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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Experimental frequency-domain analysis of nonlinear controlled optical storage drives

    Page(s): 389 - 397
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    For nonlinear controlled optical storage drives, a frequency-domain measurement approach is shown to be effective in demonstrating both stability and performance. In an experimental setting based on an industrial optical playback (CD drive) device, the motivation for applying such an approach is illuminated. It is shown that performance can efficiently be assessed using a describing function approach on a model level and using swept-sine measurements on an experimental level. The validity and effectiveness of the approach is extensively shown via closed-loop measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Extremum seeking methods for optimization of variable cam timing engine operation

    Page(s): 398 - 407
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automotive engines have been increasingly equipped with devices that can vary engine parameters with operating conditions. Optimizing these parameters via standard engine mapping and calibration has become a very time consuming task. The specific problem under consideration in this paper is optimization of intake, exhaust, and spark timings to improve the brake specific fuel consumption of a dual-independent variable cam timing engine. We have explored extremum seeking (ES) as a method to find the optimal setting of the parameters. During ES, the engine is running at fixed speed and torque in a dynamometer test cell, while an optimization algorithm is iteratively adjusting the three parameters. For our purposes, we have modified several algorithms available in the literature. The details about the algorithms and the experimental results they produced are presented and discussed in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear discrete-time reconfigurable flight control law using neural networks

    Page(s): 408 - 422
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A neural-network-based adaptive reconfigurable flight controller is presented for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems. The objective of the controller is to make the angle of attack, sideslip angle, and bank angle follow a given desired trajectory in the presence of control surface damage and aerodynamic uncertainties. The adaptive discrete-time nonlinear controller is developed using the backstepping technique and feedback linearization. Feedforward multilayer neural networks (NNs) are augmented to guarantee consistent performance when the effectiveness of the control decreases due to control surface damage. NNs learn through the recursive weight update rules that are derived from the discrete-time version of Lyapunov control theory. The boundness property of the error states and NN weight estimation errors is also investigated by the discrete-time Lyapunov analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed control law is demonstrated by applying it to a nonlinear dynamic model of the high-performance aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Positive real synthesis using matrix inequalities for mechanical networks: application to vehicle suspension

    Page(s): 423 - 435
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    This paper presents a procedure for the synthesis of positive real controllers based on matrix inequalities. Problems with H2 and H cost are considered and the resulting bilinear matrix inequality problems are solved using local, iterative algorithms. The procedure is applied to the synthesis of passive suspensions for the optimization of certain performance measures for a quarter-car model. The characterization of the positive real constraint using matrix inequalities and the use of a new mechanical element called the inerter, permits the optimization over the entire class of positive real admittances and the realization of the resulting admittance using passive elements. The optimization results are compared with previous results obtained using optimization over fixed-structure admittances. The proposed method can reproduce the previous results and achieve better results in certain cases. Results of the experimental testing of a mechanical network involving an inerter are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Commutational ramp load control for disk drive actuators

    Page(s): 436 - 442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The research investigates the feasibility of a ramp load/unload (L/UL) controller using a conventional, non-L/UL disk drive actuator. Therefore, disk drives with lower cost and higher torque actuators can realize the linear shock resistance benefits of ramp loading. A disk drive designed with a conventional actuator is outfitted with a ramp and optimized for L/UL operation. While on the ramp, there exists a set in the state space where the actuator dynamics are uncontrollable. A state trajectory is generated that, when tracked, moves the actuator through the uncontrollable set and equilibrium points for a successful load onto the disk at the desired load velocity. A continuous, state-feedback controller with varying gains is designed for tracking. A unique disk drive is manufactured with ramp load capability and experiments are performed to verify the design and modeling results. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental implementation of extended multivariable PPF control on an active structure

    Page(s): 443 - 455
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    This paper reports experimental implementation of an extended positive position feedback (PPF) controller on an active structure consisting of a cantilevered beam with bonded collocated piezoelectric actuators and sensors. Stability conditions for PPF control are rederived to allow for a feed-through term in the model of the structure. This feed-through term is needed to ensure that the system's in-bandwidth zeros are captured with reasonable accuracy. The set of stabilizing PPF controllers is shown to be a convex set characterized by a set of linear matrix inequalities. A number of multivariable PPF controllers are designed and successfully implemented on the structure. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive control of holonomic constrained systems: a feedforward fuzzy approximation-based approach

    Page(s): 456 - 466
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    This paper proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy control scheme for the motion/force tracking control of holonomic constrained systems with poorly understood models and disturbances. Some disadvantages of traditional adaptive fuzzy controllers are removed here. In comparison to typical state-feedback fuzzy approximation, the uncertainties are compensated based on a feedforward fuzzy approximation (FFA), which takes desired commands as the premise variables of fuzzy rules. In detail, a unified control model is introduced for representing well-known holonomic systems with an environmental constraint or a set of closed kinematic chains. Then, the FFA-based fuzzy system, adaptation mechanism, and auxiliary-compensating control are derived to ensure robust motion and force tracking in a global manner. Furthermore, a feasible solution for the derived linear matrix inequality guarantees the attenuation of both disturbances and fuzzy parameter errors in an L2-gain sense. Finally, two applications are carried out on: 1) a two-link constrained robot and 2) two planar robots transporting a common object. Numerical simulation results show the expected performance. View full abstract»

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  • An iterative learning controller for reduction of repetitive runout in disk drives

    Page(s): 467 - 473
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    This paper considers the design of an iterative learning controller for the reduction of repeatable runout (RRO) in disk drives. The advocated controller is an add-on controller that does not require modification to the existing track following controller. A design methodology is provided for the selection of the parameters of the update law to ensure convergent learning. It is shown that the update law to ensure convergent learning is equivalent to stabilization of a multi-input multi-output system using static output feedback. Experimental results using a 3.5-in Western Digital drive show that a 50% reduction in the sigma of the RRO is achieved in ten iterations when the levels of repetitive and nonrepeatable runout in the position error signal are comparable. View full abstract»

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  • An iterative learning design for repeatable runout cancellation in disk drives

    Page(s): 474 - 482
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the iterative learning control (ILC) framework to design a reference signal that directly cancels periodic disturbances in a feedback measurement. Cancellation of periodic disturbances is useful in reducing undesirable repeatable tracking errors in applications such as the two-stage servo track writing process for disk drives. A general problem description is given for a linear discrete-time periodic system and convergence results for the learning system are derived. A learning filter is designed with the use of a finite-impulse response model approximation for the inverse of the closed-loop sensitivity such that convergence is achieved in learning a reference signal that provides cancellation with periodic perturbations affecting the system measurement. The ILC algorithm is applied to a disk drive system where experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in reducing periodic measurement disturbances. View full abstract»

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  • Time-to-go weighted optimal guidance with impact angle constraints

    Page(s): 483 - 492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the optimal guidance law with terminal constraints of miss distance and impact angle is presented for a constant speed missile against the stationary target. The proposed guidance law is obtained as the solution of a linear quadratic optimal control problem with the energy cost weighted by a power of the time-to-go. Systematic selection of guidance gains and trajectory shaping are possible by adjusting the exponent of the weighting function. A new time-to-go calculation method taking account of the trajectory curve is also proposed for implementation of the proposed law. Nonlinear and adjoint simulations are performed to investigate the performance of the proposed guidance law and time-to-go calculation method. View full abstract»

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  • Interaction rejection of multiple microactuators in dual-stage servos for hard disk drives

    Page(s): 493 - 500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dual-stage servos with multiple microactuators are an effective way to increase the servo performance for higher track density of hard disk drives. The multiple microactuators can be used to perform simultaneous read/write on multiple disk platters so as to achieve a higher data rate using the parallel processing. Also, faster, independent access to data is possible with multiple actuators. However, the interactions among microactuators may degrade system performance or even cause instability. In this paper, we mainly deal with the interaction problem for piezoelectric microactuators to achieve higher positioning accuracy. The control scheme for the microactuators, designed to reduce the interaction impact, is obtained by applying the generalized Kalman-Yakubovic-Popov lemma in conjunction with the Youla parameterization approach. Our simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy can improve the position accuracy due to microactuator interaction by 40%. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy logic-based controller for wheeled mobile robots

    Page(s): 501 - 510
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a control structure that makes possible the integration of a kinematic controller and an adaptive fuzzy controller for trajectory tracking is developed for nonholonomic mobile robots. The system uncertainty, which includes mobile robot parameter variation and unknown nonlinearities, is estimated by a fuzzy logic system (FLS). The proposed adaptive controller structure represents an amalgamation of nonlinear processing elements and the theory of function approximation using FLS. The real-time control of mobile robots is achieved through the online tuning of FLS parameters. The system stability and the convergence of tracking errors are proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are presented which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control law. The efficacy of the proposed control law is tested experimentally by a differentially driven mobile robot. Both simulation and results are described in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Development of command-based iterative learning control algorithm with consideration of friction, disturbance, and noise effects

    Page(s): 511 - 518
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, a command-based iterative learning control (ILC) architecture is proposed to compensate for friction effect and to reduce tracking error caused by servo lag. In contrast to a feedback-feedforward control structure, the proposed methodology utilizes the learning algorithm that updates the input commands based on the tracking errors from the previous machining process. The effects of noise accumulations from each learning process of the ILC are analyzed by formulating the equivalent error dynamic and updated command equations, and the P-type ILC with a zero-phase filter is applied to alleviate noise and disturbance effects. It is shown that, for tracking a circle, the quadrant protrusions caused by friction can be reduced substantially by the updated command containing a concave shape located at the crossing of the zero velocity. Finally, analytical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the command-based ILC algorithm can enhance the tracking performance significantly. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive threshold approach for the design of an actuator failure detection and identification scheme

    Page(s): 519 - 525
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    Typical logic schemes associated with failure detection and identification algorithms rely on a set of constant thresholds. The selection of the values for these thresholds is generally a tradeoff between the goals of maximizing failure detectability while minimizing false alarm rates. The main purpose of this brief is to propose an alternative to this conventional approach for defining the thresholds of a specific aircraft actuator failure detection and identification scheme. A specific set of detection and identification criteria for failures of the decoupled stabilators, canards, ailerons, and rudders of the NASA Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicle F-15 aircraft have been formulated in terms of neural network estimates and correlation functions of the angular rates. The proposed scheme is based on the use of adaptive thresholds through the floating limiter concept. This new approach eliminates the need for parameter scheduling and has shown to be able to reduce the delays associated with the constant threshold method. The functionality of the approach has been illustrated through numerical simulations on the West Virginia University NASA Intelligent Flight Control System F-15 simulator. View full abstract»

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  • Direction-dependent system modeling approaches exemplified through an electronic nose system

    Page(s): 526 - 531
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    The modeling of processes exhibiting direction-dependent behavior is considered. Depending on the application, different models may be suitable. This brief is concerned with the use of Wiener models and piecewise-linear (PWL) models. These approaches are applied to data from an electronic nose system, for which knowledge of the physical principles is combined with system identification methods. Both models are found to provide close approximations to the behavior of the system itself. View full abstract»

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  • The autocovariance least-squares method for estimating covariances: application to model-based control of chemical reactors

    Page(s): 532 - 540
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the autocovariance least-squares (ALS) technique on two chemical reactor control problems. The method uses closed-loop process data to recover the covariances of the disturbances entering the process, which are required for state estimation. The data used for this purpose may be collected with or without the controllers running. We do not assume that the plant is at steady state nor that only nonzero disturbances are affecting the plant at the time of data collection. The ALS method also accounts for integrated white noise disturbances, which are required for offset-free control. Two examples are provided in this paper: a carefully controlled laboratory reactor and an industrial reactor controlled by a state-of-the-art advanced model predictive control (MPC) system. A variety of control scenarios are tested and the results demonstrate that the ALS method has the potential to improve the best industrial practice of process control by a factor of three to five. View full abstract»

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  • An MPC/hybrid system approach to traction control

    Page(s): 541 - 552
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    This paper describes a hybrid model and a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for solving a traction control problem. The problem is tackled in a systematic way from modeling to control synthesis and implementation. The model is described first in the Hybrid Systems Description Language to obtain a mixed-logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model of the open-loop system. For the resulting MLD model, we design a receding horizon finite-time optimal controller. The resulting optimal controller is converted to its equivalent piecewise affine form by employing multiparametric programming techniques, and finally experimentally tested on a car prototype. Experiments show that good and robust performance is achieved in a limited development time by avoiding the design of ad hoc supervisory and logical constructs usually required by controllers developed according to standard techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive back-stepping neural controller for reconfigurable flight control systems

    Page(s): 553 - 561
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an adaptive back-stepping neural controller for reconfigurable flight control of aircraft in the presence of large changes in the aerodynamic characteristics and also failures. In the proposed controller, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are utilized in an adaptive back-stepping architecture with full state measurement. For the RBF neural networks, a learning scheme in which the network starts with no hidden neurons and adds new hidden neurons based on the trajectory error is developed. Using the Lyapunov theory, stable tuning rules are derived for the update of the centers, widths, and weights of the RBF neural networks and a proof of stability in the ultimate bounded sense is given for the resulting controller. The theory is illustrated using the longitudinal model of an open-loop unstable high-performance aircraft in the terminal landing phase subjected to single elevator hard over failure and severe winds. The resulting controller is able to successfully stabilize and land the aircraft within a tight touch down dispersion. View full abstract»

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  • Attitude stabilization of a VTOL quadrotor aircraft

    Page(s): 562 - 571
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new quaternion-based feedback control scheme for exponential attitude stabilization of a four-rotor vertical takeoff and landing aerial robot known as a quadrotor aircraft. The proposed controller is based upon the compensation of the Coriolis and gyroscopic torques and the use of a PD2 feedback structure, where the proportional action is in terms of the vector quaternion and the two derivative actions are in terms of the airframe angular velocity and the vector quaternion velocity. We also show that the model-independent PD controller, where the proportional action is in terms of the vector-quaternion and the derivative action is in terms of the airframe angular velocity, without compensation of the Coriolis and gyroscopic torques, provides asymptotic stability for our problem. The proposed controller as well as some other controllers have been tested experimentally on a small-scale quadrotor aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization of Spacecraft Flight in Halo Orbits: An H_\infty Approach

    Page(s): 572 - 578
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    The problem of stabilizing the motion of a spacecraft in an unstable orbit around the interior Sun–Earth libration point ($L_1$) is addressed in this paper. Modern control techniques, which extend the traditional$ cal H_infty $framework to periodic discrete linear time-varying systems, are employed in the solution of the problem. Nonlinear simulation results are presented and it is shown that the control effort required can be provided by next-generation electric propulsion systems. View full abstract»

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  • Engine speed limiter for watercrafts

    Page(s): 579 - 585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engine speed limiters are safety devices designed to prevent an engine from exceeding a predetermined high speed. The speed limiter herewith presented is designed for large and sudden load variations which require accurate and fast air-fuel ratio control. It is based on feedback linearization and online estimation of the load torque. Experimental testing was conducted with a Sea-Doo personal watercraft. A system was used to bypass the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) injector commands in order to use those of the new controller. Experimental results indicate that it reaches higher performances than the usual ECU injection cutoff strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on control applications in automotive engineering

    Page(s): 586
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 587
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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