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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial

    Page(s): 117 - 118
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars

    Page(s): 118 - 122
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    The study of a complex system is usually accomplished through analytical models which permit the direct calculation and optimization of the key parameters. In some cases parameters of interest can only be expressed as probability distributions, which complicates the modeling process. Here simulation methods are appropriate for developing a usable if not fully optimal solution to the problem. Since driving patterns vary from individual to individual, and from day to day for any one person, it is difficult to determine the daily driving range required for an urban automobile. This is a critical parameter for the analysis of electric vehicles because it fixes the energy density which the battery must deliver. A Monte Carlo simulation process was used to develop the United States daily range requirements for an electric vehicle from probability distributions of trip lengths and frequencies and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a car in the United States with a practical daily range of 82 mi (132 km) can meet the needs of the owner on 95 percent of the days of the year, or at all times other than his long vacation trips. Increasing the range of the vehicle beyond this point will not make it more useful to the owner because it will still not provide intercity transportation. A daily range of 82 mi can be provided by an intermediate battery technology level characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 Wh/lb (66 to 110 Wh/kg). Candidate batteries in this class are nidkel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. The implication of these results for the research goals of far-term battery systems suggests a shift in emphasis toward lower cost and greater life and away from high energy density. In addition, if the implimentation of electric vehicles follows the "S-shaped" diffusion model typical of new technologies, the optimum strategy from the standpoint of saving petroleum is to introduce near-term, intermediate, and far-term battery technologies in vehicles at- the earliest date at which each battery system can be developed to the point of commercialization. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of electrical drives for road vehicles

    Page(s): 123 - 128
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    The low storage capacity of presently available galvanic batteries restricts the effective use of electrically driven vehicles to a limited range of transportation jobs. For this application any change from vehicles driven by internal combustion engines to vehicles driven by electric motors can only be justified if the use of electrical drives results in an overall cost reduction. This criterion means that a direct current, separately excited motor with its speed controlled by field weakening is the best solution. In a conventionally designed motor the attainable speed range is limited to approximately 1:3. In most cases additional means for the extension of the driving range are required. If, however, the motor is equipped with an additional compensation winding, a controllable speed range of close to 1:8 is obtainable by field weakening. Acceleration characteristics are applied to evaluate the various drive units which provide advantages in energy consumption and disadvantages in the acceleration time, and vice versa. On the basis of test vehicles with various drive systems, design of the required control is explained. Additional requirements for automatic control are partially offset by the additional protective devices required to restrict the effects of faulty handling of a manually controlled drive. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced motor developments for electric vehicles

    Page(s): 128 - 134
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    Advances in motors and drives can make a significant improvement in the performance and cost effectiveness of electric vehicles (EV's)--increasing the vehicle range by as much as 20 percent, while reducing costs as much as 15 percent below present levels. Preliminary studies suggest that improvements in conventional dc motors and drives can only achieve modest improvements (about 3 percent in range and 10 percent in costs). Two advanced motor concepts-- electronically-commutated motors and permanent-magnet motors-- appear more promising. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a hybrid flywheel/battery drive system for electric vehicle applications

    Page(s): 135 - 143
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    Today's electric vehicles are severely limited in multistop and go driving range and accelerating capability by the lead acid battery's inability to handle high power peaks while maintaining maximum energy storage capability. A hybrid flywheel/battery system can be used to isolate the battery from the accelerating power peaks, and should recover a substantial part of the braking energy. This paper describes the development of a small, high speed, lightweight flywheel/ ac synchronous motor alternator sealed energy storage package coupled into the battery and dc drive motor system through a simple rectifier/inverter power circuit. This system stores just enough energy in the rotor of the machine for one start-stop cycle. Provision is made to add a flywheel to store energy for several cycles, or enough energy for climbing or descending long grades. The fields of the two machines are electronically controlled to achieve optimum performance and effective energy utilization. View full abstract»

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  • Prime sensors for electronic automotive-engine control

    Page(s): 144 - 150
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    Sensors faithfully transduce automotive control parameters into electric signals suitable for transmission to the electronic controls. Two parameters key to engine control are crankshaft position and manifold absolute pressure, which are used in both fuel and ignition control systems. This paper describes a variety of sensor concepts for each of the two parameters, and provides guidelines for expediting screening tests. The case for including sensor selection as an integral part of system trade-off studies is also argued. View full abstract»

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  • System considerations for the design of radar braking sensors

    Page(s): 151 - 160
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    This paper is concerned with the review and discussion of topics fundamental to the design of operational radar sensors for automatically activated braking systems for automobiles. Expected benefits in terms of reduced accidents and societal costs are briefly discussed, and a short discussion on modes of operation is presented. Target detectability characteristics are reviewed, and selected vehicles and pedestrian range-amplitude signatures at 10, 35, and 60 GHz are presented, as are discussions of atmospheric effects on propagation between 10 and 100 GHz. A short analysis of highway geometry effects on system performance is given, and false detection and intersystem problems are discussed in terms of this analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Wire-reference configurations in vehicle lateral control

    Page(s): 161 - 172
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    Lateral control is an essential function for all forms of individual automated ground transport. Here two aspects of such control--the magnetic field distributions associated with a guideway-based, wire-reference configuration, and the associated vehicle-based sensors--are reviewed. Two wire-reference schemes have thus far been suggested. In the first, the amplitude characteristics of the magnetic field are employed to obtain the lateral control signal. In this paper, a theoretical analysis and detailed field measurements are used to define both "ideal" characteristics and those which would be encountered in a realistic operating environment. The resulting problems, which involve amplitude distortions of the field due to the proximity of steel-reinforcing materials, are defined, and their effects on vehicle control--poor tracking and passenger discomfort--are discussed. In the second approach, the lateral control signal is primarily dependent on the phase characteristics of the magnetic field. A theoretical analysis and a corresponding experimental field study, which are discussed herein, indicated that the problems associated with the first approach were largely overcome, as evidenced by successful full-scale tests of an automatically steered vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • Computer model for paging system coverage

    Page(s): 172 - 180
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    A simple model for estimating propagation coverage in a multiple-transmitter sequential paging system is described. The results of previous single-transmitter propagation studies are employed in a computer program where the resultant is a grid plot of hypothetical receiver locations, each with the expected number of transmitter signals exceeding the paging receiver threshold. The resulting plots readily show the areas where potential coverage problems may exist. View full abstract»

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  • Deflection analysis of supporting structures for antennas to be used in a mobile telephone system

    Page(s): 181 - 186
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    Supporting structures for antenna hardware for a new high-capacity mobile telephone system (HCMTS) are being designed to meet operational electrical requirements and to survive extreme weather conditions. Systematic techniques are being used to choose dimensions for critical elements in the trade-off of cost versus performance. View full abstract»

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  • Multiuser area-coverage automatic vehicle monitoring program

    Page(s): 187 - 191
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    The U.S. Department of Transportation/Urban Mass Transportation Administration (DOT/UMTA) is developing an automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM) system which will accommodate both fixed and random-route users. This is a two phase program. Phase I is testing four location subsystems in Philadelphia. Phase II contemplates selecting one contractor to develop, fabricate, install, and test a completely functional system that can be shared by users with diverse requirements. Phase II is contingent on successful completion of Phase I and on favorable results of a benefit/cost study. Location subsystems fall into one of four general categories: signpost, radio frequency, dead-reckoning, or a hybrid system of some combination of the first three. Within each type, subtypes exist. In 1971, UMTA sponsored location subsystem tests of four competing technologies in Philadelphia. Since these tests, much development has occurred and accuracy has been improved substantially. The objectives of the DOT/UMTA system are to 1) develop and deploy a multiuser AVM to improve the level of service, safety, and efficiency of bus service, and improve the dispatch efficiency of random-route vehicle fleets: 2) quantify the benefits to transit and other users, and 3) establish technical and economic bases for future AVM deployments. The AVM system performance specifications contained in the DOT Request for Proposals consist of system capacity, location accuracy, communication, data processing and display, and an overall system specification. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida