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Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 2006

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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 233 - 234
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  • Nanoscale heat transfer and nanostructured thermoelectrics

    Page(s): 238 - 246
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    Heat transfer at nanoscales differs significantly from that in macroscales because of size effects on the phonon and electron transport. Nanoscale heat transfer effects have significant implications for the microelectronic and microphotonic industries, from the thermal management, the device design and reliability, and the active cooling considerations. Past studies have shown that heat conduction in nanostructures can be significantly impeded below that of the predictions of the Fourier theory. Such size effects imply higher device temperatures than anticipated and demands more stringent thermal management measures. On the other hand, same size effects can be exploited for developing highly efficient thermoelectric (TE) materials for direct cooling. This paper starts with a discussion on some nanoscale heat transfer effects and their impacts on the device performance, particularly using thermal conductivity reduction in superlattices as an example, followed by a review of recent developments in nanostructured TE materials View full abstract»

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  • Heat conduction in microstructured materials

    Page(s): 247 - 253
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    The phonon Boltzmann equation is solved numerically in order to study the phonon thermal conductivity of micro/nanostructured thin films with open holes in a host material. We focused on the size effect of embedded pores and film thickness on the decrease in thermal conductivity of the film. Simulations have revealed that the temperature profiles in the micro/nanostructured materials are very different from those in their bulk counterparts, due to the ballistic nature of the microscale phonon transport. These simulations clearly demonstrate that the conventional Fourier heat conduction equation cannot be applied to study heat conduction in solids at microscale. The effective thermal conductivity of thin films with micro/nanoholes is calculated from the applied temperature difference and the heat flux. In the present paper, the effective thermal conductivity is shown as a function of the size of the micro/nanoholes and the film thickness. For example, when the size of the hole becomes approximately 1/20th the phonon mean free path in a film, the thickness is 1/10th the mean free path of phonons and the effective thermal conductivity decreases to as low as 6% of the bulk value. The distribution of holes also affects the reduction in the effective thermal conductivity. Thin films embedded with staggered-hole arrays have slightly lower effective thermal conductivities than films with aligned-hole arrays. The cross-sectional area in the thermal transport direction is a significant parameter with respect to the reduction of thermal conductivity. The results of the present study may prove useful in the development of artificial micro/nanostructured materials, including thermoelectrics and low-k dielectrics. View full abstract»

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  • Ballistic phonon transport and self-heating effects in strained-silicon transistors

    Page(s): 254 - 260
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    In this manuscript, different aspects of nanoscale thermal transport in strained silicon transistors will be addressed. The two-dimensional Boltzmann transport equations for phonons in Si and SiGe alloy layers, along with the acoustic mismatch model for the interface, are used to capture the sub-continuum heat conduction effects in the device. It is shown that the lateral thermal conductivity of a 10-nm strained-Si layer grown on the SiGe underlayer can vary from 14 to 20W/m-K, depending on the interface specularity parameter. The resulting temperature distribution in the device is used to predict the impact of self-heating on performance of future generations of strained-Si devices. The analysis shows that the merits of strained-Si technology can be suppressed by excessive self-heating; therefore, additional considerations in the design of these devices need to be taken into account View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced thermal contact conductance using carbon nanotube array interfaces

    Page(s): 261 - 267
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    Heat-conduction interfaces that employ carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been fabricated and studied experimentally using a reference calorimeter testing rig in a vacuum environment with infrared temperature measurements. Arrays of multiwalled CNTs are grown directly on silicon substrates with microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Iron and nickel were used as CNT catalysts. CNT arrays grown under different synthesis conditions exhibit different pressure-contact conductance characteristics. The thermal contact resistance of CNTs with a copper interface exhibits promising results with a minimum value of 19.8mm2K/W at a pressure of 0.445MPa View full abstract»

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  • Thermal management strategies for high power semiconductor pump lasers

    Page(s): 268 - 276
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    Semiconductor pump lasers are an important component in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers. Thermal management has become one of the major obstacles of pump laser development. Understanding of the thermal behavior of high-power laser packages is crucial to the thermal design and optimization of pump lasers. In this paper, we report on the thermal characteristics of a high-power pump laser and discuss the issues associated with heat dissipation. The thermal management of high-power pump laser modules mainly consists of three aspects. One is the thermal resistance reduction which reduces bulk temperature rise in the laser diode chip. The second is facet temperature control, and the third is the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) coefficient of performance improvement. In this paper, the approaches to reduce thermal resistance and facet temperature at the chip level and package level will be reviewed, and the thermal design and optimization of the package assembly to improve the TEC coefficient of performance will be discussed. The thermal resistance of a pump laser could be reduced up to 40% by the proper design of the laser chip and epi-down bonding. An unpumped window design in the pump laser diode is proven to be very effective in reducing the facet temperature and increasing the catastrophic optical mirror damage level. Assembly and package optimization can provide more uniform temperature distribution on TEC cold plate which is critical in improving the TEC coefficient of performance View full abstract»

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  • Contact welding at break of motor inrush current

    Page(s): 278 - 285
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    The contact welding phenomenon observed at automotive relays at switch-off of a dc motor load during startup was investigated. Contact welding occurred during the first operation and was caused by anodic arcs shorter than 80 mus at breaking inrush currents of up to 85 A. The switching performance of the type of relay investigated could be correlated with the parameters: over-travel, release time, and the break current View full abstract»

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  • Contact material and arc current effect on post-current zero contact surface temperature

    Page(s): 286 - 293
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    Optical radiation measurements of contact surfaces were made after current-zero of a high-current (>10kAp) arc, to determine how much the contact surface temperature at and after current zero was affected by a change in contact material and arc current. Contact surface temperature was measured for different types of "typical" contact materials (AgW and AgC) commonly used in molded case circuit breakers (MCCBs). The average temperature at the contact surface was measured by using photodiodes in conjunction with a narrow band filters and long-range microscope. A 250-A rated MCCB was modified, with renewable chamber walls and contacts, and used as a test bed to insure that these results can be directly applied to MCCBs in the 125 to 250-A range. Uniform and repeatable arcing conditions were maintained by using an electronically timed capacitor bank source, timed contact part, and a well-maintained arc chamber. Along with other important engineering properties of the contacts (arc erosion, temperature rise), this data can be useful for selecting contacts for circuit breaker applications View full abstract»

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  • The contact resistance force relationship of an intrinsically conducting polymer interface

    Page(s): 294 - 302
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    Investigations on contact connector materials for different applications such as in the automotive industry have focused toward the increasing interest of using conducting polymers, as compared to conventional metallic contacts. The aim is to achieve overall improvements in performance as well as cost effectiveness. Currently, extrinsic conducting polymers (ECPs) are employed as conductive coats or adhesives at contact interfaces. However, frictional abrasion within the metal doped polymer (ECP) causes fretting corrosion, which leads to instability in the contact resistance. To overcome this, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are explored. Hemispherical contact coatings were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) (PEDOT) or polyaniline/polyvinylchloride (PANI/PVC) commodity blends. Contact resistances were taken using four-wire resistance measurement techniques. The conductivities of in-house fabricated ICP contacts were found to be in the range of 10-2 Smiddotcm-1. The response relating the change of contact resistance under varying compression force appeared to be repeatable with minimum deviation of 2%. The surface profiles of the ICP contacts were also recorded by an optical confocal system. The initial investigation results presented in this paper were used to evaluate and validate the hypothesis of employing ICP contacts to eliminate or minimize wearing and fretting effects View full abstract»

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  • A novel current limitation principle basedon application of liquid metals

    Page(s): 303 - 309
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    In this paper, a new current limiting principle based on the application of liquid metals is proposed. This principle takes advantage of the arcless commutation of currents to a gradually increasing parallel resistance and makes it possible to realize a current-controlled resistor for very high currents, which can be used to limit the fault currents in power networks. The conditions for the arcless current commutation are investigated theoretically and the optimum profile for the parallel resistor is derived. An experimental setup is constructed to investigate the behavior of the separating contacts under different current amplitudes, different current steepnesses, and different resistance profiles. The experimental results relating to the commutation phase are compared to the theoretical limits View full abstract»

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  • The process of arc splitting between metal plates in low voltage arc chutes

    Page(s): 310 - 317
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    The behavior of arcs in low voltage switching devices is affected by several interactions. For studying simple arrangements of arc runners without metallic splitter plates ("deion plates") a three-dimensional simulation system has already been developed. It takes into account the plasma fluid dynamics, the current flow within the electrodes and the plasma, and the magnetic field generated by both currents. In order to model the arc splitting process simulations with an insulating barrier were done in a first step. For the simulation of the splitting process between metallic deion-plates the simulation model has to be extended. In experiments including high-speed movies it is shown that this process is a continuous transition of current flow from the still undivided arc to the new arc roots formed on the metal plates. A new simulation model representing the roots by a thin layer of current-dependent resistivity is discussed and simulation results are compared with switching experiments View full abstract»

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  • A study of the physical characteristics of vibration-induced fretting corrosion

    Page(s): 318 - 325
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    The objective of this work is to develop a greater understanding of the mechanisms controlling fretting under various vibration conditions. This information is intended to provide a basis for understanding and reducing this potential problem in automotive connectors. Toward this end, an experimental study of connector samples under multifrequency vibration has been conducted. The primary connector being investigated is a single row PC-type connector. A secondary specimen tested is a single row automotive connector View full abstract»

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  • Stability and contact resistance failure criteria

    Page(s): 326 - 332
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    Specific levels of change in contact resistance are proposed as failure criteria for both power and signal applications. The results presented in this analysis are based on threshold behavior for contact stability. Moreover, the approach taken is to define the criteria according to each application. The basis for signal contact criteria is the stability threshold for intermittent behavior as related to change in contact resistance. In the case of power, the change in voltage drop at rated current is used to establish criteria based on heating and thermal runaway. An analysis and supporting data are provided to validate these recommendations. These criteria are summarized in a single chart where change in resistance criteria is plotted as a function of current. This chart provides a universal method of establishing failure criteria for the spectrum of applications that exist today View full abstract»

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  • Temperature, humidity and pressure measurement on automotive connectors

    Page(s): 333 - 340
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    Environmental testing under laboratory-controlled conditions has long been used to evaluate connector performance prior to practical application. There are a number of experimental procedures frequently used in the automotive industry such as the USCAR standard for automotive electrical connector systems to test connectors. However, recent research has shown that these tests appear to evaluate the mechanical stability of the connector housings and terminals, rather than their electrical performance. In order to establish more representative tests to evaluate the electrical performance of contacts, the actual environmental conditions at the contact interface, which are generally unknown, must be measured. This paper compares the temperature, humidity, and air pressure inside the connector housing to those measured outside. It was found that the conditions inside and outside the connector housing are different and a model relating the conditions is introduced View full abstract»

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  • Microswitches with sputtered Au, AuPd,Au-on-AuPt, and AuPtCu alloy electric contacts

    Page(s): 341 - 349
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    This paper is the first to report on a new analytic model for predicting microcontact resistance and the design, fabrication, and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches with sputtered bimetallic (i.e., gold (Au)-on-Au-platinum (Pt), (Au-on-Au-(6.3at%)Pt)), binary alloy (i.e., Au-palladium (Pd), (Au-(3.7at%)Pd)), and ternary alloy (i.e., Au-Pt-copper (Cu), (Au-(5.0at%)Pt-(0.5at%)Cu)) electric contacts. The microswitches with bimetallic and binary alloy contacts resulted in contact resistance values between 1-2Omega. Preliminary reliability testing indicates a 3times increase in switching lifetime when compared to microswitches with sputtered Au electric contacts. The ternary alloy exhibited approximately a 6times increase in switch lifetime with contact resistance values ranging from approximately 0.2-1.8Omega View full abstract»

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  • Low temperature brazing of chip inductors by abnormal glow discharge plasma

    Page(s): 350 - 354
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    A novel method, by which Cu was deposited on ferrite ceramics with arc-added glow discharge as a precursory procedure and then brazing the ferrite ceramics with vacuum glow discharge, was investigated. This new method can effectively suppress interfacial diffusion and brazing joint oxidation as well as maintain good adhesion in the joint due to low deposition and brazing temperature, the vacuum atmosphere effect, and the cathode sputter-cleaning action of the abnormal glow discharge plasma. The influence of the brazing process parameters on electrical and magnetic properties of the chip inductors is discussed. The optimal deposition and brazing process parameters are presented. Scanning electron microscope line scanning confirms the brazing electrode joints and detected the interfacial diffusion between the joints and the ferrite ceramics View full abstract»

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  • Flip chip solder joint reliability analysis using viscoplastic and elastic-plastic-creep constitutive models

    Page(s): 355 - 363
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    Both elastic-plastic-creep and viscoplastic constitutive models may be used for inelastic deformation analysis of solder joints. In this paper, a phenomenological approach using elastic-plastic-creep analysis and an Anand viscoplastic model is reported for solder joint reliability. Flip chip soldered assemblies with 63Sn-37Pb solder joints were subjected to a thermal cyclic loading condition of -40 to +125degC to assess the solder joint fatigue performance. In the finite-element modeling, the viscoplastic strain energy density per cycle obtained from the viscoplastic analysis is compared with the inelastic (plastic and creep) strain energy density per cycle calculated from the elastic-plastic-creep analysis. The inelastic (plastic+creep and viscoplastic) strain energy density extracted from the finite-element analysis results, at the critical solder joint location, were used as a failure parameter for solder fatigue models employed. It was found that the predicted solder joint fatigue life has a better correlation to the first failure or first-time-to-failure result View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the size and spatial distribution of fillers in mold compounds after device packaging

    Page(s): 364 - 370
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    Fillers are used in the molding compounds used to package semiconductor devices, as a means to lower costs and minimize the stress caused by thermal expansion mismatch between the silicon die and the molding compound. With ever finer feature size and increasing die dimensions, control of highly filled molding compound's properties and processing parameters becomes more important. In this study, quantitative measures of the particle distribution of fillers in packaged devices were experimentally determined, including area fraction, size, and interparticle distance. The size and interparticle distance were statistically significant with respect to the position in the package. The difference of filler volume fraction at different positions within a package can be as large as 10%, and can cause a local coefficient of thermal expansion difference of about 4ppm/degC. A 2times3times3 ANOVA test was conducted to assess the statistical significance of these variations View full abstract»

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  • Contact resistance of thin metal film contacts

    Page(s): 371 - 378
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    To be able to reduce the size of products having electronic devices, it becomes more and more important to miniaturize the electromechanical parts of the system. The use of micromechanical connectors and contact structures implies the need of methods for estimating the properties of such devices. This work will, by use of finite element modeling, treat the influence of a thin film constituting at least one of the contacting members of an electrical contact. The error introduced by using the traditional Maxwell/Holm contact constriction resistance theory will be investigated. Numerical methods are used to present a way to approximate the total resistance for the thin metal film contact View full abstract»

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  • Reliability prediction for TFBGA assemblies

    Page(s): 379 - 384
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    One of the key hot topics in dense large scale integration packaging technologies is to reduce the thermomechanical stress caused by a mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion among material employed. Nearly all manufacturers of portable electronics products perform several kinds of physical tests in the development cycle to evaluate reliability of the products. In this paper, results obtained by accelerated thermal and power cycling tests by using thin fine pitch gall grid array (TFBGA) packages are reported. Power-cycling stands for a lifetime acceleration method which is close to the real environmental conditions of many electronic products. For this purpose, a set of TFBGA thermal test packages were designed and manufactured for reliability assessment of solder joint interconnections. The assemblies consisted of an array of polysilicon resistors surrounding a sensing diode for accurate temperature measurements. The package uses a qualified bill of materials including a 36-mm2 dummy die. Each assembly was designed to perfectly reproduce the thermomechanical behavior of the mass production packages by several semiconductor manufacturers. This package is used in telecom wireless application where it offers high density input/output solution for advanced application-specific integrated circuit (IC) devices a system on chip ICs. Both experiments and simulations were carried out to locate the position of the most critical parts. Complexity of structural package characteristics was examined by using finite-element method modeling methodology. A strain energy based model was employed to locate the most vulnerable parts in the package and predict failure rates View full abstract»

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  • Screen characterization under fan induced swirl conditions

    Page(s): 385 - 394
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    In this paper, loss coefficients are determined for a fine and a coarse EMC screen placed in a swirling flow. In an axisymmetric swirl generator test rig the screen performance is measured under well-defined swirling conditions. Based on velocity and pressure measurements on one hand and on axial and tangential momentum balances on the other, directional loss coefficients are obtained. It is shown that in this way in-plane coefficients can be accurately determined. In contrast, the normal component can more accurately be determined in a basic wind-tunnel setup. Subsequently, the obtained coefficients are used in a commercial computational fluid dynamics code using a volume resistance model for the screens. Validation of the numerical results against fan measurements shows that using in-plane coefficients is superior to one-dimensional models. Indeed, in the former case the effect of the screen on the tangential velocity component is well predicted by the model, whereas for the latter only the axial velocity components are affected. Finally, a full rack simulation reveals that component temperatures strongly depend on local flow phenomena. Therefore, it can be concluded that fan induced swirl should always be modeled and that screen models should account for in-plane loss coefficients View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies publishes research and applications articles on the modeling, building blocks, technical infrastructure, and analysis underpinning electronic, photonic, MEMS and sensor packaging.

 

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Koneru Ramakrishna
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.