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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part 1 • Date May 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Shaft dynamics in closely coupled identical generators

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 721 - 728
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Previous analyses of shaft dynamic effects have been based on the practice of 'lumping' identical generators feeding into the same transmission line. This paper investigates the effect on shaft dynamics of the electrical cross coupling between identical generators operating in parallel. It is concluded that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of an arbitrary number of units can be determined from two equivalents. Also the extent to which the shaft modes may be stimulated in feasible on line experiments is predicted. View full abstract»

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  • A practical application of optimal control using a microalternator

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 729 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper is concerned with validating the practical effectiveness of two optimal excitation systems using a microalternator. The paper is primarily experimental and first investigates, using a microalternator, the practical application of simulated studies previously reported in the literature. Subsequently much more extensive testing of the proposed excitation schemes is effected over a wide range of operating conditions including sustained disturbances and closeup faults. At each step experimental work is closely supported by further simulation studies and some excellent agreement is obtained. Some questions concerning the use of microalternators for power system studies are, however, also raised. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of the real-time dispatch with constraints for secure operation of bulk power systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 741 - 757
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    A unique non-linear optimization program for exact real-time optimal dispatching with security constraints is presented. The basic optimization technique employs complex Lagrange multipliers and an innovative slack variable approach. The program was designed specifically for real-time application but can also be used off-line for optimal power flow solutions. Fundamental to the technique is a new Hessian matrix approximation, called a Diflex Hessian, which preserves sparsity and saves considerable computer core memory over the conventional Hessian. The Diflex Hesslan is derived in a unique mathematical style which was instrumental in its development. Other novel techniques of sparse matrix elimination and optimization are also described including unique logic for inequality constraint switching. Test results on a 1200-bus model are presented and indicate computer core memory and time requirements are comparable to a Newton power flow solution. View full abstract»

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  • Six-phase (multi-phase) power transmission systems: Fault analysis

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 758 - 767
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
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    The motivation for writing this paper stems from the question, "If the concept of six- (multi-) phase systems become feasible, how to plan such systems?" One of the important aspects of transmission planning is the design of adequate protective scheme which requires a detailed fault analysis. It is well-known that the theory of symmetrical components is an important tool for such analysis. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of the symmetrical component theory for six-phase systems. The remaining part of the paper deals with both symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis of six-phase transmission systems. The results of the paper could readily be used by power system planners. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of particles on AC and DC electrical performance of gas insulated systems at extra-high-voltage

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 768 - 777
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
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    High-voltage breakdown measurements were made in two similar particle contaminated coaxial test systems, one with AC and the other with DC voltages. Information is presented on the effects of particle size, shape, and material for both SF6and N2gases at pressures up to 15 atm in a plain coaxial gap and a coaxial gap including a post-type support spacer. Particle motion and location were found to strongly influence insulation performance. Measured values of electric fields which lifted and drove the particles, so that they bounced vertically and laterally, compare favorably with calculated levels. Movement into the the higher stress region at the center conductor was correlated with the initiation of sparkover. These breakdowns could be at levels more than a factor of five lower than those obtained when contamination was not introduced. Large variations in breakdown voltage of as much as 3 to 1 encountered under DC correspond to conditions where particle motion could be restricted, presumably by corona discharge, to motion near the outer electrode. AC sparkover levels were typically at the lower limits of the DC range. Both free and attached particles on the dielectric spacer surface would trigger flashover at the same low levels as were measured in the gas gap. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity functions of corona loss on HVDC practical power lines: An introduction to optimal design

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 778 - 791
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    The similarity comparison method is applied to the study of the corona phenomenon on HVDC transmission lines. Using data already known, the non-dimensional generalized characteristics of corona loss in fair weather are found for unipolar lines, with positive polarity, and bipolar lines. These curves are used to find a new similarity matrix which makes it possible to compute the corona variables, power loss, leakage current and conductance for the planned system, by transforming the known values of the reference system. The generalized curves also make it possible to establish absolute formulae for the corona loss predetermination. From these formulae the corona loss sensitivity functions as regards the electric and geometric parameters of the transmission line, are deduced. These functions are used in a sensitivity analysis and in an introductory study to the technico-economic optimal design of the HVDC power lines. View full abstract»

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  • Specifications, tests, and installation of wires and cables for the diablo canyon nuclear power project

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 792 - 802
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper describes the process of selecting wires and cables for the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Project. The criteria for the fire and environmental tests, the basis for the specifications, and the reasons for the final choice and acceptance are outlined. A short section is dedicated to the installation of cables in raceways with reference to separation and color coding. Also covered are the selection and testing of fire stops and the selection of seismic supports. View full abstract»

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  • A new thermal rating approach: The real time thermal rating system for strategic overhead conductor transmission lines -- Part I: General description and justification of the real time thermal rating system

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 803 - 809
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    For the first time a Real Time Thermal Rating System has been developed for overhead transmission lines using actual meteorological data and real-time conductor temperatures and line loadings. This System provides, on a probability basis, much higher ampacity ratings than those derived from conventional methods. As a portion of this System, a steady state thermal rating procedure is presented in the companion paper, which includes forced convection heat transfer equations taking into account the effect of wind turbulence or gustiness, conductor yaw (wind direction), conductor height above ground, smooth versus rough (stranded) conductor surfaces, the proximity of conductors in a bundle, and conductor pitch. A natural convective heat equation is developed for stranded conductors. The conductor temperature is solved directly without resorting to an iterative solution. View full abstract»

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  • A new thermal rating approach: The real time thermal rating system for strategic overhead conductor transmission lines -- Part II: Steady state thermal rating program

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 810 - 825
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1696 KB)  

    The elements of the steady state thermal rating program are described which includes how the convective heat transfer from overhead conductors is affected by wind turbulence, wind direction, velocity profile (a function of height above ground, temperature lapse rate, and type of terrain), conductor surface type (stranded or smooth), conductor pitch, and the proximity of conductors in a bundle configuration. Equations are developed for the thermal conductivity and the kinematic viscosity of air. It is also shown how the conductor temperature may be solved directly by formulating a biquadratic equation rather than utilizing an iterative procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Surge propagation in three-phase pipe-type cablesߞPart II: Duplication of field tests including the effects of neutral wires and pipe saturation

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 826 - 833
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Field tests of surge propagation in 69-kV pipe-type cables are successfully duplicated using an analytical model. The solution techniques are general and can be applied for any waveshape or travel time. Included in the model are the effects of shield tape and skid wires. Proximity effects in the cable elements are represented. In addition to field-test comparisons, the effects of different elements in the model are illustrated by computing the step responses. These models can be used in digital transients programs and Transient Network Analyzer (TNA) studies to determine proper insulation and protection requirements in cable systems for lightning and switching surge transient overvoltages. View full abstract»

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  • A case of inductive co-ordination

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 834 - 840
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The co-ordination of the expansion of both power and communication networks, to avoid the problem of excessive longitudinally induced voltage on communication and signal circuits, is a matter of increasing importance. This paper deals with the design and installation of railway signal and communication cables in a case where elaborate shielding from the influence of a proposed new adjacent power system was required. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal power dispatchߞA comprehensive survey

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 841 - 854
    Cited by:  Papers (117)
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    This paper reviews the progress of optimal dispatch, also called economic dispatch, since its inception to the present in chronological sequence. The classic single area as well as multiarea cases are summarized, and the important theoretical work in optimal load flows suggested to date reviewed. Approaches to the optimal load flow taken by industry are also reported, as well as an itemization of problems that still remain to be solved. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic stability and power system stabilizersߞAnalysis and tests on the Venezuelan system

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 855 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The nature of undamped oscillations in a power system is closely examined in this paper and an experimental approach is proposed for the adjustment of the power system stabilizers to damp these oscillations. A description is given of the poorly damped and occasionally sustained oscillations that the Venezuelan Interconnected power system experienced after the installation of high initial response solid-state exciters and a detailed discussion is presented of the results of tests performed on the power system with stabilizers adjusted using the experimental approach proposed. View full abstract»

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  • A field comparison of RI and TVI instrumentation

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 863 - 875
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Many different types of instruments are presently being used for the measurement of radio noise produced by power transmission lines. Different characteristics prevent a direct comparison of data obtained from various meters. A means of translating data to a common base for comparison is highly desirable. With this end in mind, a field study was performed on several types of meter in common use today. Results indicate that a satisfactory agreement between meters can be achieved for low frequency (radio broadcast band) measurements. For higher frequencies (television broadcast bands) correlation is less than satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Recommended installation practices for radio equipment in electric power substations

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 876 - 885
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    There are many unique problems which must be considered when installing radio equipment in an electric power substation, e.g. the higher reliability requirements, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) caused by switching surges and corona noise; the sometimes harsh physical environment; and the aesthetic concerns of the substation design engineer and others. This paper presents recommended practices and selected references which will aid the communications design engineer in solving these problems. View full abstract»

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  • Calculating the positive discharge onset voltages of compressed air

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 886 - 895
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A method is developed for computing the positive discharge onset voltags for air gaps at high pressures. There is a critical pressure above which field emission from the cathode surface plays a significant role. The computed values are in close agreement with those measured experimentally for both uniform and nonuniform field gaps. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of dynamic nozzle parameters for various nozzle geometries and test conditions of an experimental half-size SF6puffer breaker

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 896 - 906
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)  

    An experimental half-size puffer breaker with an insulating nozzle which is at rest during breaker opening has been used for measuring the distribution of dynamic pressure, electrical potential and ablation in the nozzle area. At the current levels used for the tests nozzle clogging can be expected. The effect of several nozzle configurations on the various measured properties has been determined for different initial pressures and magnitudes of current. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid simulation for long term dynamics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 907 - 915
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper describes the work done under the EPRI RP908-1 project to study the long-term dynamics of power systems using hybrid simulation. A hybrid simulator was designed, constructed and tested at the University of Missouri-Columbia for a sample system provided by General Electric in RP907-1. The sample system consists of 16 machines and 68 buses. Each power system component was implemented in electronic integrated circuits and is contained on 8" × 10 1/2" printed circuit cards. The power system model is an ac, single phase, variable frequency, simulation scaled to operate 20 times faster-than-real-time. The base frequency is 1200 Hz which means that a 20 minute real time run can be obtained in one minute system running time. A 16-bit digital minicomputer was used for input, output and control of the analog simulation. A special purpose digital/analog interface controller was designed and built to achieve the desired data collection and control functions. The analog power system models include all of the specific components which influence the long term dynamics. A description of the hybrid simulator, and the results of the specific studies performed are presented. Two scenarios demonstrating the long term analysis capability of the simulator are presented along with a comparison of short-term results with a conventional digital program. This project has successfully demonstrated the basic feasibility of the hybrid approach to perform long-term dynamics studies and has demonstrated a working model of a faster-than-real-time hybrid simulator. Furthermore, it was shown that the hybrid approach is feasible and practical for a wide range of additional studies and purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric behavior of the dynamic period overvoltage on power transmission systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 916 - 924
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A physical understanding of the dynamic period response of transformer terminated transmission lines is developed using a simplified single phase lumped model and time domain analysis. The sensitivity of the response to various circuit parameters is predicted based on this analysis and then verified using numerical techniques. Results are extended to three phase systems through studies performed on an analog transmission system simulator. It is shown that a weak source is the major factor leading to the generation of a dynamic period overvoltage. View full abstract»

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  • Versatile load flow method for multiterminal HVDC systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 925 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
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    Any configuration of multiterminal HVdc system is accommodated in a generalized Newton dc load-flow program. It readily interfaces with any ac load flow program. Pract ical operating requirements have been given particular attention to permit aspects such as converter transformer tap-limits, pole and bipolar dc outages, emergency pole-paralleling and detailed control and scheduling strategies. Examples are provided of typical solutions incorporating realistic dc and ac systems, and accomplished in conjunction with an established modern ac load flow program. View full abstract»

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  • Central computer controller for multiterminal HVDC transmission systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 934 - 944
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The operating requirements of a central digital computer controller for a multiterminal parallel connected HVdc system are developed using an ac/dc system simulator connected in real-time to a minicomputer. Control of dc system power for steady-state, faulted, dynamic and transient conditions is investigated for typical telecommunication delays with both open and closed-loop central controllers. Open-loop control is advantageous when fast change of dc power is required while closed-loop control is preferable for steady-state and dynamic control during slower disturbances. Acceptable calculation delay times can be achieved with existing minicomputers. The computer provides increased operating flexibility, data storage and calculation capability compared with hardwired controllers. View full abstract»

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  • A statistical approach to the streamer breakdown criterion in SF6

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 945 - 954
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The electrical breakdown field strength in SF6calculated from measurements has been found to deviate considerably from the values predicted by the theoretical models used up to now. The simplest form of the streamer criterion predicts breakdown to take place at field strength - to - pressure ratios close to 8.9 kV/mm atm. The streamer model can be enhanced by introducing surface roughness and electrode curvature factors, thus explaining some of the experimental results obtained. The model is, however, unable to explain the general dependence of the breakdown field strength on parameters as pressure, electrode area and voltage waveform. This paper gives a new theoretical model for impulse breakdown in SF6, using a statistical approach to the streamer breakdown criterion. Field emission is assumed to be the source of primary electrons. This model gives correspondence with the experimental results for different electrode configurations covering a wide range of pressure and electrode area. View full abstract»

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  • Celilo-Sylmar plusminus 400 kV line RI correlation with short test line

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 955 - 961
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Radio interference data collected from the 1360 km (845 miles) ± 400 kV Celilo-Sylmar HVdc line (dc Intertie) since operation began on May 21, 1970 is reported here and compared with previous results from a 2.02 km (1.26 mi) dc test line section with similar conductors. Fair weather measurements of RI lateral profiles at 834 kHz and frequency spectra from 20 kHz to 1.5 MHz are presented. An empirical RI formula based on experience from these lines is included. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of parallel plate simulation of the transmission line electric field as related to biological effects laboratory studies

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 962 - 968
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This paper presents calculations for the unperturbed electric field between parallel plates of various configurations. Also, the calculated perturbation caused by a conductive object placed between the plates is compared with the corresponding perturbation in a transmission line field. Conclusions on the performance of laboratory parallel plate arrangements used for the study of electric-field related biological effects are given. Calculations are compared with actual field measurements done by others, and show very good agreement. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope