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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 5 • Date May 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of the IEEE [publication information]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 861 - 862
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  • Engineering in the Age of Biology

    Page(s): 863 - 864
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  • Your comments

    Page(s): 865
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    Various letters to the editors. View full abstract»

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  • Special Issue on Technologies for Next-Generation Optical Networks

    Page(s): 866 - 868
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  • Evolution of Terrestrial Optical System and Core Network Architecture

    Page(s): 869 - 891
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    Optical systems and technologies have been radically changing the telecommunication networks for past 15 years; today wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology, optical amplifiers, and simple optical switching elements like optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) are used in the backbone networks of all operators worldwide. Optical systems nowadays provide the basis for cost-effective transmission of large amounts of bandwidth over the Internet, and will enable its future growth and the spreading of new applications and services. This paper summarizes the main trends in optical networking and investigates potential future application areas. Optical system technology has become so pervasive in network design that it needs to be considered in the context of provisioning new applications and services. Therefore, the analysis is not limited to the aspects of physical transmission, but also takes into account recent developments in integrated network design as well as network control and management. The following sections describe the key functionalities of future optical network architectures, and the key findings of the theoretical analysis are supported by the results of a field trial of advanced transmission technology View full abstract»

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  • Enabling Technologies for Next-Generation Optical Packet-Switching Networks

    Page(s): 892 - 910
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    The optical packet-switching network is considered to be one of the most promising solutions for end-to-end delivery of high-bitrate data, video, and voice signals across optical networks of the future. Optical label switching (OLS) technology incurs simpler extraction and processing of the labels so that the optical packets can be routed with low latency to the destinations. We have developed several key enabling technologies for integrated optical networks, including optical label generation, label swapping, optical buffering, clock recovery, and wavelength conversion. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated these enabling techniques that can provide efficient broadband services in future optical networks View full abstract»

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  • Fiber to the Home/Fiber to the Premises: What, Where, and When?

    Page(s): 911 - 934
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    After conquering the core and metropolitan networks, fiber is now penetrating into the access domain. Its low loss and huge bandwidth enable the delivery of any current and foreseeable set of broadband services, and also make it a nice match to the wireless link to the end user. Cost effectiveness is a key issue, and will be decisive for the network topology choices. Point-to-point may be the most cost-effective for short-reach access, whereas point-to-multipoint may be the most interesting at medium- to long-reach access, or when line terminations in the local exchange become a key issue. A number of optical techniques being deployed for shared-fiber multiple access are discussed, based on time slot multiplexing, frequency slot multiplexing, code division multiplexing, and wavelength multiplexing, including their application in fiber to the home/fiber to the premises (FTTH/FTTP) networks for fast data transfer (asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or Ethernet based) and for broadband service distribution (such as CATV). In the research laboratories, techniques aiming at next-generation optical access are being studied, such as wavelength routing for flexible capacity allocation and easily adaptable hosting of services and service providers, and radio-over-fiber techniques creating a powerful symbiosis of the fiber world and the wireless world by enabling centralized radio signal processing View full abstract»

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  • Upgrading WDM Submarine Systems to 40-Gbit/s Channel Bitrate

    Page(s): 935 - 951
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    The introduction of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has triggered a tremendous capacity growth in submarine systems, both by the increase of the number of WDM channels and by the increase of the channel bitrate. Starting from 2.5 Gbit/s in the mid-1990s, the bitrate was upgraded to 10 Gbit/s by the end of the century in commercial products. The next generation of submarine systems will likely be based on a 40-Gbit/s bitrate. However, transmissions at a 40-Gbit/s rate are more challenging than transmissions at 10 Gbit/s. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the technologies which could be required or used in next-generation submarine systems. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the history of submarine links is provided. Then the technologies used in current N times 10 Gbit/s systems are described. Eventually, the challenges to overcome are discussed, whether they concern the type of fiber, the type of optical amplifier, or the nature of the modulation format View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Optical Modulation Formats

    Page(s): 952 - 985
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    Fiber-optic communication systems form the high-capacity transport infrastructure that enables global broadband data services and advanced Internet applications. The desire for higher per-fiber transport capacities and, at the same time, the drive for lower costs per end-to-end transmitted information bit has led to optically routed networks with high spectral efficiencies. Among other enabling technologies, advanced optical modulation formats have become key to the design of modern wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber systems. In this paper, we review optical modulation formats in the broader context of optically routed WDM networks. We discuss the generation and detection of multigigabit/s intensity- and phase-modulated formats, and highlight their resilience to key impairments found in optical networking, such as optical amplifier noise, multipath interference, chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, WDM crosstalk, concatenated optical filtering, and fiber nonlinearity View full abstract»

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  • Toward High-Speed 40-Gbit/s Transponders

    Page(s): 986 - 996
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    Today a 40-Gbit/s data rate is agreed by major optical telecommunication players as the next step in the network evolution, with an actual deployment foreseen in the 2007-2008 timeframe. R&D activities on technologies for 40-Gbit/s products are currently active but the path to 40-Gbit/s transponders is not yet fully settled. In this paper, we review the different component technologies currently considered for the actual development and the implementation of future 40-Gbit/s transponders. Dedicated paragraphs are devoted to electronic ICs and electrooptical devices, along with considerations on the technical solutions ensuring suitable interconnections or integration of the different components. Such advanced transponders should be compliant with the requirements of the different segments of the optical transport market. Solutions derived from choices made at lower data rates are projected for the shortest transmission paths, based on conventional nonreturn to zero modulation. In the peculiar case of long-haul transmission, signal distortion resulting from fiber propagation impairments calls for the generation of alternative modulation formats at the transmitter side and the potential need for electronic processing at the receiver side. This obviously has a clear impact on both the transponder design and the individual components features. Finally, recent advances in the field of innovative "all-optical" transponders implementing optical regeneration are also reported View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances Toward Optical Devices in Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystals

    Page(s): 997 - 1023
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    Photonic crystals, artificial, wavelength-scale multidimensional periodic structures, have given birth to a number of realizations in semiconductors. Photonic integrated circuits, especially around new integrated lasers, are challenging directions of research for miniaturization and new functions in optical telecommunications. We review the basic physics behind such applications and underline the current status of this very active research field worldwide View full abstract»

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  • Challenges of Raman Amplification

    Page(s): 1024 - 1035
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    Raman amplifiers are often regarded as a typical example of technologies rapidly developed in the midst of turmoil created by the so-called wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) bubble. Indeed, Raman amplifiers turned out to be technically very attractive in all the aspects of capacity, reach, and bit rate. Even though Raman amplifiers are actually being deployed into systems in commercial service, the practical issues, such as cost, reliability and safety, are yet to be further discussed, particularly for the configuration of distributed amplification. After summarizing the advantages of Raman amplification and reviewing pump laser technologies, this paper will highlight ongoing efforts on practical issues, which include reliability and safety issues of fiber under high-power operations. Finally, it is concluded that by overcoming the above-mentioned practical issues, Raman amplification will stay as a key technology for future optical communications because of its compelling unique advantages View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: George W. Pierce

    Page(s): 1036 - 1038
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    In 1929, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) selected George W. Pierce as the recipient of its Medal of Honor. He was honored for his research on crystal detectors and applications of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction. The award citation also mentioned "his instructional leadership as a teacher and as a writer of important texts." He earlier had served as president of the IRE in 1918 and 1919, becoming the only person to serve a two-year term in its 50-year existence. He was known as a meticulous experimenter who designed his instruments for maximum precision. During his career, he received 53 patents and authored three books and about 30 scientific papers View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 1039
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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 1040
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  • Special issue on technical advances in deep space communications and tracking

    Page(s): c3
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  • Coming in June the Proceedings of the IEEE

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University