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Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Distributed cache updating for the dynamic source routing protocol

    Page(s): 609 - 626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-demand routing protocols use route caches to make routing decisions. Due to mobility, cached routes easily become stale. To address the cache staleness issue, prior work in DSR used heuristics with ad hoc parameters to predict the lifetime of a link or a route. However, heuristics cannot accurately estimate timeouts because topology changes are unpredictable. In this paper, we propose proactively disseminating the broken link information to the nodes that have that link in their caches. We define a new cache structure called a cache table and present a distributed cache update algorithm. Each node maintains in its cache table the information necessary for cache updates. When a link failure is detected, the algorithm notifies all reachable nodes that have cached the link in a distributed manner. The algorithm does not use any ad hoc parameters, thus making route caches fully adaptive to topology changes. We show that the algorithm outperforms DSR with path caches and with Link-MaxLife, an adaptive timeout mechanism for link caches. We conclude that proactive cache updating is key to the adaptation of on-demand routing protocols to mobility. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing protocol interaction using response surface methodology

    Page(s): 627 - 639
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Abstract-Response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of statistical design and numerical optimization techniques traditionally used to optimize industrial processes. In this paper, we demonstrate that the methodology can be successfully applied to the domain of networking. Specifically, we obtain increased throughput with a significant decrease in delay in a ns-2 simulation model of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) by using RSM to optimize protocol interaction found by factor screening. Whether the experimentation is with a stochastic simulation model or a physical system, such as a MANET or a wireless sensor network test-bed, RSM provides a general and practical methodology to screen factors and robustly and jointly optimize responses. View full abstract»

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  • Movement-assisted sensor deployment

    Page(s): 640 - 652
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Abstract-Adequate coverage is very important for sensor networks to fulfill the issued sensing tasks. In many working environments, it is necessary to make use of mobile sensors, which can move to the correct places to provide the required coverage. In this paper, we study the problem of placing mobile sensors to get high coverage. Based on Voronoi diagrams, we design two sets of distributed protocols for controlling the movement of sensors, one favoring communication and one favoring movement. In each set of protocols, we use Voronoi diagrams to detect coverage holes and use one of three algorithms to calculate the target locations of sensors it holes exist. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our protocols and give insight on choosing protocols and calculation algorithms under different application requirements and working conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Cluster overlay broadcast (COB): MANET routing with complexity polynomial in source-destination distance

    Page(s): 653 - 667
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Routing algorithms with time and message complexities that are provably low and independent of the total number of nodes in the network are essential for the design and operation of very large scale wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, we develop and analyze Cluster Overlay Broadcast (COB), a low-complexity routing algorithm for MANETs. COB runs on top of a one-hop cluster cover of the network, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the Least Cluster Change (LCC) algorithm. We formally prove that the LCC algorithm maintains a cluster cover with a constant density of cluster leaders with minimal update cost. COB discovers routes by flooding (broadcasting) route requests through the network of cluster leaders with a doubling radius technique. Building on the constant density property of the network of cluster leaders, we formally prove that, if there exists a route from a source to a destination node with a minimum hop count of A, then COB discovers a route with at most O(Δ) hops from the source to the destination node in at most O(Δ) time and by sending at Most O(Δ2) messages. We prove this result for arbitrary node distributions and mobility patterns and also show that COB adapts asymptotically optimally to the mobility of the nodes. In our simulation experiments, we examine the network layer performance of COB, compare it with Dynamic Source Routing, and investigate the impact of the MAC layer on COB routing. View full abstract»

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  • Queue-aware uplink bandwidth allocation and rate control for polling service in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless networks

    Page(s): 668 - 679
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE 802.16 standard defines the air interface specifications for broadband access in wireless metropolitan area networks. Although the medium access control signaling has been well-defined in the IEEE 802.16 specifications, resource management and scheduling, which are crucial components to guarantee quality of service performances, still remain as open issues. In this paper, we propose adaptive queue-aware uplink bandwidth allocation and rate control mechanisms in a subscriber station for polling service in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless networks. While the bandwidth allocation mechanism adaptively allocates bandwidth for polling service in the presence of higher priority unsolicited grant service, the rate control mechanism dynamically limits the transmission rate for the connections under polling service. Both of these schemes exploit the queue status information to guarantee the desired quality of service (QoS) performance for polling service. We present a queuing analytical framework to analyze the proposed resource management model from which various performance measures for polling service in both steady and transient states can be obtained. We also analyze the performance of best-effort service in the presence of unsolicited grant service and polling service. The proposed analytical model would be useful for performance evaluation and engineering of radio resource management alternatives in a subscriber station so that the desired quality of service performances for polling service can be achieved. Analytical results are validated by simulations and typical numerical results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial node distribution of the random waypoint mobility model with applications

    Page(s): 680 - 694
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The random waypoint model (RWP) is one of the most widely used mobility models in performance analysis of ad hoc networks. We analyze the stationary spatial distribution of a node moving according to the RWP model in a given convex area. For this, we give an explicit expression, which is in the form of a one-dimensional integral giving the density up to a normalization constant. This result is also generalized to the case where the waypoints have a nonuniform distribution. As a special case, we study a modified RWP model, where the waypoints are on the perimeter. The analytical results are illustrated through numerical examples. Moreover, the analytical results are applied to study certain performance aspects of ad hoc networks, namely, connectivity and traffic load distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Performance comparison of trust-based reactive routing protocols

    Page(s): 695 - 710
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ad hoc networks, due to their improvised nature, are frequently established in insecure environments and hence become susceptible to attacks. These attacks are launched by participating malicious nodes against different network services. Routing protocols, which act as the binding force in these networks, are a common target of these nodes. A number of secure routing protocols have recently been proposed, which make use of cryptographic algorithms to secure the routes. However, in doing so, these protocols entail a number of prerequisites during both the network establishment and operation phases. In contrast, trust-based routing protocols locate trusted rather than secure routes in the network by observing the sincerity in participation by other nodes. These protocols thus permit rapid deployment along with a dynamically adaptive operation, which conforms with the current network situation. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of three trust-based reactive routing protocols in a network with varying number of malicious nodes. With the help of exhaustive simulations, we demonstrate that the performance of the three protocols varies significantly even under similar attack, traffic, and mobility conditions. However, each trust-based routing protocol has its own peculiar advantage making it suitable for application in a particular extemporized environment. View full abstract»

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  • Topology control in ad hoc wireless networks using cooperative communication

    Page(s): 711 - 724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address the Topology control with Cooperative Communication (TCC) problem in ad hoc wireless networks. Cooperative communication is a novel model introduced recently that allows combining partial messages to decode a complete message. The objective of the TCC problem is to obtain a strongly-connected topology with minimum total energy consumption. We show that the TCC problem is NIP-complete and design two distributed and localized algorithms to be used by the nodes to set up their communication ranges. Both algorithms can be applied on top of any symmetric, strongly-connected topology to reduce total power consumption. The first algorithm uses a distributed decision process at each node that makes use of only 2-hop neighborhood information. The second algorithm sets up the transmission ranges of nodes iteratively, over a maximum of six steps, using only 1-hop neighborhood information. We analyze the performance of our approaches through extensive simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive multicast polling for wireless networks with multipacket reception and queuing

    Page(s): 725 - 737
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose the predictive multicast polling scheme for medium access control in wireless networks with multipacket reception capability. We concentrate on the case in which the packet arrival process is general and the maximum queue size is finite but larger than one. We derive both analytical results and simulation results. We use the theory of discrete-time Markov chain to analyze the evolution of the system state. In addition, we propose to use Markov reward processes to calculate the exact value of the network throughput. Furthermore, we obtain the average system size, the packet blocking probability, and the average packet delay. We show that our numerical results are consistent with simulation results. We also use simulation results to justify the usage of the proposed approach. Our study shows that the system performance can be significantly improved with a few additional buffers in the queues. View full abstract»

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  • MMSPEED: multipath Multi-SPEED protocol for QoS guarantee of reliability and. Timeliness in wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 738 - 754
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel packet delivery mechanism called Multi-Path and Multi-SPEED Routing Protocol (MMSPEED) for probabilistic QoS guarantee in wireless sensor networks. The QoS provisioning is performed in two quality domains, namely, timeliness and reliability. Multiple QoS levels are provided in the timeliness domain by guaranteeing multiple packet delivery speed options. In the reliability domain, various reliability requirements are supported by probabilistic multipath forwarding. These mechanisms for QoS provisioning are realized in a localized way without global network information by employing localized geographic packet forwarding augmented with dynamic compensation, which compensates for local decision inaccuracies as a packet travels towards its destination. This way, MMSPEED can guarantee end-to-end requirements in a localized way, which is desirable for scalability and adaptability to large scale dynamic sensor networks. Simulation results show that MMSPEED provides QoS differentiation in both reliability and timeliness domains and, as a result, significantly improves the effective capacity of a sensor network in terms of number of flows that meet both reliability and timeliness requirements up to 50 percent (12 flows versus 18 flows). View full abstract»

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  • Optimized scalable video streaming over IEEE 802.11 a/e HCCA wireless networks under delay constraints

    Page(s): 755 - 768
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees enabled by the new IEEE 802.11 a/e Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard are specifically targeting the real-time transmission of multimedia content over the wireless medium. Since video data consume the largest part of the available bitrate compared to other media, optimization of video streaming for this new standard is a significant factor for the successful deployment of practical systems. Delay-constrained streaming of fully-scalable video over IEEE 802.11 a/e WLANs is of great interest for many multimedia applications. The new medium access control (MAC) protocol of IEEE 802.11e is called the Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF) and, in this paper, we will specifically consider the problem of video transmission over HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA). A cross-layer optimization across the MAC and application layers of the OSI stack is used in order to exploit the features provided by the combination of the new HCCA standard with new versatile scalable video coding algorithms. Specifically, we propose an optimized and scalable HCCA-based admission control for delay-constrained video streaming applications that leads to a larger number of stations being simultaneously admitted (without quality reduction to any video flow). Subsequently, given the allocated transmission opportunity, each station deploys an optimized Application-MAC-PHY adaptation, scheduling, and protection strategy that is facilitated by the fine-grain layering provided by the scalable bitstream. Given that each video flow needs to always comply with the predetermined (a priori negotiated) traffic specification parameters, this cross-layer strategy enables graceful quality degradation whenever the channel conditions or the video sequence characteristics change. For instance, it is demonstrated that the proposed cross-layer protection and bitstream adaptation strategies facilitate QoS token rate adaptation under link adaptation mechanisms that utilize different physical layer transmission rates. The expected gains offered by the optimized solutions proposed in this paper are established theoretically, as well as through simulations. View full abstract»

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  • TMC Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

Mobile Computing, as proposed in this Transactions, focuses on the key technical issues related to (a) architectures, (b) support services, (c) algorithm/protocol design and analysis, (d) mobile environments, (e) mobile communication systems, (f) applications, and (g) emerging technologies.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prasant Mohapatra
Interim Vice-Provost and CIO
Professor, Dept. Computer Science
University of California, Davis, USA
pmohapatra@ucdavis.edu