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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

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  • Transparency maximization methodology for haptic devices

    Page(s): 249 - 255
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    In this paper, a design methodology is presented aimed at maximizing haptic device transparency, as seen from the user side. The methodology developed focuses on endpoint side fidelity, and optimizes not only mechanism dimensions, but also all relevant design parameters including relative position of endpoint desired path to device location, motor transmission ratios, and rotor inertias or motor sizes. The methodology is applied to a 5-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF) haptic device, part of a training medical urological simulator, and is applicable to any haptic mechanism. The transparency maximization is achieved using a multivariable optimization approach and an objective function including mechanism-induced parasitic torques/forces and motor and transmission parameters, as seen from the user side, under several constraints. The objective function and the kinematical and operational constraints are described and discussed. A new 5-DOF haptic mechanism is constructed according to the developed procedure, resulting in a substantially improved device with respect to an existing one, developed with a standard optimization method. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear compensator design for active sliders to suppress head-disk spacing modulation in hard disk drives

    Page(s): 256 - 264
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    As the slider's flying height (FH) continues to reduce in hard disk drives, the flying height modulation (FHM) due to disk morphology and interface instability caused by highly nonlinear attractive forces becomes significant. Based on the concept that the FH of a portion of the slider that carries the read/write element can be adjusted by a piezoelectric actuator located between the slider and suspension and that the FH can be measured by the use of the magnetic readback signal, a new 3-DOF analytic model and an observer-based nonlinear compensator are proposed to achieve ultralow FH with minimum modulation under short-range attractive forces. Numerical simulations show that the FHM due to disk waviness is effectively controlled and reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations for complementary inchworm actuators

    Page(s): 265 - 272
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    An inchworm actuator is described, which uses complementary configurations for the two clamping sections. In one configuration, clamping and release are achieved using high and low voltages, respectively, while for the other, clamping and release are achieved using low and high voltages, respectively. The resulting inchworm actuator can be driven by a two-channel controller with the two clamps sharing the first channel and the extender piezoelectric actuator using the second channel. The paper also describes a diode-shunted delay circuit that causes unclamping to occur more slowly than clamping. It is shown that by using the delay circuit in series with each clamp, the overall force drive capability of the actuator is increased. The paper presents simulated and experimental results of clamp force versus time during the switching transient. An analysis of a generalized delay circuit having both resistive and reactive elements shows that a purely resistive design provides the better tradeoff between increased force drive capability and power loss in the delay circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Trajectory design considering derivative of jerk for head-positioning of disk drive system with mechanical vibration

    Page(s): 273 - 279
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    In this paper, we propose a novel design method of target trajectory for high-speed and high-precision head positioning of a hard disk drive (HDD) system. To realize smooth acceleration and deceleration, the derivative of jerk is considered not to activate any mechanical vibrations. We applied the well-known optimal control theory to fix the initial and terminal conditions. Moreover, we show that various performances can be improved by introducing time-varying weighting coefficients. Some experimental results using a 2.5-in HDD are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a haptic arm exoskeleton for training and rehabilitation

    Page(s): 280 - 289
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    A high-quality haptic interface is typically characterized by low apparent inertia and damping, high structural stiffness, minimal backlash, and absence of mechanical singularities in the workspace. In addition to these specifications, exoskeleton haptic interface design involves consideration of space and weight limitations, workspace requirements, and the kinematic constraints placed on the device by the human arm. These constraints impose conflicting design requirements on the engineer attempting to design an arm exoskeleton. In this paper, the authors present a detailed review of the requirements and constraints that are involved in the design of a high-quality haptic arm exoskeleton. In this context, the design of a five-degree-of-freedom haptic arm exoskeleton for training and rehabilitation in virtual environments is presented. The device is capable of providing kinesthetic feedback to the joints of the lower arm and wrist of the operator, and will be used in future work for robot-assisted rehabilitation and training. Motivation for such applications is based on findings that show robot-assisted physical therapy aids in the rehabilitation process following neurological injuries. As a training tool, the device provides a means to implement flexible, repeatable, and safe training methodologies. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based fault diagnosis in electric drives using machine learning

    Page(s): 290 - 303
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    Electric motor and power electronics-based inverter are the major components in industrial and automotive electric drives. In this paper, we present a model-based fault diagnostics system developed using a machine learning technology for detecting and locating multiple classes of faults in an electric drive. Power electronics inverter can be considered to be the weakest link in such a system from hardware failure point of view; hence, this work is focused on detecting faults and finding which switches in the inverter cause the faults. A simulation model has been developed based on the theoretical foundations of electric drives to simulate the normal condition, all single-switch and post-short-circuit faults. A machine learning algorithm has been developed to automatically select a set of representative operating points in the (torque, speed) domain, which in turn is sent to the simulated electric drive model to generate signals for the training of a diagnostic neural network, fault diagnostic neural network (FDNN). We validated the capability of the FDNN on data generated by an experimental bench setup. Our research demonstrates that with a robust machine learning approach, a diagnostic system can be trained based on a simulated electric drive model, which can lead to a correct classification of faults over a wide operating domain. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive real-time estimation of end-effector position and orientation using precise measurements of end-effector position

    Page(s): 304 - 319
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    An adaptive estimation method is developed to generate real-time estimates of the position and orientation of the end-effector of an industrial robot and estimates of the root mean squared errors in these estimates, using real-time measurements of the position of a point on the end-effector, in addition to the usual measurements of the joint positions. To compensate for the lack of real-time measurements of the orientation of the end-effector, a Kalman filter is used to update a lookup table model of the kinematics of the robot that most affect the orientation of the end-effector. Measurements of the positions of a point on the end-effector collected during a short sequence of motions of the last axis of the robot are used by the Kalman filter to update this lookup table model. The updated lookup table model, together with real-time measurements of the position of a point on the end-effector and real-time measurements of the joint positions, is used by the estimator to compensate for the effects of geometric errors in the robot's structure and temperature variations on the position and orientation of the end-effector. In an application to a six-axis industrial robot, the adaptive estimation method is shown to substantially outperform the direct forward kinematics method whereby the position and orientation of the end-effector are estimated based upon joint position measurements alone. View full abstract»

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  • High bandwidth tilt measurement using low-cost sensors

    Page(s): 320 - 327
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    In this paper, a state estimation technique is developed for sensing inclination angles using low-cost sensors. A low-bandwidth tilt sensor is used along with an inaccurate rate gyro and a low-cost accelerometer to obtain the measurement. The rate gyro has an inherent bias along with sensor noise. The tilt sensor uses an internal pendulum and therefore has its own slow dynamics. These sensor dynamics were identified experimentally and combined to achieve high-bandwidth measurements using an optimal linear state estimator. Potential uses of the measurement technique range from robotics, to rehabilitation, to vehicle control. View full abstract»

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  • Self-sensing actuation for nanopositioning and active-mode damping in dual-stage HDDs

    Page(s): 328 - 338
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    Position sensors other than the R/W heads are not embedded into current hard-disk drives (HDDs) due to cost, resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) issues. Moreover, the "optimal" location for placing these sensors is still unknown. In this paper, the Pb-Zr-Ti (PZT) elements in the PZT suspension-based microactuator are used as a secondary actuator and a displacement sensor simultaneously with self-sensing actuation. The proposed displacement estimation circuit produces an estimated PZT microactuator's displacement with high SNR and nanometer resolution comparable to that measured from the laser doppler vibrometer (LDV). A robust active mode damping controller is then designed to damp the PZT microactuator suspension's torsion modes and sway mode, as well as decoupling the HDD dual-stage servo into two distinct loops for individual sensitivity optimization. Our results show attenuation of PZT microactuator's suspension modes by 5 dB and sway mode by 30 dB with low sensitivity. A reduction of up to 20% in 3σ position error signal is also observed. View full abstract»

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  • Active high-frequency vibration rejection in hard disk drives

    Page(s): 339 - 345
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    This paper presents an active vibration rejection (AVR) control technique to reject actuator arm resonance modes using a piezoelectric sensor attached to the actuator arm to detect high-frequency off-track actuator vibration. The voice coil motor (VCM) is used as an actuator, while the piezoelectric sensor is used as a sensor only. A multirate digital implementation is proposed for high-frequency AVR over the sector-induced sampling frequency. The vibration control signal can be synchronized with the slow-state feedback control input such that the two control signals are summed and applied to the VCM. Throughout an application example the proposed AVR scheme, using the VCM as an actuator while the piezoelectric sensor as a sensor, is shown to be very prospective for high-frequency vibration rejection, provided a good vibration sensing scheme is used. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of an automatic motion inverter

    Page(s): 346 - 357
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    In this paper, the design of an automatic motion-inverter control system for agricultural tractors has been discussed. The objective of this system is to perform a fully automatic symmetric motion inversion (e.g., from a forward speed of 10 km/h to a reverse speed of -10 km/h). The device used to control the inversion is electro-hydraulic reverser, constituted by two clutches, driven by a proportional electro-hydraulic valve (EVP) and a directional electro-hydraulic valve (EVD). The design of a motion inverter is a nontrivial task, since it is difficult to find a good compromise between speed (the inversion must be completed in a short time) and comfort (bumps and oscillations on the longitudinal speed must be minimized). All the subtasks of the inversion control systems are considered: The design of an inner loop for the control of the EVP current, the open-loop switching strategies, and the design of the outer control loop, which regulates the vehicle speed. The control strategies are experimentally validated, and satisfactory results are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Position control of an induction machine using variable structure control

    Page(s): 358 - 361
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    In this paper, a variable structure control algorithm is combined with an indirect field-oriented control strategy in order to control the position of an induction machine shaft submitted to large variations of mechanical configuration. The tracking capabilities and the robustness of the approach are tested experimentally using a low-cost DSP. View full abstract»

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  • A learning scheme for low-speed precision tracking control of hybrid stepping motors

    Page(s): 362 - 365
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    Servo control of the hybrid stepping motor is complicated due to its highly nonlinear torque-current-position characteristics, especially under low operating speeds. This paper presents a simple and efficient control algorithm for the high-precision tracking control of hybrid stepping motors. The principles of learning control have been exploited to minimize the motor's torque ripple, which is periodic and nonlinear in the system states, with specific emphasis on low-speed situations. The proposed algorithm utilizes a fixed proportional-derivative (PD) feedback controller to stabilize the transient dynamics of the servomotor and the feedforward learning controller to compensate for the effect of the torque ripple and other disturbances for improved tracking accuracy. The stability and convergence performance of the learning control scheme is presented. It has been found that all error signals in the learning control system are bounded and the motion trajectory converges to the desired value asymptotically. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 368
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr