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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 65
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - 550
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Considerations on a reactive power concept in a multiline system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 551 - 559
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concepts of reactive power that originate from Buchholz's theory and are present in the IEEE Standard 1459 are important in compensation theory. It is shown in this paper that some misconceptions are present in the technical literature, in particular regarding the relationship between reactive power and power oscillation. In this paper, a number of examples are given to illustrate these misconceptions. View full abstract»

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  • Determining the test voltage factor function for the evaluation of lightning impulses with oscillations and/or an overshoot

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 560 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to remove the present IEC 60060-1 and IEEE Standard 4 ambiguities in the evaluation of the test voltage when oscillations and/or an overshoot appear superimposed in a lightning impulse, at the end of the 1990s, a European Project within the Standard, Measurement and Testing (SMT) program was developed by KEMA (Netherlands), Schering Institute (Germany), LCOE (Spain), and NGC (United Kingdom) in coordination with the CIGRE Working Group 33.03. The conclusion of this European Project is a new evaluation method called test voltage function K(f) derived on the breakdown behavior of different dielectric media, that removes the standard ambiguity to determine the test voltage of an impulse with oscillations and/or an overshoot. This paper presents the experimental results of the project and deals in depth with the definition of K(f). View full abstract»

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  • Source current harmonic analysis of adjustable speed drives under input voltage unbalance and sag conditions

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 567 - 576
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) have become the primary choice for most new and retrofit precision motor-control applications, offering major improvements in system efficiency. The significant increase in the use of ASDs makes it important to understand the compatibility issues between ASDs and their electrical environment in order to appropriately design the electrical systems. Even though there have been numerous studies addressing ASD effects on power systems, models for predicting the effect of the source voltage sags or unbalance have been limited. This paper is devoted to the analysis of utility-side input current harmonics under input voltage unbalance and sag conditions and the effects of these harmonics on the distribution transformer K-factor for practical ASD systems. The relationships between the unbalanced input voltages, the resulting input current harmonics, the input inductance, and the required transformer K-factor are explored for 5 hp, 100 hp, and 600 hp power distribution systems with ASDs. The results can be used as a design guide for power distribution system design with ASDs. Theoretical derivations are accompanied by both simulations and experimental results to provide verification of key conclusions. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage distribution analysis of 500-kV DC transmission-line voltage divider under impulse voltages: stray parameter extraction

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 577 - 583
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is essential to extract the stray parameters accurately and efficiently in analyzing impulse responses of a power apparatus. In this paper the stray capacitances and stray inductances of a 500-kV dc transmission-line voltage divider are extracted by the hybrid finite element-analytical approach, and the corresponding equivalent circuit for analyzing the impulse voltage response of the voltage divider is established. According to the discussion of the results of the extracted stray parameters of the voltage divider, reasonable simplification of the equivalent circuit of the voltage divider is made. In addition, the influence of the insulating housing and the electrical insulation oil on the stray capacitances of the voltage divider is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage Distribution Analysis of 500-kV DC Transmission-Line Voltage Divider Under Impulse Voltages: Results and Discussions

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 584 - 590
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the field-circuit equivalence concept, the equivalent circuit to analyze the voltage distribution of a 500-kV dc transmission-line voltage divider under impulse voltages has been developed. The hybrid finite-element analytical approach is applied to extract the capacitance and inductance parameters of the equivalent circuit, and the Milne method is used to solve this complicated circuit. The voltage distribution along the resistor coils of the divider under impulse voltages is calculated and its nonuniformity is discussed. The analysis results are in good agreement with the measurement results. The selection of capacitors parallel with the resistor turns to improve the voltage distribution along the resistor coils is studied, and the optimal selection of these capacitors is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of relay literature, 2002 IEEE committee report

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 591 - 600
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    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature, which were published previously and are contained in the following volumes of the IEEE Transactions. View full abstract»

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  • Wide Area Protection—Technology and Infrastructures

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 601 - 609
    Cited by:  Papers (70)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wide area measurements have been widely used in the energy management systems (EMS) of power systems for monitoring, operation, and control. In recent years, the advent of synchronized phasor measurements has added another dimension to the field of wide-area measurements. At the same time, the field of protection systems has been dominated by computer based relays, which make it relatively easy to communicate with relays and thus include them in many innovative protection systems. Special Protection Systems (SPS) or Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) are one example of integration of communication and protection systems. In recent years—due to operational demands imposed on transmission networks by deregulation it has become clearer that wide-area measurements and their integration in protection and control systems is a necessity. This paper documents the state-of-the-art in modern sensor, communication, and protection technologies which show great potential for innovations in protection and control systems for the future. View full abstract»

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  • Agent-based self-healing protection system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 610 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
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    This paper proposes an agent-based paradigm for self-healing protection systems. Numerical relays implemented with intelligent electronic devices are designed as a relay agent to perform a protective relaying function in cooperation with other relay agents. A graph-theory-based expert system, which can be integrated with supervisory control and a data acquisition system, has been developed to divide the power grid into primary and backup protection zones online and all relay agents are assigned to specific zones according to system topological configuration. In order to facilitate a more robust, less vulnerable protection system, predictive and corrective self-healing strategies are implemented as guideline regulations of the relay agent, and the relay agents within the same protection zone communicate and cooperate to detect, locate, and trip fault precisely with primary and backup protection. Performance of the proposed protection system has been simulated with cascading fault, failures in communication and protection units, and compared with a coordinated directional overcurrent protection system. View full abstract»

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  • Application of combined adaptive Fourier filtering technique and fault detector to fast distance protection

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 619 - 626
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    This paper presents the application of a combined adaptive Fourier filtering technique and fault detector to fast distance protection of transmission lines. The filtering technique is extended from the Fourier filters and can be applied under arbitrary data window length. The proposed filtering technique possesses the advantage of recursive computing, and a decaying dc offset component is removed from fault signals by using an adaptive compensation method. A variable data window scheme is embedded in the technique to adaptively speed up its transient response under various system and fault conditions. A fault detector is developed to initiate the process of the technique. For the sake of speed and security, two phasor estimation methods based on the proposed technique are designed to achieve fast distance protection. An algorithm consisting of the two methods is used to detect internal faults by "OR" logic. Extensive simulation studies show that the algorithm significantly reduces tripping time of a distance relay and provides better protection performance than that of the conventional filters with fixed data windows. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate location of faults on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 627 - 633
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new algorithm for locating faults on two-terminal power transmission lines. Unsynchronized two-end voltages and currents are processed for determining the sought distance to fault and the synchronization angle. The calculations are performed initially for the lumped model of a transmission line. Then, these results are used as the initial data for the Newton-Raphson method-based iterative calculations, in which the distributed parameter line model is utilized. The delivered fault location algorithm has been tested and evaluated with the fault data obtained from versatile ATP-EMTP simulations. The sample results of the evaluation are reported and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian networks-based approach for power systems fault diagnosis

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 634 - 639
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, three element-oriented models based on simplified Bayesian networks with Noisy-Or and Noisy-And nodes are proposed to estimate the faulty section of a transmission power system. The three models are used to test if any transmission line, transformer, or busbar within a blackout area is faulty. They can deal with uncertain or incomplete data and knowledge relating to power system diagnosis, so they are flexible. The structures and initial parameters of the Bayesian networks depend on the prior knowledge of the domain experts. The parameters can be revised by using an error back propagation algorithm similar to the back-propagation algorithm for artificial neural networks. The fault diagnosis models do not vary with the change of the network structure, so they can be applied to any transmission power system. Furthermore, they have clear semantics, rapid reasoning, powerful error tolerance ability, and no convergence problem during the diagnosing procedure. Experimental tests show that the approach is feasible and efficient, so the prototype program based on the approach is promising to be used in a large transmission power system for online fault diagnosis. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid drive merging a servo-controlled motor and a spring mechanism

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 640 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spring mechanisms have demonstrated their high reliable performance by operating thousands of circuit breakers (CBs) safely all over the world for decades under the most severe conditions. This well-known technology could be improved, when merged with a servo motor system. The result is a hybrid drive, which offers the accuracy and flexibility of servomechanisms and the reliability of spring operating mechanisms. The paper starts with a reminder of the state of the art of operating mechanisms, followed by an overview of spring mechanisms with the aim of identifying potential improvements. The remaining part is dedicated to the first evolution of the hybrid drive. The architectural description emphasizes the reliability aspects, especially due to the application of redundant tripping circuits, allowing the tripping operation without either an auxiliary power supply or electronic support. Test results are discussed. The conclusion illustrates that if technical benefits are obtained, the cost of some critical components still remains high. The applications of such a hybrid technology are restricted today to specific applications. As the prices of electronic systems decrease with time and, hopefully, the cost of low inertia motors, the architecture of operating mechanisms could be dramatically modified and tightly merged with the CB. The advantages of hybrid drives could be decisive for the long-term future. View full abstract»

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  • A DC hybrid circuit breaker with ultra-fast contact opening and integrated gate-commutated thyristors (IGCTs)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 646 - 651
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Air-magnetic circuit breakers are widely used for short-circuit protection in dc electric railways or industrial plants. The well-known drawbacks of these breakers are mainly a slow breaking action, a short lifetime, and high maintenance costs due to the destructive effects of the arc. The use of power semiconductors in a full-static circuit breaker configuration allows the elimination of these disadvantages but is limited by excessive conduction losses. The paper will present the study of a so-called hybrid breaker, drawing its name from the combination of a high-speed mechanical switch and a bi-directional integrated gate-controlled thyristor assembly connected in parallel. The paper also includes experimental results from a prototype real scale. View full abstract»

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  • The detection of the closing moments of a vacuum circuit breaker by vibration analysis

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 652 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The vibration signals during the closing operation of three-phase vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) were recorded for detecting the closing moment of each pole. The short-time energy (STE) analysis of the vibration signals with a moving Hamming window is used to derive the closing moments both under no-load conditions and load conditions. By determining a proper length for the moving window, the improved signal-to-noise ratio by the STE analysis greatly facilitates the identification of the closing moments. Under no-load condition, the results obtained from the vibration signals are in good agreement with those measured by the contact timing signals. Under load conditions, it is found that the effect of the making current on the detection results is too tenuous to be neglected. This makes it possible to apply this method to online detection of the closing moments of VCBs. View full abstract»

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  • Historical review of high voltage switchgear developments in the 20th century for power transmission and distribution system in Japan

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 659 - 664
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In Japan during the 20th century, developments of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus advanced tremendously and circuit breakers were the center of these developments. And as a result, 1100 kV SF6 gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for ac transmission systems and also 500 kV dc GIS for dc transmission systems have become available. Vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) have also been actively developed and a 168 kV two break VCB and 100 kA VCB are already available. This paper describes these developments and future trends in technology. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of three-phase transformer derating and reactive power demand under nonlinear loading conditions

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 665 - 672
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The measurement of real and apparent power derating of three-phase transformers is important for transformers feeding nonlinear loads. This paper presents a new digital data-acquisition method for measuring derating and reactive power demand of three-phase transformers under full or partial load conditions. The accuracy requirements of the instruments employed (potential, current transformers, shunts, voltage dividers, optocouplers volt- and current meters) are addressed. Application examples demonstrate the usefulness of this new digital data-acquisition method. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid tool for detection of incipient faults in transformers based on the dissolved gas analysis of insulating oil

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 673 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a tool for the diagnosis of faults in power transformers through the analysis of dissolved gases in oil. The computational system approach is based on the combined use of some traditional criteria of the dissolved gas analysis published in standards, an artificial neural network, and a fuzzy logic system. The objective of the tool is to provide the user with an answer obtained from analysis not only of the traditional methods already consolidated in the technical literature, but also via artificial-intelligence techniques, reaching a higher degree of reliability with respect to each technique individually. The results obtained with this tool are promising in the diagnosis of incipient faults in transformers, reaching success levels of more than 80%. View full abstract»

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  • Field experiences with measurements of dielectric response in frequency domain for power transformer diagnostics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 681 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Some new methods, based on characterization of the dielectric response of transformer insulation in time and frequency domains, have been pointed out by CIGRE as suitable to assess moisture content in pressboard and paper. Measuring devices available today on the market are quite robust in field conditions; however there is a risk that undesired internal and external factors might influence the measurements. These influences can lead to mistaken interpretation of insulation wetness. Operators should therefore be aware of the risks appearing at different measuring conditions and of the precautions that can be taken to minimize their effects. This work presents a systematic investigation on the influence of some factors on the results of dielectric response measurements in field conditions. The errors that can be committed during the measurements if certain precautions are not taken, with different equipment connected in parallel, are evaluated. The influence of rain and electromagnetic disturbances are also analyzed proposing solutions to attenuate their effects. Finally, a discussion on the influence of temperature distribution follows. The work is concentrated on frequency response measurements, although some results from the use of polarization and depolarization current technique are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • PD pulse burst characteristics of transformer oils

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 689 - 698
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Partial Discharge (PD) characteristics of four typical transformer oils, having respective viscosities of 3.5, 9.1, 13.0, 18.3 cSt at 40°C, were examined under ac conditions, using a needle-to-plane electrode system. Wide and narrow bandwidth measurements were carried out to determine simultaneously the apparent charge transfers associated with the overall PD pulse bursts in the oil as well as that of the individual discrete PD pulses within the PD pulse bursts themselves. Based on the apparent charge transfer value, the size or depth of the PD initiating microcavities in the field direction within the oils, producing the first detected discrete PD pulse, were estimated to be in the order of 2 μm. The recurrence rate of the PD pulse bursts was found to increase with voltage above the PD inception voltage; this increase was accompanied by both an increase in number of discrete PD pulses and their amplitude within the pulse burst itself. These increases were reflected by a substantial rise in the apparent charge transfer per PD pulse burst. The charge transfer levels of the PD pulse bursts associated with the highly pressurized gas microcavities were of the same order of magnitude as those produced within the normally much larger macroscopic cavities that exist under atmospheric pressure in conventional oil-impregnated insulating systems of power transformers. View full abstract»

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  • Detailed modeling of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 699 - 710
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a detailed model for simulation of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system. SMES technology has the potential to bring real power storage characteristic to the utility transmission and distribution systems. The principle of SMES system operation is reviewed in this paper. To understand transient and dynamic performance of a SMES system, a detailed SMES system benchmark model is given with extensive simulation results. This system is demonstrated using an electromagnetic transient program-PSCAD/EMTDC. View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic assessment of equipment trips due to voltage sags

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 711 - 718
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB)  

    This paper discusses the uncertainty involved in the behavior of sensitive equipment used in various industrial processes and the methodology to incorporate this effect in quantifying the equipment trips due to voltage sags over a specified time period. The exact and more precise counting of equipment trips is essential for the accurate economic assessment of power quality. Existing standards and previously published test results on the sensitivity of this equipment against voltage sags are critically reviewed and possible ranges for variation in equipment sensitivity are investigated. Four different probable behaviors within respective ranges were considered for the stochastic assessment of equipment trips due to voltage sags. This study is performed on a generic power system. View full abstract»

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  • Novel measurement system for grounding impedance of substation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 719 - 725
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to measure the grounding impedance of a grounding system more precisely and easily, two key problems of the measurement system: the location of the voltage electrode and the elimination of the noise and interference must be conquered. The new theoretical analysis and measurement system of the grounding impedance based on short-current lead wire and a swept frequency ac source is proposed. The compensating position of the voltage electrode to obtain the real grounding impedance is evaluated by analyzing the soil structure, the grounding system under test, and the position of the current electrode. This new system measures the ground impedance at several frequencies other than power frequency, then interpolates them to acquire the ground impedance at the power frequency. The mutual inductance between the potential and current wires is analyzed and eliminated. The industrial computer-based grounding impedance measurement system is developed and the analysis software is programmed. A field test was performed and compared with the traditional method in the substation and the novel system worked well. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage regulation with STATCOMs: modeling, control and results

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 726 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents system modeling and control design for fast load voltage regulation using static compensators (STATCOMs). The modeling strategy gives a clear representation of load voltage magnitude and STATCOM reactive current on an instantaneous basis. The particular coordinate transformation employed here also facilitates extraction of linearized system dynamics in conjunction with circuit simulators. It is rigorously shown that the control problem of load voltage regulation using reactive current is nonminimum phase. Linear and nonlinear controllers for the regulation problem are designed and compared via simulation results. Internal dynamics of the STATCOM are modeled using the same strategy. Lyapunov based adaptive controllers are designed for controlling the STATCOM reactive current while maintaining its dc bus voltage. Simulation results of the controlled STATCOM integrated with the load bus voltage controller are presented to show efficacy of the modeling and control design. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811