions. Common to all therapies with in-vitro-engineered autografts is the need for optimal fit of the construct to allow screwless implantation and optimal integration into the live joint. Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) techniques are prime candidates to ensure the required accuracy, while at the same time simplifying the procedure. A pilot study has been conducted aiming at assembling a new set of methods to support ankle joint arthroplasty using bioengineered autografts. Computer assistance allows planning of the implant shape on a computed tomography (CT) image, manufacturing the construct according to the plan, and interoperatively navigating the surgical tools for implantation. A rotational symmetric model of the joint surface was used to avoid segmentation of the CT image; new software was developed to determine the joint axis and make the implant shape parameterizable. A complete cycle of treatment from planning to operation was conducted on a human cadaveric foot, thus proving the feasibility of computer-assisted arthroplasty using bioengineered autografts View full abstract»

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  • A viral envelope as a vehicle for tracer, drug, and gene delivery

    Page(s): 70 - 75
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    Gene and drug encapsulation by a viral vector administered via a systemic injection represents a therapeutic delivery system that is noninvasive and can potentially be targeted to a region of the body. However, an effective way of monitoring biodistribution, both acutely and over the long term, is needed to evaluate new targeting technologies and to tailor patient care in the clinic. A sensitive and dynamic method is needed to compare the effect of various approaches on clearance. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can detect radiotracers within the body with high sensitivity, and, in this study, the noninvasive tracking of viral vectors tagged with radioactive fluorine ([F-18]fluoride) is presented View full abstract»

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  • A wavelet approach to detecting electrocautery noise in the ECG

    Page(s): 76 - 82
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    A software approach has been developed for detecting electrocautery noise in the electrocardiogram (ECG) using a wavelet decomposition of the signal. With this approach, a clinical monitoring expert system can be forewarned of potential artifacts in trend values derived from the ECG, allowing it to proceed with caution when making decisions based on these trends. In 15 operations spanning 38.5 h of ECG data, we achieved a false positive rate of 0.71% and a false negative rate of 0.33%. While existing hardware approaches detect the source of the noise without any ability to assess its impact on the measured ECG, our software approach detects the presence of noise in the signal itself. Furthermore, the software approach is cheaper and easier to implement in a clinical environment than existing hardware approaches View full abstract»

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  • 3rd IEEE-EMBS ISSS-MDBS 2006 - Final Announcement

    Page(s): 83
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  • Senior design capstone courses and ABET outcomes

    Page(s): 84 - 86
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope