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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Preface

    Page(s): 105
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Traffic control systems hardware

    Page(s): 106 - 124
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    In the past ten years the technology of traffic control has experienced extensive change. Equipment which was once familiar to traffic engineers and maintenance personnel has been supplanted by the new breed of devices using solid-state digital circuitry, sophisticated multiplexing, and microprocessor logic. The changes in operational capability and technical performance of systems brought about by these advances have been widely acknowledged. However, the impact upon the user is only beginning to be realized, as traffic engineers learn to cope with such considerations as operator training, maintenance, reliability, updating, and expansion. The current developments in traffic control systems hardware and the experience that is starting to be collected with respect to their installation and use are discussed. Technical and nontechnical factors are discussed and future directions are predicted. View full abstract»

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  • The northeast New Jersey route guidance system (RGS): Case study of a distributed system

    Page(s): 125 - 130
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    The general trend in the computer industry today is moving from centralized toward distributed processing. The same trend is impacting the traffic-control field and is being fueled by the availability of low-priced microprocessors in a general environment of increasing communications costs. The Northeast New Jersey Route Guidance System (RGS), now in the final design phase, serves as an example to illustrate the reasons behind this current trend. One of the major decisions facing the traffic-control system designer concerns the selection of the communications system to be used between a central control base and the remote controllers/processors. Whereas in the past it was possible to separate communications system design decisions from control design decisions, such separation is no longer possible. A portion of the decision is outlined by which a 1972 recommendation for central control, made as part of a surveillance-and-control system feasibility study, was modified to distributed control in 1977, during the preliminary design phase of that project. Five communication alternatives, analyzed for use in the RGS, are described. Two of the five alternatives, requiring the least expensive communication-media leasing costs, entail distributed rather than central control. View full abstract»

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  • The Sydney coordinated adaptive traffic (SCAT) system philosophy and benefits

    Page(s): 130 - 137
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    Sydney, Australia, just as many major cities in the world, has seen traffic movement become more and more congested despite capital expenditure on road construction and widening, on public transport systems, and on traffic management measures. SCAT, the coordinated adaptive traffic signal system, now being installed in Sydney, offers a substantial improvement to movement on arterial roads at low cost thereby enabling usage of the arterial road network to be optimized. An initial trial on a length of arterial road showed advantages in journey time over optimized fixed-time signal coordination of 35-39 percent in peak periods. SCAT is unique in that it consists entirely of computers and is totally adaptive to traffic demand. Its communication network provides extremely powerful yet flexible management of the system. The system, the system philosophy, and the benefits it is expected to yield are described. The benefits are not only in reduced delay, improved flow, and decreased congestion, but also in reduced accidents, lesser usage of petroleum resources, decreased air pollution, and improved residential amenity. View full abstract»

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  • Hampton roads traffic surveillance and control system

    Page(s): 137 - 149
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    A surveillance and control system was designed and implemented for the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel Crossing connecting Hampton and Norfolk, VA. The facility is a part of the Interstate 64 subsystem and consists of two bridges at each end connected by two two-lane tunnels. This system has been operating successfully since November 15, 1977. The system provides the means for improving vehicular throughput and reducing congestion, improving the management of vehicle incidents and facility operations, improving motorist information, improving environmental conditions, and improving traffic data collection. A control room situated in one of the four tunnel ventilation buildings is the nucleus of the traffic management activities. The system enables vehicle flow control of tunnel access; incident detection, incident verification, and incident operations management; automatic response to environmental and overheight problems; hardware monitoring of the signs, signals, and vehicle detectors; execution of major traffic operations on the faculty upon operator request; and daily reporting and logging of system events. Vehicle data are collected and accumulated by the system and are used for reporting and for performing incident detection and access control. View full abstract»

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  • Signal systems without cables

    Page(s): 149 - 155
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    A method is presented for achieving many of the benefits of linking isolated signalized intersections into systems without incurring the costs of either cable installation or leased communication channels. The method may be considered an interim step where traffic responsive systems are planned or as the final solution in situations where responsive systems are not warranted. The method employs a microprocessor together with an accurate clock whose stability is based on electrical service frequency under normal conditions and on a quartz crystal and battery under power failure conditions. The traffic advantages include all those-attributed to systemization but not those of traffic responsive operation. Other advantages include the initial cost, well below that of cable installation, and an excellent record of reliability and low maintenance costs. Development of similar devices in the U.S. is reviewed briefly with a limited amount of cost comparison against the Australian unit. The equipment described offers a quicker and less costly means for setting up multiprogrammed signal systems either on an interim or permanent basis. The technology is within the current state of the art and should be applicable in many areas, particularly for arterial commuter routes where signal spacing is much greater than in central business district (CBD) situations. View full abstract»

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  • On-line vehicle classification

    Page(s): 156 - 161
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    For various applications it is useful to automatically divide vehicles passing a point into several categories. For the method described two inductive loop detectors were used in each lane. The shape of the bottom of a passing car can be assessed by examining the detector's analog signal. This signal, called the "signature," is sampled and fed into a digital computer, which calculates the vehicle's length and some shape factors. The passing vehicles can be separated into five categories: 1) passenger car, 2) delivery van, 3) truck, 4) truck-trailer, and 5) truck-semitrailer. To develop and optimize the method, a "learning set" of 1400 signatures was obtained from known vehicles. To investigate the effectiveness of the method, a "test set" of 950 signatures was gathered. By the use of the classifiers which were found with the above procedure, an on-line program in assembler code was written for a PDP-11/20 minicomputer. The determination of the class can be carried out in approximately 500 µs after a vehicle passes the detector. A trial with the on-line system gave very satisfactory results. View full abstract»

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  • Driver information and motorist aid hardware

    Page(s): 161 - 174
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    The state of the art of three types of driver information and motorist aid hardware is presented: variable message signing (VMS), highway advisory radio (HAR), and motorist aid systems (MAS). The evolution of this hardware is discussed as well as the current practices and future direction. This is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion but rather a summary and critique of these hardware types. In conclusion, some interim steps are identified that are and can be taken before a total integrated driver information and motorist aid system can be implemented. View full abstract»

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  • The integrated motorist information system: An examination of three trade-off studies

    Page(s): 175 - 182
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    The New York State Department of Transportation is cooperating with the Federal Highway Administration in a demonstration of the use of the latest existing techniques in traffic surveillance, control, motorist aid, and motorist information applied in an integrated manner to achieve coordinated management of traffic in a freeway corridor. This innovative computer-controlled traffic management project, the Integrated Motorist Information System (IMIS), will be implemented in the Northern Long Island Corridor, a 56-km (35-mi) long by 8-km (5-mi) wide band centered around the Long Island Expressway from New York City eastward on Long Island, NY. During the IMIS feasibility study, hardware trade-off studies were conducted to select suitable equipment to be included in the project. Those hardware trade-off studies performed for the variable-message signs, the highway advisory radio, and the communications medium are briefly examined. These preliminary, trade-off studies resulted in the selection of disc matrix variable-message signs, the cable radiator antenna type of highway advisory radio, and the owned twisted-pair cable communications medium. However, a reexamination of the communications trade-off studies in the IMIS design phase is favoring the selection of the owned coaxial cable. View full abstract»

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  • Highway advisory radio

    Page(s): 183 - 191
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    In 1977, two years after its initial Notice of Proposed Rule Making in Docket 20509, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized the establishment of travelers' information stations (TIS) in the Local Government Radio Service, Part 90 of the FCC Rules and Regulations. Stations may he authorized on either 530 kHz or 1610 kHz for the purpose of providing useful noncommercial information to the traveling public by agencies of state and local governments via the AM radios with which most motor vehicles are currently equipped. Agencies of the federal government, such as the U.S. Park Service, have also been authorized by the Interagency Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC) to operate travelers information stations subject to the same rules adopted by the FCC. The background of highway advisory radio (HAR) and some of the considerations that led to the present rules are discussed. The effect on HAR system design of limitations imposed by the rules and by AM receiver characteristics is also discussed. Using field data acquired under a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) contract, the problems of HAR antenna design within the FCC imposed limits are illustrated. Finally, the FCC "Part 15" alternative to the design of HAR systems is discussed. Conclusions are stated. The general conclusion drawn is that HAR can be, and has repeatedly proven to have been, a useful tool for traffic management and control. View full abstract»

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  • The use of a CB radio-to-telephone interconnect for motorist aid communications

    Page(s): 192 - 199
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    The increased installation of citizens' band (CB) radios in private vehicles has provided the opportunity to consider new methods of communications for motorist aid purposes. With channel 9 reserved as the emergency and assistance channel of CB radio, numerous volunteer and government organizational units throughout the United States have established networks to monitor this channel for these urgent calls. However, the extent of the roadway system in the U.S. makes total coverage of the highway system 24 h/day impractical, leaving major coverage gaps in both time and location. The technical and operational feasibility of a system which could provide wide area 24 h/day coverage with low manpower requirements is discussed. The system is called Citizens' Band--Automatic Interconnect Digital System (CB-AIDS) and uses unmanned remote stations to provide an automatic interconnect of a CB base station to a response network through the dial telephone system. Access to the system is provided by use of a digital adapter attached to the user's CB radio. This system has been installed on an experimental basis in DeKalb County, GA, through funding by the Federal Highway Administration, in order to determine the technical and operational feasibility of the concept. During the program, 100 digital adapters were produced and provided to volunteers who travel in the areas covered by three remote stations. The remote stations provide dial telephone access to either the DeKalb County Police Department Communications Center or to a volunteer Dual County Radio Emergency Associated Citizens Teams (REACTS) monitor based on user push-button selection. Following the telephone connection, voice communications proceed on a push-to-talk basis in the same manner as normal CB communications. The system was placed in operation in April, 1978, and is presently active. View full abstract»

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  • On future traffic control: Advanced systems hardware

    Page(s): 200 - 207
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    Four advanced system concepts are critiqued: automatic vehicle identification, automatic vehicle monitoring, automatic route guidance, and the automatic highway. Each concept is defined, its potential applications are delineated, an overview of the state of the relevant technology given (and shortcomings noted), and the prospects for future deployments are considered. In addition, an extensive reference list is included. View full abstract»

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  • A sensor for control of arterials and networks

    Page(s): 208 - 215
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    The sensor for control of arterials and networks (SCAN) uses imaging technology and processing technology to jointly provide real-time quantification. The SCAN concept consists of a television camera mounted on a pole to obtain images of the traffic, and a microprocessor to process the image data into traffic parameters. The current activities focus on the development of SCAN for surveillance of arterials or urban highways. If these efforts are successful, an attempt will be made to extend the concept to network applications. The key software developed for the SCAN is a vehicle detection and tracking algorithm which reduces the TV image data to vehicle descriptions and trajectories. These preprocessed trajectory data can be transmitted over a phone line or can be easily reduced to a wide range of traffic parameters. A SCAN breadboard has been implemented and installed in a van which enables remote field tests and evaluations. The SCAN breadboard and its operation, evaluation, and potential applications are described. View full abstract»

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  • Function, equipment, and field testing of a route guidance and information system for drivers (ALI)

    Page(s): 216 - 225
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    Traffic flow has already been improved in the German autobahn network by guidance systems utilizing data collection and calculating forecasts. Some examples of this are the remote-controlled traffic signs in the autobahn network Rhein-Main, the congestion warning system on the Aichelherg, and the lane-controlling system of the Frankfurt-Cologne autobahn. An improvement of the prediction accuracy can be expected if the destinations of the vehicles are known. This is the basic idea of the interactive ALI system (guidance and information system for drivers). After indicating his destination, the driver receives individual information about how to reach the destination in the shortest and easiest way. By knowing the destination, the system can improve its prediction ability. At this time, such a system of approximately 100 km in length is being prepared on an autobahn network in the Ruhr area; it is being financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the Federal Minister of Transport, and several participating authorities of Northrhein-Westfalia. At 83 cross sections all vehicles will he counted and data will be exchanged with the ALI vehicles. This enables one to receive automatic directional information for 32 autobahn exits. For testing purposes, 400 vehicles will he fitted with ALI units. After considering the current traffic situation, the central computer can arrive at a forecast for this partial stretch of the network. For example, if there is a threat of congestion, the computer can modify its program for directional information in the cross sections, thereby informing ALI vehicles as to traveling time, operating costs of the vehicles, as well as the danger of congestion, and the detour route. Large-scale testing began in mid-1979, accompanied by a series of tests. The effectiveness of the system, an analysis of cost-benefit, and the effect upon driver acceptance will he determined. The evaluation of the large-scale testing will he a- ailable by mid-1981. This project is being carried out by Blaupunkt-Werke, the consulting engineers Heusch/Boesefeldt, and the Voikswagenwerke A.G. It is supervised by the Technical Inspection Bureau (TÜV), Rheinland. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic vehicle identification: Tests and applications in the late 1970's

    Page(s): 226 - 229
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    To identify a vehicle uniquely and automatically as it passes on the roadway without requiring any action by the driver, one general approach uses a transponder on the vehicle and an interrogator by the roadside. When the identity is passed from the interrogator to a data system which may have data storage, retrieval, computation, display, and actuation capabilities, various functions such as charging for the use of road or parking facilities, fleet management, and fine grain traffic control become possible. The main purpose is to report recent testing of such systems and consider some probable early applications. At the outset, however, the functional requirements are discussed in more detail, and the background of automatic vehicle identification (AVI) development and testing is briefly reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Transit vehicle fleet information and on-line management

    Page(s): 230 - 234
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    Recent transit applications of computer communications systems clearly demonstrate that operating deficits can be significantly reduced, and increased passenger volumes, caused by the energy situation, can be accommodated cost effectively. The approach being taken by the Toronto Transit Commission and Mississauga Transit to develop comprehensive transit communications and information systems is described. Such systems address the service information and management needs of all major on-line and off-line operating functions. The passenger and operating benefits that have been achieved to date are outlined, and the potential of such systems for improving transit ridership and vehicle fleet utilization and for meeting the reporting requirements of government are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic vehicle monitoring: A tool for vehicle fleet operations

    Page(s): 235 - 237
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    Automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM) is an electronic means of gathering data and effecting command and control over a land vehicle fleet. While data on vehicle location are required for effective control, such systems are totally dependent upon refiable dedicated communications systems. By presenting a dispatcher or computer with information on each vehicle's location, decisions concerning the fleet's dispersion and operational readiness can be made. The Department of Transportation's Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) is developing such a system which will be evaluated in actual transit operations and offers potential application in traffic control operations. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced mobile phone service

    Page(s): 238 - 244
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    The advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system, an FM cellular radio system in the final stages of development, is described. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the control algorithms which are basic to its operation. Finally, a status report is presented on the Chicago developmental system (an operational cellular system) and the cellular test bed in Newark, NJ (a field laboratory used to evaluate the radio performance of FM cellular systems with cells as small as 1.4-mi radius). View full abstract»

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  • Mobile location using signal strength measurements in a cellular system

    Page(s): 245 - 252
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    In a high-capacity mobile telephone system using cellular technology, a mobile location technique which determines the radio zone in which a moving vehicle exists is one of the most important techniques for the system control. A mobile location technique using a signal strength measurement scheme is described. The probability that a mobile is judged to exist in a certain zone (zone selection rate) is first defined. Dependency of this rate on land mobile propagation characteristics is then discussed in detail. A field test for the justification of this location technique was carried out in the Tokyo metropolitan area in which the field test results agreed well with the estimated values. View full abstract»

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  • Studies of base-station antenna height effects on mobile radio

    Page(s): 252 - 260
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    As is well known, a base-station antenna height gain factor of 6 dB/octave has been predicted theoretically for signal path loss over flat ground and has been verified by measured data. However, the 6-dB/octave rule for antenna height effect cannot be used to predict signal strength for terrain contours if the terrain is not flat. A model has been developed for waves propagating over a nonflat ground which allows the antenna height effect to be predicted in different types of actual terrain contours. In the model, the actual terrain profile is classified as one of two different kinds of general terrain types. The relative received power due to the actual terrain path contour is predicted by considering the reflection points of the waves along the path. Experimental data have been used to verify the theoretically estimated results and they show good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • A new modulation scheme for multitransmitter simulcast digital mobile radio communication

    Page(s): 260 - 270
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    Many mobile radio communication systems require digital signaling simultaneously from multiple transmitters from the viewpoints of efficient frequency utilization and simplified receiver construction. A new modulation scheme intended to realize simulcast digital transmission is described. In this method, a modulation signal is made by superimposing a specific wave on an ordinary rectangular digital wave. The two conditions necessary for obtaining a diversity effect equivalent to the maximal-ratio combining are mathematically derived. The specific waves for the various transmitters may be sinusoidal waves having a frequency equal to the original bit rate, and phases which differ from one transmitter to another. In order to clarify the feasibility of this technique, experimental simulation tests have been performed in the 900-MHz band in a two-transmitter configuration. It is proved that this modulation scheme, in comparison with the carrier-frequency offset strategy, not only gives the same amount of improvement in digital signaling in an overlapped area, but also makes the allowable carrier frequency drift more than ten times larger. View full abstract»

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  • Telephone traffic in mobile radio communication system using dynamic frequency assignments

    Page(s): 270 - 278
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    Traffic characteristics of a mobile radio communication system using a dynamic channel assignment scheme which has all channels available at all base stations are derived. In the system with one channel, the traffic characteristics in each zone are exactly obtained. For a multichannel operation, some approximation methods are proposed and some simple examples are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • An error-correcting system for mobile radio data transmission

    Page(s): 278 - 280
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    An error-correcting system for mobile radio data transmission with improved reliability and simple implementation is presented here. The new rate one-half code absolutely corrects two errors within 12 consecutive bits, while the (15, 7, 2) Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenquem (BCH) code corrects two errors within 15 bits and Hagelbarger's code corrects two errors within 14 bits. Error propagation in the feedback majority logic decoder is discussed, and it is proved empirically that the new code does not propagate infinite errors. In order to correct burst errors, a 12-column interleaving is proposed for fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • A UHF channel simulator for digital mobile radio

    Page(s): 281 - 289
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    A device to simulate the channel propagation characteristics of the ground mobile environment at UHF has been designed, built, and characterized. This device provides a flexible, easily changed set of simulated channel characteristics, which allows the performance of a mobile radio unit to be evaluated in the laboratory under controlled conditions. The channel simulator was designed to simulate mobile platform speeds up to 675 mi/h and multipath components having differential delays approaching 10 µs. The channel simulator can provide up to four easily selectable, independently fading, multipath components, having calculated time delay spreads of up to 3.5 µs. The adjustable fading bandwidths and the exceptional long delays were implemented using the relative new signal processing technologies of charged-coupled devices and surface wave devices. Envelope statistics such as fading distributions and level crossing rates produced by the channel simulator show excellent agreement with theoretical prediction and documented experimental data. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida