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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date June 2006

 This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2 

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Design and cold testing of a radial extraction output cavity for a frequency-doubling gyroklystron

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1301 - 1307
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    Research in the University of Maryland at College Park's Gyroklystron (GKL) Project has recently centered around the development of a high-power high-gain frequency-doubling 17.136-GHz system. The current tube is a four-cavity (input, buncher, penultimate, and output) coaxial frequency-doubling system that will be used to drive a linear accelerator structure. This paper presents the design, simulation, optimization, cold test methodology, and performance data of a proposed radial extraction output cavity in which the microwave energy is extracted through an inner coaxial conductor in the TE01 circular mode. The positioning of dielectrics in the drift spaces and the effect of axial and radial misalignments between the inner and outer walls of the cavity were studied in depth. One advantage of this topology is that it reduces the size and complexity of the output waveguide chain otherwise needed to convert the TE02 circular mode from the GKL into the standard rectangular waveguide mode for injection into the Haimson Research Corporation accelerator structure. Cold test results show that this new cavity, which has a Q of 458 and a resonant frequency of 17.112 GHz, is a viable replacement for the output cavity currently in the system, as long as the cavity is well aligned. View full abstract»

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  • Tissue sensing adaptive Radar for breast cancer detection-investigations of an improved skin-sensing method

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1308 - 1314
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
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    Active microwave breast imaging is being researched as a supplement to current breast imaging modalities. Ultra-wideband radar approaches involve analyzing reflections from the breast to identify the presence of tumors. Skin sensing, which involves estimating the location and thickness of the skin, is a key step in this process, as the reflections from the skin dominate the signal. Current methods employing a rudimentary peak detection process estimate the location of the breast with acceptable accuracy. However, estimates of skin thickness in the range of 1.0-2.0 mm have unacceptable error. A method using deconvolution to obtain the impulse response of a scattering object is investigated to improve the performance of the skin-sensing algorithm. The new method employs a calibration step using a perfect electric conductor. Application to simulated data shows success in reducing the error percentage in both breast skin location and thickness estimates by more than half. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of signal vias using virtual islands with shorting vias in multilayer PCBs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1315 - 1324
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2152 KB)  

    The mitigation method of parallel-plate waveguide (PPW) noises excited from signal vias due to the mode conversion of desired propagation modes into parasitic PPW modes in multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) has been proposed. The mitigation of PPW noises has been achieved using virtual islands with shorting vias. The shorting vias are used to provide the return current path with low impedances and the virtual islands are used to block the propagation of the PPW noises through PCBs. The transmission and coupling responses of signal vias applied to the virtual islands with shorting vias are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method to show effectiveness of the proposed mitigation method of PPW noises. The PPW noises propagating through PPWs are dramatically suppressed and the electrical performances of signal vias in multilayer PCBs are improved using the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed mitigation method of PPW noises is also verified by measurements of S-parameters of signal vias in simple test boards applied to the virtual islands with shorting vias. The effects of geometrical parameters of the virtual islands on performances of signal vias are also investigated. The performances of signal vias applied to the virtual islands with shorting vias can be improved up to higher frequency by reducing the size of virtual islands. The effect of the gapwidth of slots can be neglected. The effective number of shorting vias of the proposed mitigation method is four. Since several signal vias can be located at a virtual island, the needed number of shorting vias to obtain good transmission and coupling responses using the proposed mitigation method is less than half of that to obtain similar performance using only shorting vias. View full abstract»

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  • A novel toroidal inductor structure with through-hole vias in ground plane

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1325 - 1330
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper presents a new toroidal inductor topology that can be realized in microstrip or stripline configuration. The toroidal structure comprises two sets of mutually isolated multiple-coupled lines that are connected by vias through a ground plane. This geometry facilitates a simple equivalent-circuit model for accurate analysis or synthesis of the component. A comparison between the new toroidal structure and the conventional spiral inductor topology shows good improvement in quality factor and a footprint reduction over 300%. The toroidal designs are validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulation, as well as by measurement for a two-turn toroidal inductor in microstrip configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Novel circuit model for three-dimensional geometries with multilayer dielectrics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1331 - 1339
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    The partial-element equivalent-circuit (PEEC) method is generalized to include multilayer dielectric interfaces. The boundary between two different dielectrics is treated as a new region to develop an interface Green's function. The interface Green's function is subsequently used to calculate the capacitances and inductances of interface surface cells. The method is first verified, using a microstrip to evaluate the quasi-static capacitance, with the method of Wheeler. It is then extended to the PEEC formulation and applied to coupled microstrip-line filter with multilayered dielectrics. The results are compared with that of the method of moments. Agreement is found in the prediction of resonant frequencies and S-parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Augmented hammerstein predistorter for linearization of broad-band wireless transmitters

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1340 - 1349
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB)  

    In this paper, an augmented lookup-table-based Hammerstein predistorter is proposed for the first time in order to further improve the pre-correction capability of the traditional Hammerstein predistorter in the context of broad-band high-power wireless transmitters. The predistorter scheme consists of two separate modules, and its parameters are determined in two steps, which are: 1) static predistorter identification and then 2) dynamic part identification. The performance assessment of the newly proposed predistorter is carried out on a wireless transmitter prototype, which includes an L-band push-pull GaAs field-effect transistor 45-dBm peak-envelope power amplifier. Moreover, one- and three-carrier Third-Generation Partnership Projects frequency-division duplex wide-band code-division multiple-access signals are used as test signals to verify the robustness of this novel predistorter under different bandwidth signals. The linearized transmitter prototype output spectrum demonstrates noticeable superiority of the proposed augmented predistorter in suppressing the spectrum regrowth caused by the memory effects in comparison to the traditional Hammerstein predistorter. View full abstract»

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  • A full-wave numerical approach for modal analysis of 1-D periodic microstrip structures

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1350 - 1362
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    In this paper, a full-wave numerical approach for the analysis and design of one-dimensional (1-D) printed periodic structures is presented. Electromagnetic-bandgap structures and leaky-wave antennas are important special cases of structures that can be analyzed. The proposed technique is based on a mixed-potential integral equation in a unit-cell environment solved by the method of moments in the spatial domain through a triangular Delaunay mesh. The 1-D periodic vector and scalar Green's functions are derived in the spectral domain and an efficient sum of spectral integrals is carried out to obtain the spatial-domain quantities. An appropriate choice of the spectral integration path is used in order to consider leakage effects. The method developed here can thus analyze both bound and leaky modes on printed structures that have an arbitrary metallization within the unit cell. View full abstract»

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  • Close-in phase-noise enhanced voltage-controlled oscillator employing parasitic V-NPN transistor in CMOS process

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1363 - 1369
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper presents a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with low close-in phase noise by exploiting a parasitic vertical NPN transistor (V-NPN) as a tail current source in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. V-NPN has an inherently low flicker noise (1/f noise) profile compared to CMOS devices. Simple dc and ac characteristics of V-NPN are measured and extracted for design convenience. The proposed VCO that used a V-NPN current source instead of nMOS is verified using a 0.18-μm deep n-well CMOS process. Test results of the designed VCO show good figure-of-merit of -87.4 dBc/Hz, -111 dBc/Hz of phase noise at 10 kHz, and 100-kHz offsets while consuming only 540 μW from the 1.8-V supply. View full abstract»

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  • A 10-35-GHz six-channel microstrip multiplexer for wide-band communication systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1370 - 1378
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    A six-channel multiplexer composed of parallel-coupled microstrip bandpass filters is developed. The passbands of the filters, i.e., channel frequencies, are 10, 12, 19, 21, 32, and 35 GHz. The operating frequency range of the multiplexer is so wide that a new method of harmonic suppression is devised for the filters designed at 10 and 12 GHz. The method is simple and does not require any change to the conventional parallel-coupled microstrip bandpass filter. A design procedure for the microstrip multiplexer is then introduced with a rule to set up initial conditions for better optimization. The designed multiplexer does not need any tuning elements, and the measurement results show insertion losses between 2.0-3.2 dB for all six channels. The multiplexer developed in this paper has been used in the wide-band transceiver system. View full abstract»

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  • Comparisons between serpentine and flat spiral delay lines on transient reflection/transmission waveforms and eye diagrams

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1379 - 1387
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    In contrast to the commonly employed single-ended delay lines, the employment of differential signaling may alleviate the occurrence of crosstalk and improve the signal integrity. This paper qualitatively investigates the time-domain reflection (TDR) and time-domain transmission (TDT) waveforms for the single-ended and differential delay lines with the serpentine and flat spiral routing schemes. A numerical formula is then proposed to quantitatively predict the voltage levels of the saturated near-end and far-end propagating crosstalk noises among the sections of differential delay lines. Signal waveforms and eye diagrams of the four basic routing schemes are obtained by HSPICE simulations, demonstrating that the combination of differential signaling and flat spiral layouts can exhibit the best delay-line performance. Furthermore, both the TDR and TDT measurements for differential delay lines are performed to validate the exactitude of proposed analyses. View full abstract»

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  • Analyses of elliptical coplanar coupled waveguides and coplanar coupled waveguides with finite ground width

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1388 - 1395
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    In this paper, the quasi-TEM characteristic parameters of elliptical coplanar coupled waveguides and coupled coplanar waveguide with a finite ground width configuration are presented and analyzed. Computer-aided design (CAD)-oriented fast, simple, and accurate analytic formulas are derived by using conformal mapping techniques, which provide satisfactory accuracy at microwave frequencies and lead to closed-form analytical solutions suitable for CAD software packages. The results for the odd- and even-mode characteristic impedance, effective dielectric constant, and coupling coefficient have been computed by these formulas. Good agreement between the present results and published results is observed. For the planar case, simulations have also been undertaken with Sonnet electromagnetic-circuit solver software. The computed results agree well with those of the simulation ones. View full abstract»

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  • Power and efficiency enhancement of 3G multicarrier amplifiers using digital signal processing with experimental validation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1396 - 1404
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    This paper proposes a digital signal-processing-based approach suitable for the performance optimization of third-generation (3G) amplifiers in terms of spectrum and power. A peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction method, which is coding and modulation independent, based on peak clipping and digital filtering techniques, is proposed. Moreover, the multibranch memory polynomial pre-distorter identified with an optimized recursive least square technique was efficiently implemented in a digital signal processor. The cascade of the proposed PAPR reduction technique with the memory pre-distorter results in a substantial enhancement of the power amplifier (PA) output linear power and efficiency, while still meeting the 3G partnership project standard requirements. An experimental validation carried out on a 90-W laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor PA, which was fed with a wide-band code-division multiple-access signal, led to a 4-dB rise in output mean linear power accompanied with 60% increase in its power-added efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Design of new three-line balun and its implementation using multilayer configuration

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1405 - 1414
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    This paper proposes a new balun that is composed of three coupled quarter-wavelength lines. The proposed balun is optimized by using design of experiments to achieve a maximum bandwidth. After the optimization, it is transformed into the balun consisting of a pair of coupled quarter-wavelength lines in connection with an uncoupled quarter-wavelength line. The design method and its implemented results using a multilayer configuration are presented. It is shown that this new balun can be made more compact, providing good performances over the wide frequency range. Therefore, the balun developed here is applicable to many wireless and mobile communication systems. The design equation for a given set of balun impedances at unbalanced and balanced ports is derived from an equivalent circuit of the proposed balun. To demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the design equation, the size 2012 multilayer ceramic chip baluns with three different balun impedances, which operated in the 2.4-GHz industrial-scientific-medical band frequency, are designed and fabricated by the use of low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology. According to the measured results, the maximum insertion loss is 0.81 dB, the maximum in-band phase imbalance is within 7°, and the maximum in-band amplitude imbalance is less than 0.7 dB. View full abstract»

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  • A digital dispersive matching network for SAW devices in chirp transform spectrometers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1415 - 1424
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The performance of a chirp transform spectrometer can be significantly improved through a digital dispersive matching network. In this paper, we present the development of a new design, the adaptive digital chirp processor (ADCP), which generates an expander chirp signal with dispersive characteristics matching those of the surface acoustic wave filter behaving as a compressor/convolver. This matching signal (i.e., the chirp) is generated by a digital direct synthesizer and is then bandpass filtered, level regulated, up-converted, and frequency tripled in order to achieve the required bandwidth of 430 MHz. The design of the matching network and the signal processing of the resulting dispersive signal demanded a rational and optimum combination of different technologies, such as quadrature modulation, high-performance spectral filtering, ultra-stable frequency sources, and a theoretical analysis of the circuit design by using a numerical model of the ADCP. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation method for a nonlinear amplifier using the gain expansion phenomenon in a Doherty amplifier

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1425 - 1430
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    This paper proposes a new predistortion method using the gain expansion phenomenon in a Doherty amplifier. In the proposed structure, the drive stage Doherty amplifier, which has a gain expansion characteristic, precedes the final stage Doherty amplifier. The gain expansion characteristic compensates for the gain compression of the final stage amplifier and the overall linearity is improved based on an increase in the total output P1 dB compression point. Using a behavioral model, we simulated the effect of increasing the P1 dB point to the adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of the CDMA2000 signal. The experimental results show that the overall output P1 dB compression point is improved by 1.5 dB and the ACPR for the one-carrier CDMA2000 signal is improved by 8.5 dB. In addition, we tested a power amplifier with a four-carrier WCDMA signal to verify the validity of this configuration for wide-band applications. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of frequency-dependent equivalent width of substrate integrated waveguide

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1431 - 1437
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    In this paper, a method is developed to measure the frequency-dependent equivalent width (FDEW) of the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). Based on the deembedding concept, the formulas of the measurement procedures are derived, and then the measured equivalent width corresponding to each frequency is applied to the transmission/reflection method to acquire the substrate dielectric constant. The measurement method is experimentally verified over the frequency range from 26 to 40 GHz. The measured FDEW of the SIW is compared with that calculated by the empirical equation. Furthermore, the results of the measured dielectric constant are shown to be in reasonable agreement with those measured by the ring resonator method. It demonstrates that the developed method is an effective measurement approach to characterizing the SIW. View full abstract»

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  • Subwavelength-resolution microwave tomography using wire grid models and enhanced regularization techniques

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1438 - 1450
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1256 KB)  

    This paper presents a new approach to handle the nonlinear microwave tomography equations for dielectric materials. The electromagnetic tomography equations are rewritten in the framework of an equivalent wire grid model loaded with resistors and capacitors to represent the permittivity and conductivity of the material. The validation of the model is performed using near-field measurements at a frequency of 2.45 GHz on devices under test made of dielectric plates of various shapes surrounded by an unbounded free-space medium. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the contrast source inversion (CSI) technique. Here, we introduce an enhanced version of the CSI cost function by adding extra regularization terms; in addition, minimization is carried out using a logarithmic barrier constraint in order to avoid nonphysical permittivity and conductivity values. The distributions of those physical properties retrieved with experimental data, for nonhomogeneous dielectric structures of known composition, are in good agreement with the expected ones. The imaging resolution is limited by the density of the wire grid meshing. View full abstract»

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  • Left-handed electromagnetic properties of split-ring resonator and wire loaded transmission line in a fin-line technology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1451 - 1457
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)  

    We report on experiments carried out on a backward transmission line, which consists of a fin-line periodically loaded by split-ring resonators and shunt wires. We first demonstrate the left-handed character of these frequency-selective transmission lines via: 1) dispersion diagram calculations which have been compared to the frequency dependence of measured scattering parameters; 2) the tracking of the phase fronts; and 3) the phase offset between two lines of various lengths. The effective refraction index found experimentally was approximately -4. Taking benefit of the use of a closed electromagnetic system and successful matching, the losses are especially analyzed. The ratio between incident and absorbed energy is 65% for a three-cell prototype and reaches 91% for ten cells. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band predistortion linearization for externally modulated long-haul analog fiber-optic links

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1458 - 1463
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    We analyze the performance of a custom wide-band predistortion linearizer designed to operate in conjunction with an externally modulated analog photonic link. In addition, we propose an extended spurious-free dynamic-range (SFDR) specification for analog photonic links employing linearization techniques. The benefits of predistortion linearization for analog fiber links limited by optical amplifier noise are demonstrated and a 6-12-GHz 20-km analog link is shown to achieve a SFDR of 108.4 dB·Hz23/, a 6-dB increase relative to the uncompensated link. View full abstract»

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  • A 16-term error model based on linear equations of voltage and current variables

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1464 - 1469
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    Formulation of a 16-term error model, based on the four-port ABCD-matrix and voltage and current variables, is outlined. Matrices A, B, C, and D are each 2 × 2 submatrices of the complete 4 × 4 error matrix. The corresponding equations are linear in terms of the error parameters, which simplifies the calibration process. The parallelism with the network analyzer calibration procedures and the requirement of five two-port calibration measurements are stressed. Principles for robust choice of equations are presented. While the formulation is suitable for any network analyzer measurement, it is expected to be a useful alternative for the nonlinear y-parameter approach used in intrinsic semiconductor electrical and noise parameter measurements and parasitics' deembedding. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated planar spatial power combiner

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1470 - 1476
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)  

    A simple low-loss integrated planar spatial power-combining architecture is proposed and studied in this paper. The power-combining structure is realized by transition between a simple oversized microstrip line and parallel multiport planar microstrip lines. The power combiner was simulated with parametric analysis and a working prototype at 25-31 GHz is designed and fabricated with four amplifier units. Measured results show a good agreement with simulated ones and a combining efficiency of 79.5% is achieved at 25 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Signal model and linearization for nonlinear chirps in FMCW Radar SAW-ID tag request

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1477 - 1483
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    In this paper, we present a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar interrogation concept, based on direct digital synthesis (DDS), that operates without the commonly necessary high-frequency DDS reference oscillator. As the generated frequency sweeps are nonlinear, standard Fourier transform methods for baseband signal evaluation cannot be applied directly. We show the corresponding signal model, derive a linearization concept on the basis of resampling, and demonstrate the linearization algorithm on simulated data, as well as on real wireless interrogations of surface acoustic-wave sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative image reconstruction of two-dimensional scatterers illuminated by TE waves

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1484 - 1494
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)  

    The iterative reconstruction of unknown objects from TE-measured scattered field data is presented. The paper investigates the performance of the iterative multiscaling approach (IMSA) in exploiting transverse electric (TE) illuminations. As a matter of fact, in these conditions, the problem turns out to be more complicated than the tranverse magnetic (TM) scalar one in terms of mathematical model as well as computational costs. However, it is expected that more information on the scenario under test can be drawn from scattered data. Therefore, this study is aimed at verifying whether the TE case can provide additional information on the scenario under test (compared to the TM illumination) and how such an enhancement can be suitably exploited by the IMSA for improving the reconstruction accuracy of the retrieval process. Such an analysis will be carried out by means of a set of numerical experiments concerned with dielectric and metallic targets in single- and multiple-objects configurations. Synthetic as well as experimental data will be dealt with. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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