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Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—II: Express Briefs publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • A new modeling and optimization of gain-boosted cascode amplifier for high-speed and low-voltage applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 169 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because of limited output swing, the basic structure of a gain-boosted cascode amplifier (GBCA) cannot be used to design a low-voltage operational amplifier. In this paper, we investigate the design of a high-swing GBCA, and find the optimum bandwidth for the boosting or feedback amplifier. This bandwidth eliminates the slow-settling component in the step response, prevents the gain-boosting loop from being unstable, and results in the shortest settling time. Finally, we present a very high-speed and high-swing amplifier suitable for low-voltage applications. View full abstract»

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  • Fast 2-dimensional 4 × 4 forward integer transform implementation for H.264/AVC

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 174 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the novel two-dimensional (2-D) fast algorithm for realization of 4 × 4 forward integer transform in H.264 is proposed. Based on matrix operations with Kronecker product and direct sum, the efficient fast 2-D 4 × 4 forward integer transform can be derived from the proposed one-dimensional fast 4 × 4 forward integer transform through matrix decompositions. The proposed fast 2-D 4 × 4 forward integer transform design doesn't need transpose memory for direct parallel pipelined architecture. The fast 2-D 4 × 4 forward integer transform requires fewer latency delays than the state-of-the-art methods. With regular modularity, the proposed fast algorithm is suitable for VLSI implementation to achieve real-time H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) signal processing. View full abstract»

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  • New configurations for the measurement of small resistance changes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 178 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, three circuits for the measurement of small resistance changes are proposed. The circuits offer the advantages of reduced bridge complexity and produce an output signal that is twice that of a proposed current-mode bridge and four times that of the conventional Wheatstone bridge. Also, the circuits have no common mode input signal and can accommodate multiple sensors without additional circuitry. They employ different combinations of current conveyors and operational amplifiers and their operation has been verified by PSPICE simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Phase diffusion due to low-frequency colored noise

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 183 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)  

    Phase diffusion in a two-dimensional nonlinear oscillator subject to colored noise is simulated numerically, and compared to theoretical predictions. When the spectrum of the noise sources decays faster than ω-2 at high frequencies, standard first-order perturbation results are dominated by second-order effects. A simple analytical model predicts the general form of the diffusion constant in such cases. View full abstract»

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  • Can threshold networks be trained directly?

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 187 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Neural networks with threshold activation functions are highly desirable because of the ease of hardware implementation. However, the popular gradient-based learning algorithms cannot be directly used to train these networks as the threshold functions are nondifferentiable. Methods available in the literature mainly focus on approximating the threshold activation functions by using sigmoid functions. In this paper, we show theoretically that the recently developed extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm can be used to train the neural networks with threshold functions directly instead of approximating them with sigmoid functions. Experimental results based on real-world benchmark regression problems demonstrate that the generalization performance obtained by ELM is better than other algorithms used in threshold networks. Also, the ELM method does not need control variables (manually tuned parameters) and is much faster. View full abstract»

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  • Charge-domain FIR sampler with programmable filtering coefficients

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 192 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A charge-domain sampling technique for realization of mixed-mode finite-impulse response (FIR) filters is presented. The method is based on weighting signal current samples integrated into a sampling capacitor with a set of parallel digitally controlled current-mode switches each carrying a unit current element. The fine achievable resolution and digital controllability of the filter tap coefficients allows realization of advanced programmable FIR filtering functions embedded into high-frequency signal sampling. Circuit-level simulation results of an example 50-MHz IF-sampler with a built-in 22-tap complex bandpass sinc3 FIR function in 0.35-μm CMOS are shown, demonstrating the feasibility of the presented method. View full abstract»

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  • A mixed-signal GFSK demodulator for Bluetooth

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 197 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    A discrete-time mixed-signal Gaussian frequency-shift keying demodulator designed for a low intermediate frequency Bluetooth receiver performs FSK demodulation. Employing passive sampling and time-domain differentiation techniques, the demodulator performs quadrature demodulation while tolerating up to 200-kHz frequency offset. A distributed array of interleaved sampling circuits and a low-voltage multiplier allow both low-voltage operation and low power dissipation. Fabricated in a CMOS 0.25-μm technology, the demodulator only dissipates 6 mW from a 2-V power supply. View full abstract»

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  • Invariance principle and complete stability for cellular neural networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 202 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    In applications of classification of patterns, image processing, associative memories etc, the complete stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) plays an important role. Invariance principles based on the Lyapunov functions and functionals are still the most advantageous theory to analyze the complete stability. However, one difficulty in applying classical invariance principles to the complete stability is to prove that the largest invariant set consists of equilibrium points. In this paper, we present one invariance principle to analyze the complete stability. We can avoid the difficulty of proving that the largest invariant set is constituted of equilibrium points in discussing some sufficient condition for complete stability of CNNs by using this invariance principle. View full abstract»

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  • Performance advantages of 3-D digital integrated circuits in a mixed SOI and bulk CMOS design space

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 207 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits (ICs), with multiple stacked device layers, offer a unique design opportunity to use both bulk and partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS devices in a single circuit design. Such 3-D designs can, for example, minimize the body effect common in bulk designs and reduce adverse floating-body effects (FBE) common in PD SOI designs. Sequential 3-D technology such as exfoliation-based single-crystal silicon layer transfer allows a low-temperature approach to 3-D integration with high-density interconnectivity. Using the characteristics of this technology, we present the mixed SOI bulk (MSB) design approach that effectively re-maps conventional VLSI designs to the 3-D design space. Tradeoffs in delay, noise margin, power, and circuit footprint are analyzed and demonstrated through analyzes of static, dynamic, pass-transistor, and SRAM circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of a low-voltage RF CMOS mixer

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 212 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A CMOS low-voltage downconversion mixer is presented. With 1.69-GHz local oscillator signal input and 1.63-GHz RF signal input, measurement results show that the conversion gain is 6.631 dB, input-referred third-order intercept point is 1.51 dBm, single-sideband noise figure is 21.43 dB with a 1.8-V supply voltage. The mixer's noise and linearity analysis, layout technique to maximize RF performance and minimize noise performance are also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Impulse response of sincN FIR filters

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 217 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple recurrence formula is presented for computing the impulse response coefficients of the sincN FIR filter, consisting of a cascade of N sinc filters, each of length M. A closed form expression is also given for the first M coefficients. View full abstract»

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  • 1.3 V 20 ps time-to-digital converter for frequency synthesis in 90-nm CMOS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 220 - 224
    Cited by:  Papers (112)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    We propose and demonstrate a 20-ps time-to-digital converter (TDC) realized in 90-nm digital CMOS. It is used as a phase/frequency detector and charge pump replacement in an all-digital phase-locked loop for a fully-compliant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) transceiver. The TDC core is based on a pseudodifferential digital architecture that makes it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. The time conversion resolution is equal to an inverter propagation delay, which is the finest logic-level regenerative timing in CMOS. The TDC is self calibrating with the estimation accuracy better than 1%. It additionally serves as a CMOS process strength estimator for analog circuits in this large system-on-chip. Measured integral nonlinearity is 0.7 least significant bits. The TDC consumes 5.3 mA raw and 1.3 mA with power management from a 1.3-V supply. View full abstract»

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  • LMS-based calibration of an RF digitally controlled oscillator for mobile phones

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 225 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a least-mean square based gain calibration technique of an RF digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) in an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL). The DCO gain of about 12-kHz/least significant bit is subject to process, voltage and temperature variations, but is tracked and compensated in real time. Precise setting of the inverse DCO gain in the ADPLL modulating path allows direct wide-band frequency modulation that is independent from the ADPLL loop bandwidth. The technique is part of a single-chip fully compliant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)/EDGE transceiver in 90-nm digital CMOS. View full abstract»

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  • A new LMI condition for delay-dependent asymptotic stability of delayed Hopfield neural networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 230 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (62)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new delay-dependent asymptotic stability condition for delayed Hopfield neural networks is given in terms of a linear matrix inequality, which is less conservative than existing ones in the literature. This condition guarantees the existence of a unique equilibrium point and its global asymptotic stability of a given delayed Hopfield neural network. Examples are provided to show the reduced conservatism of the proposed condition. View full abstract»

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  • Robust H2 filtering for a class of systems with stochastic nonlinearities

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 235 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the robust H2 filtering problem for a class of uncertain discrete-time nonlinear stochastic systems. The nonlinearities described by statistical means in this paper comprise some well-studied classes of nonlinearities in the literature. A technique is developed to tackle the matrix trace terms resulting from the nonlinearities, and the well-known S-procedure technique is adopted to cope with the uncertainties. A unified framework is established to solve the addressed robust H2 filtering problem by using a linear matrix inequality approach. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • HBP: improvement in BP algorithm for an adaptive MLP decision feedback equalizer

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 240 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Though the decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with multilayer perceptron (MLP) structure can be trained effectively by the backpropagation (BP) algorithm, it is always accompanied by the problem of local minimum. In order to solve some problems of the local minimum in the BP algorithm and to improve the performance of the BP algorithm under the same MLP structure, we combine the hierarchical approach and the BP algorithm to implement the MLP DFE, and we call the new scheme hierarchical BP (HBP) algorithm. Based on the hierarchical approach, from the input layer to the output layer of the MLP, every two layers of neural nodes (with one hidden layer) will be trained with an individual BP algorithm. Therefore, the entire MLP can be trained by several independent BP algorithms, unlike the standard BP algorithm, which utilizes only one BP algorithm to train the whole MLP structure. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the HBP algorithm not only strongly reduces the mean squared error but also yields a much lower bit-error rate than the standard BP algorithm does for equal computational cost and conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on smart sensors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 245
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  • 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 246
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  • 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 247
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  • 49th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 248
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—II: Express Briefs Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

TCAS II publishes brief papers in the field specified by the theory, analysis, design, and practical implementations of circuits, and the application of circuit techniques to systems and to signal processing. Included is the whole spectrum from basic scientific theory to industrial applications. The field of interest covered includes:

  • Circuits: Analog, Digital and Mixed Signal Circuits and Systems  
  • Nonlinear Circuits and Systems, Integrated Sensors, MEMS and Systems on Chip, Nanoscale Circuits and Systems, Optoelectronic
  • Circuits and Systems, Power Electronics and Systems
  • Software for Analog-and-Logic Circuits and Systems
  • Control aspects of Circuits and Systems. 

Full Aims & Scope