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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 7 • Date July 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial Power Line Communications

    Page(s): 1261 - 1266
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  • A mathematical model of noise in narrowband power line communication systems

    Page(s): 1267 - 1276
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    This manuscript introduces a mathematically tractable and accurate model of narrowband power line noise based on experimental measurements. In this paper, the noise is expressed as a Gaussian process whose instantaneous variance is a periodic time function. With this assumption and representation, the cyclostationary features of power line noise can be described in close form. The periodic function that represents the variance is then approximated with a small number of parameters. The noise waveform generated with this model shows good agreement with that of actually measured noise. Noise waveforms generated by different models are also compared with that of the proposed model. View full abstract»

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  • Deterministic modeling of the (shielded) outdoor power line channel based on the multiconductor transmission line equations

    Page(s): 1277 - 1291
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    In this paper, a complete methodology is proposed for the deterministic modeling of the channel transfer functions associated with underground power line access networks, in the light of the Multiconductor Transmission Line Theory. Some multiconductor power line cables are analyzed in detail, and their fundamental propagation characteristics (definition of eigenmodes, phase velocity, characteristic impedance, lineic attenuation) are related to the geometry of the conductors and the material properties. A multidimensional scattering matrix formalism is then introduced to perform an accurate analysis of the global power line network including multiconductor cable segments, derivation points, and termination loads. An illustrative example of a power line access network with three types of cables (with different numbers of conductors), 20 derivations, and five remote terminals, is finally proposed. View full abstract»

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  • High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications

    Page(s): 1292 - 1303
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    This paper presents a channel model suitable for multiwire overhead medium voltage lines. This model, incorporating ground admittance, is more appropriate at higher frequencies than predicted by Carson's model of 1926. The proposed model is further used to evaluate the multipath channel impulse response and associated capacity limit in sample power distribution grids for applications in broadband over power lines communications. For a sample grid model, comparison is made to the capacity value predicted based on the Carson's model, and it is demonstrated that the older model underestimates the potential of the overhead lines for broadband transmissions, significantly. View full abstract»

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  • A deterministic frequency-domain model for the indoor power line transfer function

    Page(s): 1304 - 1316
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The characterization of the transfer function of the power line (PL) channel is a nontrivial task that requires a truly interdisciplinary approach. Until recently, a common attribute and limitation of existing models for the PL channel transfer function lay in the phenomenological or statistical approach usually followed. This approach allows one to describe the channel only partially, e.g., as dominated by multipath-like effects, and prevents one from unveiling special properties of it. Multiconductor transmission line (MTL) theory was recently found by the authors to be a useful and accurate tool in modeling the PL transfer function while, at the same time, taking into account the wiring and grounding practices mandated by several regulatory bodies for commercial and residential premises. Crossing several layers of abstraction and following a bottom-up approach, complex circuit-level models originating from MTL theory can be manipulated and represented in terms of cascaded two-port networks (2PNs), thus allowing one to compute a priori and in a deterministic fashion the transfer function of any PL link. In the present contribution, we present additional analysis and data that validate the accuracy of the MTL approach and further justify its use in the PL channel context. Moreover, we also describe in detail the methodology to follow for modeling both grounded and ungrounded PL links in a unified framework. A consequence of the validity of the proposed modeling is that it can facilitate the process of standardization of the PL transfer function, an important step toward the availability of a commonly agreed upon (set of) channel transfer functions. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative model for time-varying power line communication channel response evaluation

    Page(s): 1317 - 1326
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    This work presents a channel model for the broadband characterization of power lines in presence of time variation of the loads. The model is characterized by taking into account both measured and geometrical channel characteristics and can easily be used to take into account also the presence of noise. The channel is described by a two-port equivalent described by a scattering matrix determined from a wavelet-based expansion of the input and output quantities. Upper and lower bounds for the response of the channel in presence of time-varying loads are determined in a fast and efficient way avoiding time consuming Monte Carlo simulations. The bounds determination allows the estimate of noteworthy quantities for the tuning of currently used modulation schemes for power lines communications such as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the cyclic short-term variation of indoor power line channels

    Page(s): 1327 - 1338
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    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the properties of indoor power line communications channels when they are used for broadband transmission. It will be shown that these channels exhibit a short-term variation, due to the fact that high-frequency parameters of electrical devices depend on the instantaneous amplitude of mains voltage. This phenomenon leads to a channel model proposal based on a linear periodically time-varying system and cyclostationary random noise. A measurement system, designed to capture these time variations in real power networks, and some of the most significant results obtained with it, are presented. In addition, a statistical analysis of the measurements performed in several indoor power line scenarios is included, so that the relevance of time variations in actual channels can be evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Mass transit power traction networks as communication channels

    Page(s): 1339 - 1350
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    The rapid progress of power line communications (PLC) for data transmission over electric power supply systems is now opening ways for special applications such as train automation in local transportation and mass transit (MT) systems. These DC-powered traction networks can be used as communication links between wayside equipment and the moving trains. As MT networks significantly differ from usual electricity supply systems, the usage of existing models and communication equipment for conventional PLC channels turns out infeasible. Therefore, the work reported in this paper focuses on MT channel investigation and modeling, in order to develop novel adapted solutions. The outcome is a stochastic MT channel model, which-besides multipath and time-variance-also includes peculiar properties such as the behavior of ring structures and the impact of the Doppler effect invoked by moving trains. In addition, a very special interference scenario is treated, caused by the rectifiers in these DC-powered environments. Besides a complete simulation model, this paper presents detailed guidelines for building emulation hardware, so that channel adapted PLC system design for MT networks can now be successfully started without further expensive field trials. View full abstract»

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  • A simple baseband transmission scheme for power line channels

    Page(s): 1351 - 1363
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    We propose a simple pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-based coded modulation scheme that overcomes two major constraints of power line channels, viz., severe insertion-loss and impulsive noise. The scheme combines low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, along with cyclic random-error and burst-error correction codes to achieve high-spectral efficiency, low decoding complexity, and a high degree of immunity to impulse noise. To achieve good performance in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) on static or slowly time-varying channels, the proposed coset-coding is employed in conjunction with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding and spectral shaping at the transmitter. In Gaussian noise, the scheme performs within 2 dB of unshaped channel capacity at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10-11, even with (3,6)-regular LDPC codes of modest length (1000-2000 bits). To mitigate errors due to impulse noise (a combination of synchronous and asynchronous impulses), a multistage interleaver is proposed, each stage tailored to the error-correcting property of each layer of the coset decomposition. In the presence of residual ISI, colored Gaussian noise, as well as severe synchronous and asynchronous impulse noise, the gap to Shannon capacity of the scheme to a Gaussian-noise-only channel is 5.5 dB at a BER of 10-7. View full abstract»

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  • An interconnected type-1 fuzzy algorithm for impulsive noise cancellation in multicarrier-based power line communication systems

    Page(s): 1364 - 1376
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    This paper introduces an interconnected type-1 fuzzy algorithm which is trained by a modified version of the Scaled Conjugated Gradient method for impulsive noise cancellation in discrete multitone/orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DMT/OFDM)-based systems for broadband power line communications. The advanced algorithm makes use of the fuzzy systems capacity of dealing with uncertainties to reduce the presence of high-power impulsive noises while the DMT/OFDM technique copes with the severe intersymbol interference observed in power line channels. As a result, for a given error probability, a high number of bits can be allotted to each subchannel due to the signal-to-noise ratio enhancements achieved by the proposed fuzzy algorithm. The simulation results show that the novel fuzzy algorithm not only achieve a high data rate, but it also outperforms the standard impulsive noises techniques and other computational intelligence-based techniques, especially in the presence of additive and high-power impulsive noises. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive spread-spectrum multicarrier multiple-access over wirelines

    Page(s): 1377 - 1388
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    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic resource allocation adapted to spread-spectrum multicarrier multiple-access (SS-MC-MA) systems in a multiuser power line communication (PLC) context. The developed adaptive system is valid for uplink, downlink, as well as for indoor and outdoor communications. The studied SS-MC-MA system is based on classical multicarrier modulation like digital multitone (DMT), combined with a spread-spectrum (SS) component used to multiplex several information symbols of a given user over the same subcarriers. The multiple-access task is carried out using a frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA) approach so that each user is assigned one or more subcarrier sets. The number of subcarriers in each set is given by the spreading code length as in classical SS-MC-MA systems usually studied in the wireless context. We derive herein a new loading algorithm that dynamically handles the system configuration in order to maximize the data throughput. The algorithm consists in an adaptive subcarrier, code, bit, and energy assignment algorithm. Power-spectral density constraint due to spectral mask specifications is considered, as well as finite-order modulations. In that case, it is shown that SS-MC-MA combined with the proposed loading algorithm achieves higher throughput than DMT in a multiuser PLC context. Because of the finite granularity of the modulations, some residual energy is indeed wasted on each subcarrier of the DMT spectrum. The combining of a spreading component with DMT allows to merge these amounts of energy so that one or more additional bits can be transmitted in each subcarrier subset leading to significant throughput gain. Simulations have been run over measured PLC channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the signal-to-noise ratio is low. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed space-time coding for multihop transmission in power line communication networks

    Page(s): 1389 - 1400
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    In this paper, we consider transmission in relatively wide-stretched power line communication (PLC) networks, where repeaters are required to bridge the source-to-destination distance. In particular, it is assumed that each network node is a potential repeater and that multihop transmission is accomplished in an ad hoc fashion without the need for complex routing protocols. In such a scenario, due to the broadcasting nature of the power line channel, multiple repeater nodes may receive and retransmit the source message simultaneously. It is shown that, if no further signal processing is applied at the transmitter, simultaneous retransmission often deteriorates performance compared with single-node retransmission. We therefore advocate the application of distributed space-time block codes (DSTBCs) to the problem at hand. More specifically, we propose that each network node is assigned a unique signature sequence, which allows efficient combining at the receiver. Most notably, DSTBC-based retransmission does not require explicit collaboration among network nodes for multihop transmission and detection complexity is not increased compared with single-node retransmission. Numerical results for multihop transmission over PLC networks show that DSTBC-based retransmission achieves a considerably improved performance in terms of required transmit power and multihop delay compared with alternative retransmission strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Power line enhanced cooperative wireless communications

    Page(s): 1401 - 1410
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    In this paper, we investigate the use of power line communication (PLC) to assist cooperative wireless relaying. We consider a communication scheme that uses the power line to initialize and synchronize wireless amplify-and-forward relays and to broadcast information between the relays. Starting from an analysis of transfer functions and noise measurements of PLC channels in office and residential environments, we propose a power line transmission scheme for the inter-relay-communication and assess the influence of this scheme on wireless relaying. This scheme is based on linear precoded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing; it is designed to optimally exploit the frequency diversity available on PLC channels. The use of PLC leads to a very flexible way of enhancing wireless communications by plugging in additional relays where they are needed-without additional wiring. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of HomePlug 1.0 MAC with CSMA/CA

    Page(s): 1411 - 1420
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    As demands for data communications among home/personal devices in home environments increase, various types of home-networking technologies have appeared. Among them, power line communication is one of the most promising wired home-networking technologies, because the existing power line facilities can be utilized for data transmission without deploying any new physical links. HomePlug 1.0 is the most popular power line communication technology, which has been standardized by the HomePlug power line alliance, and attempts to mitigate the effect of time- and frequency-varying channels by enhanced modulation and channel coding. Although HomePlug 1.0 has undergone field trials and simulations, its analytic model and performance was only conducted for throughput under saturation conditions. We propose a new analytic model to evaluate MAC throughput and delay of HomePlug 1.0 both under saturation and under normal traffic conditions. We verify our proposed model via simulations and evaluate the performance of HomePlug 1.0. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Communications Society Information

    Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT