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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial Special Issue on Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 565 - 566
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  • Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 567 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (187)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and more electric power are driving advanced vehicular power system voltages to higher levels. For example, the projected increase in total power demand is estimated to be about three to four times that of the current value. This means that the total future power demand of a typical advanced vehicle could roughly reach a value as high as 10 kW. In order to satisfy this huge vehicular load, the approach is to integrate power electronics intensive solutions within advanced vehicular power systems. In view of this fact, this paper aims at reviewing the present situation as well as projected future research and development work of advanced vehicular electrical power systems including those of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and FCVs). The paper will first introduce the proposed power system architectures for HEVs and FCVs and will then go on to exhaustively discuss the specific applications of dc/dc and dc/ac power electronic converters in advanced automotive power systems View full abstract»

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  • Automotive DC-DC bidirectional converter made with many interleaved buck stages

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 578 - 586
    Cited by:  Papers (91)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interleaving technique is used in some applications due to its advantages regarding filter reduction, dynamic response, and power management. In dual battery system vehicles, the bidirectional dc-dc converter takes advantage of this technique using three-to-five paralleled buck stages. In this paper, we propose the use of a much higher number of phases in parallel together with digital control. It will be shown that this approach opens new possibilities since changes in the technology are possible. Thus, two 1000-W prototypes have been designed using surface mount technology devices (SO-8 transistors). An additional important feature is that due to the accuracy of the digital device [field-programmable gate array (FPGA)], current loops have been eliminated, greatly simplifying the implementation of the control stage View full abstract»

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  • Low cost high efficiency DC-DC converter for fuel cell powered auxiliary power unit of a heavy vehicle

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 587 - 591
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (990 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new dc-dc converter for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) powered auxiliary power unit (APU) is proposed. The proposed converter does not consider the leakage inductance of the transformer as a parasite and uses it for energy transfer, thus avoiding problems of low efficiency and difficulty in control, caused by leakage inductance. The need for a separate filter inductor is also eliminated. Soft switching is done for some of the switches of the proposed converter, thereby further increasing the efficiency of the converter. Thus, the achieved low cost and high efficiency of the proposed converter make it suitable for SOFC powered APU applications. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the proposed dc-dc converter. The achieved cost and efficiency of the prototype are 50.8$/kW and 90%, respectively View full abstract»

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  • 42-V/3-V Watkins-Johnson converter for automotive use

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 592 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)  

    In this paper, the Watkins-Johnson (WJ) converter was found to best step down the future automotive 42-V power network to 3 V or lower for the supply of microcontrollers and semiconductors. The particularity of the WJ converter is that it only employs a tapped-inductor and three other components. The use of a tapped-inductor is well-known and gives an extra-degree of freedom by the insertion of the winding ratio of the tapped-inductor into the transfer function of the WJ converter. It also permits the duty cycle to be adjusted to a value at which the efficiency of the converter is improved. The converter can be slightly modified and used as a multiple output converter while employing few components, diminishing the weight, size, cost, and complexity of a system. Practical test results for the single-output WJ converter are presented View full abstract»

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  • Reliability analysis and modeling of power MOSFETs in the 42-V-PowerNet

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 603 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (971 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the operation of PowerMOSFETs in the 42-V-PowerNet and shows that very stressful conditions are encountered, which can lead to severe reliability problems. To enable thorough investigations by circuit simulations an accurate physics-based compact model of the devices is proposed: it includes all important electrothermal effects relevant to the description of the observed failure mechanisms. By means of an advanced thermal-modeling approach, multichip assemblies can be accurately described, including mutual heating effects between neighboring devices. Some properly chosen examples demonstrate the validity of the model and its usefulness for reliability investigations View full abstract»

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  • Model requirements for simulation of low-voltage MOSFET in automotive applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 613 - 624
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the modeling of low-voltage automotive power electronic circuits to obtain accurate system simulation, including estimation of losses. The aim is to compare several metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) models to find out which can be used for low-voltage, high-current automotive converter simulations. As these models are intended for system simulation, only analytical models are addressed as they may be implemented into any circuit simulator. The different modes of operation of the switches are described (commutation, synchronous rectification, avalanche...), and several models of the power MOSFET transistor, allowing for simulation in these modes, are presented. Special care is given to the parameter extraction methods and to the interconnection model of the commutation cell. The four test circuits used to identify the low-voltage power MOSFET model parameters are presented. Comparison between simulations and measurements obtained with a calorimeter are then detailed. This measurement method is accurate and offers a simple way to prove the quality of simulation results. It is shown that the parameter identification is of major concern to achieve high accuracy, as classical Spice models can give good results, providing the model parameters are correctly set View full abstract»

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  • Novel approach of twin-side thermal interfacing of integrated power modules for reduced thermal impedance

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 625 - 632
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach of twin-side thermal interfaces of integrated power modules (IPM) is presented. This approach applies and improves commercially off-the-shelf products of IPM without significantly changing the original packaging design and manufacture's fabrication process. This approach can reduce the equivalent thermal impedance of the power module by about 20 %. It, in turn, reduces the p-n junction temperature rise of the power devices inside by 20 % at an equivalent load, thus being able to increase ambient operating temperatures, which is desirable for automotive applications. In addition, the weight and volume associated with conventional cooling mechanism can be reduced View full abstract»

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  • Arc fault detection scheme for 42-V automotive DC networks using current shunt

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 633 - 639
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB)  

    Introduction of higher dc system voltage distribution networks, such as the 42-V PowerNet in future passenger vehicles appears to be an unavoidable consequence of meeting the increasing future electrical power demand. Higher voltage electrical distribution networks in vehicles force considerable component and system changes regarding electrical safety and reliability. In the event of an arc fault, e.g., when a wire is pinched or cut, or disengaged terminals under load etc., the resulting current may be significantly lower than the trip current of the protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers. In these cases either the fault is cleared late (depending on the time/current characteristics of the fuse) or, in some cases the fault may not be cleared at all. A cost effective arc fault detection scheme using input side current shunt was developed, built, and tested with different loads including motor loads to clear both parallel and series arc faults in a 42-V dc network. This paper presents the details of the developed arc fault detection scheme and test results under several fault conditions View full abstract»

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  • A novel rapid charger for lead-acid batteries with energy recovery

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 640 - 647
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel rapid charger for lead-acid batteries is proposed in this paper. The proposed charger uses a single-stage power converter with an energy recovery cell. While providing high charging efficiency and prolonging battery lifetime, the proposed charger exhibits a high power factor, simplicity, and lower cost. The operating principles and design criteria are analyzed and discussed in detail. Simulation and experimental results from a laboratory prototype are shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme View full abstract»

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  • An integrated 42-V drive design for automobile loads with a low-distortion overmodulation strategy

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 648 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (879 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper (also presented at [27]) presents an integrated design approach to small drives for emerging 42-V automotive systems. The emphasis is on motors for ancillary loads. The final result offers a simple and low cost solution with high efficiency and high power density. Motor and inverter designs are combined to gain advantages in power factor and operating range. A near-minimum-distortion method is introduced for the overmodulation regime to improve power factor without sacrificing harmonic performance. The design is addressed in several steps: integration of the induction motor into a 42-V environment, selection of the inverter modulation scheme, and final system integration. The proposed system consists of an induction motor wound for the proper voltage range and driven by an inverter. The inverter is used partly in the overmodulation regime when bus voltage is low. A signal is formed based on triangle injection to minimize distortion. Some alternative modulation approaches are also analyzed and compared with the proposed solution. Experimental results confirm that a low-distortion overmodulation approach can be implemented successfully View full abstract»

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  • Making the case for applications of switched reluctance motor technology in automotive products

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 659 - 675
    Cited by:  Papers (76)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switched reluctance machines (SRM) offer attractive attributes for automotive applications. These include robustness to harsh operational conditions, rugged structure, fault resilient performance, and a wide range of speed. The main debate over the adequacy of switched reluctance drives in automotive applications has often focused on efficiency and position sensorless control over the entire speed range, adaptation of control algorithms in the presence of parameter variations, and high levels of acoustic noise and vibration. The present paper demonstrates three key technologies developed over the past few years that have resulted in tangible improvements in the performance of SRM/generators (SRM/G) as related to the above areas of interest. This paper intends to illustrate the new possibilities and remaining challenges in applications of SRM in automotive industry. The proposed technologies have been validated by simulation and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Multilayer control of an induction motor drive:A strategic step for automotive applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 676 - 686
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault tolerance is a critical attribute in automotive electrical and propulsion systems. In this paper, a control scheme is presented that allows an induction motor drive system to operate in the event of multiple sensor failures. Automatic diagnosis of sensor fault and recovery is performed and used to reconfigure the drive system controls to achieve the best performance in lieu of component degradation. This approach couples a new digital delta-hysteresis regulation scheme with a model reference adaptive system scheme in order to provide fault tolerance for both phase-current and rotor position (speed) sensors. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme View full abstract»

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  • A five-leg inverter for driving a traction motor and a compressor motor

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 687 - 692
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an integrated inverter for speed control of a traction motor and a compressor motor to reduce the compressor drive cost in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications. The inverter comprises five phase-legs; three of which are for control of a three-phase traction motor and the remaining two for a two-phase compressor motor with three terminals. The common terminal of the two-phase motor is tied to the neutral point of the three-phase traction motor to eliminate the requirement of a third phase leg. Further component reduction is made possible by sharing the switching devices, dc bus filter capacitors, gate drive power supplies, and control circuit. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify that speed control of the two motors is independent from each other View full abstract»

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  • Active attenuation of electromagnetic noise in an inverter-fed automotive electric drive system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 693 - 700
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic noise, typical for systems with switching power converters, is especially troublesome in automotive electric drive systems because of the multitude of sensitive electronic equipment onboard of modern cars. To satisfy the relevant engineering norms, passive radio-frequency (RF) filters must be installed in the power electronic part of a drive. The RF filters add to the cost and size of the drive, which car designers strive to minimize to increase the passenger space. In this paper, active attenuation of the electromagnetic noise by means of the so-called random-delay pulse width modulation is described in application to an inverter-fed automotive ac drive. Based on computer simulations and experimental investigation, this simple and inexpensive method is shown to be highly effective View full abstract»

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  • Integrated starter generator for 42-V powernet using induction machine and direct torque control technique

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 701 - 710
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2789 KB)  

    This paper describes an integrated starter generator (ISG) for automobile applications with 42-V powernet. This system is based on an induction machine which is directly mounted on the engine crankshaft and controlled using the technique of direct torque control (DTC). The suitability of the technique for ISG application is explained. The control structure of DTC for ISG application is described. Detailed experimental results from a 1.4-1 diesel engine are presented demonstrating the performance of the system during cranking as well as generation. The ISG also incorporates the feature of "on the fly start" during generation mode. Details of a low voltage high current power converter developed for this application are also given View full abstract»

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  • DTFC-SVM motion-sensorless control of a PM-assisted reluctance synchronous machine as starter-alternator for hybrid electric vehicles

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 711 - 719
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Permanent magnet-assisted reluctance synchronous machine (PM-RSM) starter alternator systems are credited with good performance for wide speed range in hybrid electric vehicles. This paper proposes a motion-sensorless motor/generator control of PM-RSM from zero speed up to maximum speed, using direct torque and flux control with space vector modulation. A quasioptimal stator flux reference with a flux versus torque functional is proposed. A stator flux observer in wide speed range uses combined voltage-current models for low speeds, and only the voltage model for medium to high speeds, both in proportional-integral closed loop. A novel rotor speed and position observer with a fusion strategy employs signal injection and only one D-module vector filter in stator reference for low speed, combined with a speed observer from the stator flux vector estimation-for medium-high speed. The proposed system is introduced piece by piece and then implemented on a dSpace 1103 control board with a 350-A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-pulse-width modulation converter connected to a 42-Vdc, 55-Ah battery, and a 140-Nm peak torque PM-RSM. Extensive experimental results from very low speed to high speed, regarding observers and drive responses, including artificial loading (motoring and generating), seem very encouraging for future starter-alternator systems View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and comparison of a speed-dependant and a torque-dependant mechanical device for wide constant power speed range in AFPM starter/alternators

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 720 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, two methods for flux linkage regulation in a starter/alternator with an axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machine are proposed and compared. Desired regulation is achieved by two different mechanical solutions, each of them capable of modifying the amount of flux linkage through displacement of the two rotors in the AFPM machine. Constant power generation is thus achieved with very inexpensive devices that do not require external energy sources since energy in the airgap doesn't change. The main difference between the two proposed solutions is that the speed dependant device is ideally a constant voltage source while the torque-dependant device behaves as a constant current source. Even if some improvements are still needed, both devices introduce the totally innovative concept of mechanical flux weakening for AFPM power regulation in a wide speed range. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the introduction of these devices doesn't modify machine behavior in starting mode, so that the particular features of AFPM machines in terms of high torque density and overload capability remain unaffected View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive drive train efficiency analysis of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles based on motor-controller efficiency modeling

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 730 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (55)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From the point of view of overall hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and fuel cell vehicle (FCV) drive train efficiency, the research focus is mainly on the efficiency analysis of the power train components, which prove to be an integral part of modern HEV and FCV drive trains. The critical portion of any HEV electrical system consists of a power electronic converter (inverter) and a suitable traction motor. Thus, the efficiency analysis of the inverter/motor is of prime importance for the calculation of the overall efficiency of the drive trains. This paper aims at modeling the efficiencies of the traction motor/controller through efficiency maps. Efficiency maps are a convenient way to represent motor drive systems of large and complex systems, like that of a HEV. The paper uses the advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR) software for the simulations of a large-sized car, similar to a Chevy Lumina, over the urban dynamometer-driving schedule and highway fuel economy test drive cycles. Furthermore, the paper investigates the traction motor efficiency maps and consequent overall drive train efficiencies of commercially available Honda Insight and Toyota Prius HEVs. In all the case studies, the aim is to analyze the overall drive train efficiency over the city and highway drive cycles based on the inverter/motor efficiency maps View full abstract»

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  • A torque and speed coupling hybrid drivetrain-architecture, control, and simulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 741 - 748
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a speed and torque coupling hybrid drivetrain is introduced. In this drivetrain, a planetary gear unit and a generator/motor decouple the engine speed from the vehicle wheel speed. Also, another shaft-fixed gear unit and traction motor decouple the engine torque from the vehicle wheel torque. Thus, the engine can operate within its optimal speed and torque region, and at the same time, can directly deliver its torque to the driven wheels. This paper discussed the fundamentals architecture, design, control, and simulation of the drivetrain View full abstract»

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  • Parametric design of the traction motor and energy storage for series hybrid off-road and military vehicles

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 749 - 755
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Focusing on off-road and military hybrid vehicles, this paper fundamentally studied the design and the impact of the traction motor drive characteristics on vehicle performance, transmission requirement, energy storage, and reliability. This study focused to the impact of the extended speed of the motor drives on their power ratings, and therefore, of the energy storage size for given acceleration and gradeability specifications. Furthermore, hybrid electric energy storage, consisting of batteries and ultracapacitors, is investigated, in which batteries are used as the energy source and ultracapacitors as the power source. This hybrid energy storage can be much more compact and lighter than either the batteries or the ultracapacitors alone as the energy storage. All the data used in the paper is based on a 10-ton series hybrid off-road military vehicle View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 756 - 767
    Cited by:  Papers (88)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (758 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is now significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. Economics play a major role as evidenced by oil prices in North America pressing upwards of $100/Bbl coupled with a customer preference for full size crossover and sport utility vehicles. The situation in Oceania is milder, but emerging markets such as China are experiencing automotive sector growth rates of 37%/year. Europe remains least affected by hybrids since nearly 47% of all new vehicles sold are diesel fueled and have economy ratings on par with that of gasoline-electric hybrids. In the global economy there are presently some 57 Mil new vehicles manufactured each year. Toyota and Honda have projected that HEVs will be 10 % to 15 % of the U.S. market by 2009, with Toyota raising the bar further by stating they will produce 1 Mil hybrids a year in the 2012 time frame. Hybrid propulsion system types are only vaguely comprehended by the buying public, and to a large measure, even by technical professionals. This paper addresses this latter issue by presenting a summary of the globally accepted standard in hybrid power trains-the power split architecture, or more generically and in common usage, the electronic-continuously variable transmission View full abstract»

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  • A parallel-hybrid drive-train for propulsion of a small scooter

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 768 - 778
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents the results of a two year study regarding the use of an innovative drive-train, having a parallel-hybrid structure, in a small scooter, in which a conventional internal combustion engine is coupled with an electric motor for the vehicle propulsion. The developed architecture enhances the maximum vehicle power, by exploiting the braking energy (by recovering it into the provided electrochemical accumulator), and operating the vehicle in zero emission mode for limited ranges. Moreover, it allows for recharging the inner battery from the electric mains, which is extremely appealing in terms of operating costs. According to the simulation results, the hybridization is able to enhance the maximum power of the scooter by 1.1 kW (around 50%), without changing the fuel consumption, and to allow a pure-electric operation with a range of 15-20 km; when the propulsion power comes only from the onboard batteries, and they are recharged from the electric mains, the operation cost per km is around a quarter the cost of corresponding fuel consumption of a vehicle without hybridization View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

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