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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • An affine-based algorithm and SIMD architecture for video compression with low bit-rate applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 457 - 471
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new affine-based algorithm and SIMD architecture for video compression with low bit rate applications. The proposed algorithm is used for mesh-based motion estimation and it is named mesh-based square-matching algorithm (MB-SMA). The MB-SMA is a simplified version of the hexagonal matching algorithm [1]. In this algorithm, right-angled triangular mesh is used to benefit from a multiplication free algorithm presented in [2] for computing the affine parameters. The proposed algorithm has lower computational cost than the hexagonal matching algorithm while it produces almost the same peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values. The MB-SMA outperforms the commonly used motion estimation algorithms in terms of computational cost, efficiency and video quality (i.e., PSNR). The MB-SMA is implemented using an SIMD architecture in which a large number of processing elements has been embedded with SRAM blocks to utilize the large internal memory bandwidth. The proposed architecture needs 26.9 ms to process one CIF video frame. Therefore, it can process 37 CIF frames/s. The proposed architecture has been prototyped using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the embedded SRAMs have been generated using Virage Logic memory compiler. View full abstract»

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  • A high-performance direct 2-D transform coding IP design for MPEG-4AVC/H.264

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 472 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a high-performance direct two-dimensional transform coding IP design for MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 video coding standard. Because four kinds of 4 × 4 transforms, i.e., forward, inverse, forward-Hadamard, and inverse-Hadamard transforms are required in a H.264 encoding system, a high-performance multitransform accelerator is inevitable to compute these transforms simultaneously for fitting real-time processing requirement. Accordingly, this paper proposes a direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition on-the-fly. The induced new transform architecture greatly increases the data processing rate up to 8 pixels/cycle. In addition, an interlaced I/O schedule is disclosed to balance the data I/O rate and the data processing rate of the proposed multitransform design when integrated with H.264 systems. Using a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the optimum operating clock frequency of the proposed multitransform design is 100 MHz which achieves 800 Mpixels/s data throughput rate with the cost of 6482 gates. This performance can achieve the real-time multitransform processing of digital cinema video (4096 × 4 2048@30 Hz). When the data throughput rate per unit area is adopted as the comparison index in hardware efficiency, the proposed design is at least 1.94 times more efficient than the existing designs. Moreover, the proposed multitransform design can achieve HDTV 720p, 1080i, digital cinema video processing requirements by consuming only 0.58, 2.91, and 24.18 mW when operated at 22, 50, and 100 MHz with 0.7, 1.0, and 1.8 V power supplies, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive interpolation filters and high-resolution displacements for video coding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 484 - 491
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    Standardized hybrid video coding systems are based on motion compensated prediction with fractional-pel displacement vector resolution. In the recent video coding standard H.264/AVC, a displacement vector resolution of 1/4-pel is applied. In order to estimate and compensate these fractional-pel displacements, interpolation filters are used. So far, these interpolation filters are invariant. The same filter with the same filter-coefficients is applied for all sequences and for all images of a sequence. Therefore, it is not possible to consider nonstationary statistical properties of the video signal and the motion compensated prediction process like aliasing, quantization errors, and displacement estimation errors. This paper presents two techniques that improve the motion compensated prediction and accordingly the coding efficiency. The first technique applies an adaptive interpolation filter that uses filter-coefficients which are adapted once per image. The adapted filter-coefficients are coded and transmitted. The second technique is based on an increased displacement vector resolution of 1/8-pel. In combination, the developed techniques indicate bit-rate reductions up to 25 % compared to H.264/AVC. View full abstract»

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  • Enabling arbitrary rotational camera motion using multisprites with minimum coding cost

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 492 - 506
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Object-oriented coding in the MPEG-4 standard enables the separate processing of foreground objects and the scene background (sprite). Since the background sprite only has to be sent once, transmission bandwidth can be saved. We have found that the counter-intuitive approach of splitting the background into several independent parts can reduce the overall amount of data. Furthermore, we show that in the general case, the synthesis of a single background sprite is even impossible and that the scene background must be sent as multiple sprites instead. For this reason, we propose an algorithm that provides an optimal partitioning of a video sequence into independent background sprites (a multisprite), resulting in a significant reduction of the involved coding cost. Additionally, our sprite-generation algorithm ensures that the sprite resolution is kept high enough to preserve all details of the input sequence, which is a problem especially during camera zoom-in operations. Even though our sprite generation algorithm creates multiple sprites instead of only a single background sprite, it is fully compatible with the existing MPEG-4 standard. The algorithm has been evaluated with several test sequences, including the well-known Table-tennis and Stefan sequences. The total coding cost for the sprite VOP is reduced by a factor of about 2.6 or even higher, depending on the sequence. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and complexity reduction of multiple reference frames motion estimation in H.264/AVC

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 507 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the new video coding standard H.264/AVC, motion estimation (ME) is allowed to search multiple reference frames. Therefore, the required computation is highly increased, and it is in proportion to the number of searched reference frames. However, the reduction in prediction residues is mostly dependent on the nature of sequences, not on the number of searched frames. Sometimes the prediction residues can be greatly reduced, but frequently a lot of computation is wasted without achieving any better coding performance. In this paper, we propose a context-based adaptive method to speed up the multiple reference frames ME. Statistical analysis is first applied to the available information for each macroblock (MB) after intra-prediction and inter-prediction from the previous frame. Context-based adaptive criteria are then derived to determine whether it is necessary to search more reference frames. The reference frame selection criteria are related to selected MB modes, inter-prediction residues, intra-prediction residues, motion vectors of subpartitioned blocks, and quantization parameters. Many available standard video sequences are tested as examples. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can maintain competitively the same video quality as exhaustive search of multiple reference frames. Meanwhile, 76 %-96 % of computation for searching unnecessary reference frames can be avoided. Moreover, our fast reference frame selection is orthogonal to conventional fast block matching algorithms, and they can be easily combined to achieve further efficient implementations. View full abstract»

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  • Transform domain transcoding from MPEG-2 to H.264 with interpolation drift-error compensation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 523 - 534
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasingly extensive applications of the new emerging video coding standard H.264, it inspires an urgent need to transcode the widely available MPEG-2 compressed video to H.264 format. In this paper, we investigate the issues on transcoding MPEG-2 into H.264 in transform domain with consideration of drift error due to the mismatch of motion compensation, and propose a transform domain solution to transcode MPEG-2 into H.264. We first analyze two major kinds of drifting error resulting from the mismatch of motion compensation: interpolation error and quantization error. The former is caused by the difference between the interpolation filters adopted in these two standards, thus very unique to the transform domain transcoding from MPEG-2 to H.264. Furthermore, it is identified as the dominant factor of the video quality degradation, especially in the case of small quantization parameter at high bit-rate, by extensive experimental results. As a major contribution of this paper, the close form of interpolation error is derived from transform domain. We then proposed the transcoding scheme based on quantization error drifting compensation and Interpolation error drifting compensation. Experimental results show that the proposed transform domain transcoding scheme achieves very promising performance in terms of low computational complexity and high transcoded video quality. Most importantly, its peak signal-to-noise ratio is very close to the cascaded transcoding architecture with time-consuming decoding and recoding process in pixel domain. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical model, analysis and approximation of rate-distortion function in MPEG-4 FGS videos

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 535 - 539
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the generalized Gaussian distribution is employed first to model the DCT coefficients of image data from MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability (FGS) frame. Then, according to the quantization theory, the distortion-rate function of the generalized Gaussian model is analyzed and it is concluded that the derivative of the distortion-rate function first decreases, and then increases up to the boundary of 6.02 as the bit rate increases. For actual FGS coding, the derivative of actual distortion-rate function usually decreases as the rate increases, and then begins to increase slowly at a comparatively high bit rate. Finally, based on above observations, a rate-distortion (R-D) model is proposed to approximate the actual distortion-rate function. Experiments show that the proposed R-D model is accurate and flexible. View full abstract»

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  • The realization of arbitrary downsizing video transcoding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 540 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to transmit the precoded bit stream through bandwidth constrained network, transcoding technique has been introduced to reduce the overall bit rate generated. Downsizing transcoding is one of the commonly used methods since it can reach very low bit rate without losing any motion information. Many efforts have been devoted to this research area. With the proposal of arbitrary downsizing, fine gradual reduction of bit rate and video quality becomes feasible. However, there is little research focusing on frame size selection for arbitrary downsizing transcoding. In this letter, the realization of arbitrary downsizing transcoding is discussed. Rate estimation scheme is applied on video sequences to choose the suitable frame size for the target bit rate. An efficient method is proposed to estimate the number of bits allocated to residue in requantization process. Experimental results show that, it can provide an accurate estimation and make a reliable decision in frame size selection. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient prediction algorithm of integer DCT coefficients for H.264/AVC optimization

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 547 - 552
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel efficient prediction algorithm to reduce redundant discrete cosine transform (DCT) and quantization computations for H.264 encoding optimization. A theoretical analysis is performed to study the sufficient condition for DCT coefficients to be quantized to zeros. As a result, three sufficient conditions corresponding to three types of transform and quantization methods in H.264 are proposed. Compared with other algorithms in the literature, the proposed algorithm derives more precise and efficient conditions to predict zero quantized DCT coefficients. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to other algorithms in terms of the computational complexity reduction, encoded video quality, false acceptance rate, and false rejection rate. View full abstract»

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  • Level C+ data reuse scheme for motion estimation with corresponding coding orders

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 553 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The memory bandwidth reduction for motion estimation is important because of the power consumption and limited memory bandwidth in video coding systems. In this paper, we propose a Level C+ scheme which can fully reuse the overlapped searching region in the horizontal direction and partially reuse the overlapped searching region in the vertical direction to save more memory bandwidth compared to the Level C scheme. However, direct implementation of the Level C+ scheme may conflict with some important coding tools and then induces a lower hardware efficiency of video coding systems. Therefore, we propose n-stitched zigzag scan for the Level C+ scheme and discuss two types of 2-stitched zigzag scan for MPEG-4 and H.264 as examples. They can reduce memory bandwidth and solve the conflictions. When the specification is HDTV 720p, where the searching range is [-128,128), the required memory bandwidth is only 54%, and the increase of on-chip memory size is only 12% compared to those of traditional Level C data reuse scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on proposals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 559
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  • Special issue on nanoelectronic circuits and nanoarchitectures

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 560
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  • 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 561
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  • IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference healthcare technology (BiOCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 562
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  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 563
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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 564
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it