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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2  Part 1 • Date March 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 44
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Generation reserve value of interconnections

    Page(s): 337 - 346
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    This paper describes the technique used for one of the largest and most comprehensive studies to date employing loss of load probability methods to evaluate the generation reserve benefit of interconnections. The technique applies to any number of assumed radially interconnected systems. A two-area reliability run is made between the primary area of interest and each neighbor. The results are then merged to answer the reserve question. The impact of unit slippages in the primary and neighboring areas, along with deviations from forecasted loads, also enter into the evaluation. View full abstract»

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  • Security constrained economic dispatch with participation factors based on worst case bus load variations

    Page(s): 347 - 356
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    An efficient method is presented for finding the economic and steady-state secure base point generation levels to supply the present load. From the specified range of possible load variation anticipated for each bus during the interval before the next base point optimization, the generator participation factors are calculated to guarantee a secure supply to the worst case combination of bus load excursions. The base points are calculated using a linear but lossy system model coupled with an efficient gradient computation technique. The worst case bus load condition is found as an extension of the base point calculation. View full abstract»

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  • Bonneville power administration's prototype 1100/1200 kV transmission line project

    Page(s): 357 - 366
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    Studies indicate that power transmission lines with capacities of 8,000 to 10,000 MW will be needed in the 1980's to meet anticipated Trans-Cascade Mountain transmission requirements in the Pacific Northwest. One attractive alternative to meeting these needs is to overlay BPA's 500 kV grid with an 1100 kV transmission system. In order to verify the adequacy of the 1100 kV line design before a commitment for an 1100 kV system is made, it has been decided to build and operate a short prototype three-phase electrical line and a short mechanical test line. The two lines will be completed by the end of 1976 at which time an extensive test program including mechanical, electrical; and biological tests will commence. View full abstract»

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  • Procedure to increase voltage rating of field installed 15 kV cable by replacement of nitrogen with sulfur hexafluoride

    Page(s): 367 - 375
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    This paper presents the results of a study to establish the feasibility of increasing the operating voltage and MVA rating of an installed 15 kV cable system by replacing the nitrogen with sulfur hexafluoride gas. The results of laboratory and field studies indicate that such a conversion is feasible and can be accomplished in the field if the ionization starting potential of the cable is measured during conversion to prove the safe operation at the higher voltage. It is concluded that the ionization starting potential of a 15 kV cable system can be raised by a factor of approximately 1.5 at 15 psig (10.4 × 104N/m2) after conversion to sulfur hexafluoride gas. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic data acquisition of power network overvoltages and of laboratory impulses

    Page(s): 376 - 382
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    This paper presents two automatic systems for the acquisition of the overvoltages : in the network with an original device and in the two high voltage laboratories of ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE with a minicomputer. The aims of these two equipments are explained. A description of their operating conditions and capabilities is given and the criterions which led to the chosen solutions are pointed out. Finally, one reports the acquired experience. View full abstract»

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  • Design and test of a flexible EHV cable connection for a floating plant

    Page(s): 383 - 392
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    Transmission cable connections to an offshore floating plant present unique flexing problems due to motions of the plant during storm conditions even though the plant is moored in the basin of a protective breakwater. This paper deals with strains in the cable due to flexing, and the flexible arches designed to distribute those strains at the hinges of a three-hinged support system. Structural details of the support system are not discussed. Analysis and test data are presented to prove the feasibility of utilizing self-contained oil-filled cables for an overhead EHV flexible cable connection to a floating plant. View full abstract»

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  • Sulfur oxide emissions management for electric power systems

    Page(s): 393 - 401
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    This paper presents a Dynamic Emissions Management System for the management of sulfur oxide emissions from fossil fuel-fired generating stations. Based on a multiple-strategy approach to emissions control via generation shifting, this system can be used for contingency evaluation, during a shortage of low sulfur fuel, for supplemental control or during air pollution emergencies. Simulation results of emissions management of an actual power system are presented. View full abstract»

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  • The dynamics of AC/DC systems with controlled multiterminal HVDC transmission

    Page(s): 402 - 413
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    This paper presents DC modeling improvements and extensions to include three terminal systems for AC/DC system studies that have been developed and implemented in a large scale stability program. Particular emphasis will be on the representation of DC transmission controls and their effects on dynamic system performance. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for measuring the A. C. resistance of large cable conductors

    Page(s): 414 - 422
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    The most widely used methods available for measuring the a.c. resistance of large cable conductors are reviewed. A new experimental technique which employs an a.c. bridge with a current transformer for 4 terminal impedances is described. Its accuracy is investigated and the possibility of making a high precision calibration is shown. Some experimental results of standard production cable conductors are given. These results allow to conclude that the a.c. resistance of large conductors can be measured with high accuracy both for research purposes and factory tests. View full abstract»

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  • A general method for determining resonances in transformer windings

    Page(s): 423 - 430
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    This paper presents a method for calculating terminal and internal impedance versus frequency for a lumped parameter model of a transformer. The transformer's total frequency response can be accurately determined from this impedance data directly, i.e., the terminal resonance and anti-resonance and internal amplification factor characteristic can be calculated for a single or three-phase transformer model. Since most equipment associated with power system operation can be accurately modeled with lumped parameter networks, this method also provides an accurate, straightforward method for determining the resonance characteristic of those systems. An additional significance of this method is that the accuracy of the calculation is limited only by the user's ability to represent the equipment or system. Heretofore, the accuracy of this calculation was limited by the simplifying assumptions required of the network model by each solution method. This paper presents the definitions and mathematical theory underlying the method. Two examples are presented in which comparisons are made between measured and calculated values for a helical air core coil and a 200 MVA single-phase autotransformer. The agreement is excellent. View full abstract»

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  • An external system equivalent model using real-time measurements for system security evaluation

    Page(s): 431 - 446
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    A model for an external system equivalent appropriate for real-time system security evaluation is proposed. The model has two components, one which models the reaction of the external system to system changes in past time intervals and a second component for adjusting the equivalent model to present operating levels. Decoupling techniques between P-δ and Q-V quantities at the boundaries are used in the model formulation and recursive system identification techniques are employed to obtain the parameters of the model. Numerical simulation studies made on the 1976 AEP-ECAR system show encouraging results. Possible further improvements and the need for testing with real time data are discussed and it is hoped that the paper will encourage others to devote effort to these and other pertinent issues. View full abstract»

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  • Decision analysis for electric power systems engineering and management

    Page(s): 447 - 456
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    Decision analysis is increasingly being applied as an aid to decision making under uncertainty for electric power system engineering and management. This paper reviews a wide range of such applications in the United States and presents details of a typical analysis that has been utilized in actual decision making. The need for applying the more advanced concepts in decision analysis to more complex cases is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Governing features and performance of the first 600-MW drogenerating unit at grand coulee

    Page(s): 457 - 466
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    The Grand Coulee Power Complex contributes a new strong influence on system dynamics and control. Addition of the Third Powerplant, with the largest hydrogenerating units in the world, is an important feature. Its function is combined with those of the initial complement of generating units, pumping units, and pump/generating units. In this paper are described the design objectives and recent verification by field tests of the governor characteristics sought to benefit system dynamics, to coordinate all generation under local computer control in response to a single system control signal, and to effectively utilize the inherent capabilities of hydropower for daily peaking as well as for system control. The primary control loops for the system control hierarchy, those of the prime mover governors, are given special features for rapid response to their primary signals while maintaining single-time-constant response to local computer control. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogen cycle peak-shaving on the new york state grid using fuel cells

    Page(s): 467 - 477
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    A preliminary assessment for the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation indicated that power system networks might be better optimized if dispersed storage devices, located close to urban areas, were available. However, some capacity would be required which could operate not only as stored energy peak-shaving devices, but, which can be counted upon to operate as firm capacity in either the peak-shaving or continuous intermediate generation duty region of the load curve depending on system conditions. It was felt that this would provide the flexibility needed for more efficient utilization of existing capital intensive generation and transmission facilities. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis for "Dual Mode" operation of fuel cells as an intermediate load generation device using coal derived or distillate fuels during certain periods and as peak-shaving units in conjunction with electrolyzers at other times. In the latter case, hydrogen generated by the electrolyzer was assumed to be injected into the natural gas network during off-peak electric demand periods. During peak electric demand periods an equivalent amount of BTU's would be removed from the gas network for conversion to electricity. Based on the referenced expansion plan for the New York Power Pool (NYPP), it is shown that fuel cell capacity in combination with electrolyzers could generate net annual savings to NYPP member companies totalling $131 million (1974 dollars), including a reduction in fuel oil consumption of 30 million barrels annually by 1989. This assumes a NYPP reference generation system mix containing 3000MW of pumped storage hydro and the expansion plan with fuel cells to contain 1800MW of fuel cells instead of an equivalent amount of planned conventional fossil units. Other power system benefits due to fuel cell performance characteristics, both static and dynamic are analyzed. The importance of the type of converter interface selected and the corresponding system benefits are analyzed. The system benefits that can be derived from a force-commutated dc converter interface apply equally well to a dispersed dc battery storage source. View full abstract»

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  • Using the computer to set transmission line phase distance and ground back-up relays

    Page(s): 478 - 484
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    The size and complexity of modern power transmission systems, plus the recent advances in computer technology, have made the manual calculation of relay settings impractical. Although the settings of many relays can be best handled by programmable calculators or minicomputers, one relay at a time, the time interval coordination required for phase distance and directional ground overcurrent relays dictates that a systems approach be used. The data and calculations inherent in considering a system of reasonable size require that a large core computer be utilized. Several programs have been developed to perform this function. The unique approach taken in developing the program outlined in this paper was to provide the engineer, with a knowledge of the system under study, the power to interact with the computer in making decisions of how to best make compromises to optimize system protection and reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Salt water spray canal contamination of overhead transmission lines

    Page(s): 485 - 495
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    Installation of this country's first salt water spray cooling canal 200 feet (61 meters) from the transmission lines of a power station, created an insulator contamination problem several orders of magnitude greater than that possible from natural seaside salt contamination. A unique insulator contamination monitoring program is described, together with the data obtained for twelve months prior to operation of the spray cooling canal, and eight months with the canal in operation. An early warning device was developed and tested for alarming when a dangerous amount of insulator contamination is detected. Several methods of improving line performance are described including the use of resistance graded (RG) insulators. The reason for the failure of the RG insulators to perform satisfactorily is explained. A relationship between insulator contamination level as a function of distance from the salt water spray cooling canal is developed which will be helpful in determining adequate separation between a salt water cooling canal and adjacent overhead transmission lines. This paper will be of considerable aid in the planning of future salt water spray cooling canals and the design of insulator contamination monitoring programs. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum shunt capacitor group fusing

    Page(s): 496 - 501
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    This investigation examines the optimum selection of group fuses for shunt capacitor banks used for power factor correction on electric utility systems. The optimization is based on choosing fuse links which are as small as possible in order to minimize the probability of case rupture in event of capacitor failure, yet which are large enough to avoid nuisance melting. Increasing emphasis on safety and protection of the environment against spilled PCB's suggest the use of a more appropriate fusing practice than a constant fusing factor or set of fusing factors. The study is based on an examination of the duty to the fuse link and an examination of the capability of fuses. Criteria for application are suggested and tables are developed for NEMA standard K & T fuse links for group fusing of shunt banks. View full abstract»

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  • Digital differential protection of a generating unit scheme and real-time test results

    Page(s): 502 - 512
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    This paper presents an on-line digital computer technique used for differential protection of a synchronous generator. It provides fault detection and tripping well within half a cycle and is also capable of discriminating between internal and external faults. In the latter case, sufficient restraint signals are generated to overcome maloperation. Further, the scheme is highly reliable even with CT saturation due to heavy through faults on the generating unit. On-line tests using a laboratory synchronous generator show the results for different types of internal and external faults with varying fault incidence inception. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of surface and internal defects on polyethylene electrical routine test on VHV cables

    Page(s): 513 - 523
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    In order to improve the reliability of polyethylene cable insulation two types of harmful defects must be eliminated: 1- Imbedded conducting contaminants present during the course of routine test on drums. 2- Accidental superficial defects which may appear on the cable moulded accessories. A laboratory study on special samples and on commercially-made cable and accessories determined: 1- The harm of humidity on superficial defects. 2- The conditions of application for the routine test, i. e. the applied voltage level and the duration of time. Examination of the life curves obtained on sample containing short defects, simulated by a needle tip, proved the possibility of elimination of harmful impurities without aging the insulation. View full abstract»

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  • Extraneous and false load flow solutions

    Page(s): 524 - 534
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    Multiple load flow solutions are possible for realistic systems with reasonable initial conditions. Two different mechanisms which produce multiple solutions are discussed in this paper and several examples are included. For most networks, false or extraneous solutions are easily detected because the results are unreasonable. This is not always the case, however, and this paper identifies a class of cases where extraneous solutions yield results which look reasonable. View full abstract»

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  • Limiting switching surge overvoltages with conventional power circuit breakers

    Page(s): 535 - 542
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    This paper covers the development and testing of a controlled closing device for controlling conventional 500-kV power circuit breakers (PCB) equipped with one closing resistor in each phase. Results of preliminary switching surge model studies and subsequent field tests of a prototype of the control device are included. View full abstract»

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  • Corona cloud model predictions of switching surge flashover voltages vs. electrode geometry

    Page(s): 543 - 549
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    Calculated positive switching surge flashover voltages for a wide range of electrode geometries are presented and compared with experiment in this paper. The results are presented as flashover voltages relative to rod-plane gap flashover voltages, or gap factors. Calculated and experimental results are in good agreement. The theoretical model used assumes a conducting corona cloud with an experimentally observed shape. The calculations show that corona cloud growth becomes unstable when the corona cloud has crossed about two-thirds of the interelectrode gap. The simplicity of the corona cloud model and the use of the charge simulation method for the required electric field calculations permit flashover voltage estimates for complex, three-dimensional electrode geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant grounding (ground fault neutralizer) of a unit connected generator

    Page(s): 550 - 559
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    This paper outlines the advantages of resonant grounding over resistor grounding of a large unit connected generator in a modern power plant. It provides complete application procedures for this type of grounding and illustrates the means of evaluating its performance compared with resistor grounding. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope