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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

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  • Analysis and architecture design of an HDTV720p 30 frames/s H.264/AVC encoder

    Page(s): 673 - 688
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    H.264/AVC significantly outperforms previous video coding standards with many new coding tools. However, the better performance comes at the price of the extraordinarily huge computational complexity and memory access requirement, which makes it difficult to design a hardwired encoder for real-time applications. In addition, due to the complex, sequential, and highly data-dependent characteristics of the essential algorithms in H.264/AVC, both the pipelining and the parallel processing techniques are constrained to be employed. The hardware utilization and throughput are also decreased because of the block/MB/frame-level reconstruction loops. In this paper, we describe our techniques to design the H.264/AVC video encoder for HDTV applications. On the system design level, in consideration of the characteristics of the key components and the reconstruction loops, the four-stage macroblock pipelined system architecture is first proposed with an efficient scheduling and memory hierarchy. On the module design level, the design considerations of the significant modules are addressed followed by the hardware architectures, including low-bandwidth integer motion estimation, parallel fractional motion estimation, reconfigurable intrapredictor generator, dual-buffer block-pipelined entropy coder, and deblocking filter. With these techniques, the prototype chip of the efficient H.264/AVC encoder is implemented with 922.8 K logic gates and 34.72-KB SRAM at 108-MHz operation frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Affective understanding in film

    Page(s): 689 - 704
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    Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. However, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An appropriate set of affective categories are identified and steps for their classification developed. A number of effective audiovisual cues are formulated to help bridge the affective gap. In particular, a holistic method of extracting affective information from the multifaceted audio stream has been introduced. Besides classifying every scene in Hollywood domain movies probabilistically into the affective categories, some exciting applications are demonstrated. The experimental results validate the proposed approach and the efficacy of the audiovisual cues. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum bit allocation and rate control for H.264/AVC

    Page(s): 705 - 715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the rate control of H. 264/AVC, one of the most important things is to get the statistics of the current frame accurately. To achieve this, a novel adaptive coding characteristics prediction scheme is presented to improve the accuracy of R-D modeling, by exploiting spatio-temporal correlations. With the proposed prediction scheme, we present a novel rate function and a linear distortion model, and then deduce a simple close-form solution to the problem of optimum bit allocation, just in a TMN-8-alike way. Extensive experiments show that improvements with gains up to 0.92dB per frame over JVT-G012, the current standardized rate control scheme, are achieved by the proposed scheme for a variety of test sequences with less demanding bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of transmission-loss-induced distortion in decoded video

    Page(s): 716 - 732
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the distortion in decoded video caused by random packet losses in the underlying transmission network. A recursion model is derived that relates the average channel-induced distortion in successive P-frames. The model is applicable to all video encoders using the block-based motion-compensated prediction framework (including the H.261/263/264 and MPEG1/2/4 video coding standards) and allows for any motion-compensated temporal concealment method at the decoder. The model explicitly considers the interpolation operation invoked for motion-compensated temporal prediction and concealment with sub-pel motion vectors. The model also takes into account the two new features of the H.264/AVC standard, namely intraprediction and inloop deblocking filtering. A comparison with simulation data shows that the model is very accurate over a large range of packet loss rates and encoder intrablock rates. The model is further adapted to characterize the channel distortion in subsequent received frames after a single lost frame. This allows one to easily evaluate the impact of a single frame loss. View full abstract»

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  • Rate-distortion analysis and streaming of SP and SI frames

    Page(s): 733 - 743
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    The new SP and SI picture types, introduced in the latest video coding standard H.264, allow drift-free bitstream switching and can also be used for error-resilience and random access. In this paper, we propose a model for the rate-distortion performance of SP and SI pictures and compare it to experimental results, obtained with our implementation of an SP/SI encoder, made publicly available and recently adopted by the Joint Video Team. The model predicts how the relative sizes of SP and SI slices can be traded off. We analyze, both theoretically and experimentally, how this can be used to minimize the transmitted bit rate when SP frames are used for video streaming with packet losses and derive optimal settings for our encoder. We investigate the benefits of SI and SP frames for error resilience as compared with periodic I frame insertion. Empirical rate-distortion curves predict rate-distortion gains may be obtained. Experiments carried out over a simulated throughput-limited network confirm this to be the case when the end-to-end delay is limited. We analyze the influence of loss rate and delay on the congestion-rate-distortion performance of streaming with SI and SP frames. Our results identify scenarios for which SI and SP frames provide an attractive alternative to streaming with I frames. View full abstract»

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  • Geometrical analysis of puppet-theater and cardboard effects in stereoscopic HDTV images

    Page(s): 744 - 752
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    A fundamental element of stereoscopic image production is to geometrically analyze the conversion from real space to stereoscopic images by binocular parallax under various shooting and viewing conditions. This paper reports on this analysis, particularly on the setting of the optical axes of three-dimensional (3-D) cameras, which has received little attention in the past. First, we identified the conditions for setting the optical axes that maintain linearity during the conversion from real space to stereoscopic images. We then clarified, in geometrical terms, the shooting and viewing conditions and also conditions under which the puppet-theater effect and cardboard effect occur. The results showed that the parallel camera configuration, by which optical axes are kept parallel to each other, does not produce the puppet-theater effect as the apparent magnification (lateral magnification) of a shooting target is not dependent on the shooting distance. However, the toed-in camera configuration, where the apparent magnification of a shooting target is dependent on the shooting distance, may produce this effect. The cardboard effect is shown to be likely to occur for both camera configurations by defining this phenomenon by the ratio of depthwise reproduction magnification (depth magnification) and apparent reproduction magnification (lateral magnification). Lastly, the paper reports on the relationship between the results of this analysis and those of subjective evaluation experiments. The results need a closer examination by using many more images. View full abstract»

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  • Modified phase-correlation based robust hard-cut detection with application to archive film

    Page(s): 753 - 770
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    This paper targets hard-cut detection for archive film, i.e., mainly black-and-white videos from the beginning of the last century, which is a particularly difficult task due to heavy visual degradations encountered in the sequences. A robust hard-cut detection system based on modified phase correlation is presented. Phase-correlation-based hard-cut detection is carried out using spatially sub-sampled video frames, and a candidate hard-cut is indicated in the case of low correlation. A double thresholding approach consisting of a global threshold used in conjunction with an adaptive local threshold is used to detect candidate hard-cuts. For uniformly colored video frames the phase correlation is extremely sensitive to noise and visual defects. Mean and variance based simple heuristic false removal at uniformly colored video frames is used at the final stage to prevent false detections in such cases. The paper provides a through theoretical analysis to show the usefulness of spatial sub-sampling. Furthermore through experimental results are presented for visual defects encountered in archive film material, to present the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Biometric hash: high-confidence face recognition

    Page(s): 771 - 775
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    In this paper, we describe a biometric hash algorithm for robust extraction of bits from face images. While a face-recognition system has high acceptability, its accuracy is low. The problem arises because of insufficient capability of representing features and variations in data. Thus, we use dimensionality reduction to improve the capability to represent features, error correction to improve robustness with respect to within-class variations, and random projection and orthogonalization to improve discrimination among classes. Specifically, we describe several dimensionality-reduction techniques with biometric hashing enhancement for various numbers of bits extracted. The theoretical results are evaluated on the FERET face database showing that the enhanced methods significantly outperform the corresponding raw methods when the number of extracted bits reaches 100. The improvements of the postprocessing stage for principal component analysis (PCA), Wavelet Transform with PCA, Fisher linear discriminant, Wavelet Transform, and Wavelet Transform with Fourier-Mellin Transform are 98.02%, 95.83%, 99.46%, 99.16%, and 100%, respectively. The proposed technique is quite general, and can be applied to other biometric templates. We anticipate that this algorithm will find applications in cryptographically secure biometric authentication schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Multiplierless filter Bank design: structures that improve both hardware and image compression performance

    Page(s): 776 - 780
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    Design techniques for high-performance, fixed-point, multiplierless filter banks are presented. Image compression using the biorthogonal 9/7 discrete wavelet transform provides a motivating example. Image compression and hardware performance of two commonly used filter structures, direct and cascade, and two known filter bank structures, nonpolyphase and polyphase, are compared. A technique is shown for designing a fixed-point polyphase filter structure, which is highly efficient from a hardware standpoint, such that image-compression quality is not significantly deteriorated by the use of fixed-point mathematics. The result is a polyphase structure with about twice the throughput rate of nonpolyphase structures, and peak signal-to-noise ratio values for lossy compression within 0.2 decibels of those achieved using floating-point filters. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid motion-vector coding scheme based on an estimation of the locality for motion-vector difference

    Page(s): 781 - 785
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The bit portion for motion-vector (MV) information becomes significant in very-low bitrate video coding as texture coding has been improved. Especially, the existing methods, such as minimum bitrate prediction (MBP)-based coding, do not work well for slow-moving video sequences, which are popular in video conferencing and videophone applications. It is because the characteristics of the video sequences are not fully exploited for the MV encoding. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid encoding scheme for MV. A new parameter called a skip rate (SR) is defined for estimating the degree of the locality for the MV difference in the proposed scheme. In addition, we suggest a joint coding with a new single codeword combined with the horizontal and vertical codewords. Either the joint coding or the MBP-based coding is determined by the SR. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances the coding performance for various video sequences without additional memory. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue proposals

    Page(s): 786
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  • IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference healthcare technology (BioCAS 2006)

    Page(s): 787
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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 788
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it