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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A saturistor motor for pump drive with SCR speed control

    Page(s): 766 - 772
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    This paper describes a novel electronic scheme for speed control of an induction motor driving a pump or fan. The low-slip motor used in the test program was given a flat torque-speed curve and a low starting current by locating bars of Alnico 9, which has a large hysteresis loop, in the rotor leakage flux paths. Motor voltage and, therefore, motor speed was varied by delayed firing of SCRs, or thyristors, which were connected full wave delta in the neutral of the wye-connected stator winding. The control loop uses an analog signal to hold a desired speed, or torque, or power. View full abstract»

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  • Equations for surge impedance and propagation constant of transmission lines above stratified earth

    Page(s): 773 - 781
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    The standard methods for determining the earth return impedance of a transmission line when the ground is stratified are cumbersome and involve lengthy numerical integration procedures. This paper presents an approach, based on a modified conformal transformation method, which yields ready to use equations and reasonable approximations. View full abstract»

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  • Electric power transmission and distribution systems: Costs and their allocation

    Page(s): 782 - 790
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    The costs derived from installing, operating, and maintaining the transmission and distribution system have historically comprised about 2/3 the total costs of producing and delivering electricity to residential-commercial customers, and over 1/3 the total costs of supplying electricity to large industrial customers. This paper estimates the costs of transmission and distribution for nine regions of the United States for the above two customer classes. These costs are detailed for six categories of equipment used in the transmission and distribution system and the contribution to the total cost of each equipment category is determined. View full abstract»

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  • Solar radiation and energy measurements

    Page(s): 791 - 794
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    The increasing demand for development of alternate energy sources brought about accelerated studies and development of solar electrical systems. One of the main components in such systems is the solar cell array, based mostly on silicon cells. The solar cell array converts the solar radiation energy into electric energy, and thus the energy output is a function of the radiation levels. Therefore, in order to judge the usefulness of a solar electrical system, accurate climatological data is required. Acquiring such data is a difficult problem and expensive devices are needed. In this paper a new method for acquiring the climatological data needed for the above-mentioned purposes is described. This method is simple in its character and the equipment developed is much cheaper. Field tests, which were carried out here in Israel, proved that the measuring system developed is reliable, gives accurate data, and is maintenance-free. View full abstract»

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  • The receding horizon method to compute synchronous machine state feedback strategies

    Page(s): 795 - 802
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    This paper presents the development and application of the receding horizon method to the design of state feedback controllers for synchronous machines. The proposed technique does not require to specify a-priori the weighting matrix Q of the usual quadratic cost function. It requires, however, the integration of a Riccati-type equation over a given time interval T. The design method is employed to determine the excitation control strategies of single synchronous machines connected to an infinite bus. View full abstract»

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  • Description and tests of the GENERREX excitation system for large steam turbine-generators

    Page(s): 803 - 810
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    A new excitation system has been developed employing a power source which is an integral part of the generator. Excitation power originates from the generator air-gap flux and from the generator stator winding currents. The physical arrangement of the excitation power source components provides compactness to this self-excited, essentially self-regulated and high initial response system. It facilitates generator maintenance, by eliminating rotating parts from the collector end of the turbine-generator shaft, and simplifies the station layout. The ac excitation power is rectified by means of a full-wave bridge with silicon diodes and shunt silicon controlled rectifiers (thyristors). Extensive use of static components is made in the generator voltage control system coupled with redundant features which permit maintenance during operation. View full abstract»

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  • Transient stability and optimal control of parallel A.C.-D.C. power systems

    Page(s): 811 - 820
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    For a parallel ac-dc power system, the effect of a controlled dc link on system stability and damping depends on the system operating conditions.Thus a controller which improves stability at one operating condition may have a detrimental effect at other system operating conditions. Further, when the machine power angle to the ac line angle is high, improvement in stability is difficult to obtain solely by the control of a d.c. link. The variation with operating conditions of the influence of a dc link control on system performance indicates that a predictive or adaptive control mode would be needed to improve system stability over a wide range of system performance. The paper, therefore, examines both the conventionaI and optimal control of the link for large disturbance performance of a parallel ac-dc power system and digital simulation results show interesting features of optimal control. From a practical implementation point of view, full state optimal feedback law is suitably modified to be a linear combination of reduced state variables by an eigenvalue grouping technique and the performance of the actual nonlinear system with the suboptimal controller is quite encouraging. View full abstract»

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  • On predicting the life of polyethylene spacer-cable eroded by surface discharges in wet weather

    Page(s): 821 - 828
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    As part of a study to evaluate the feasibility of uprating existing 15 kV spacer-cable systems to 34.5 kV, a method was developed for predicting the life of the polyethylene cable which may be eroded by electrical surface discharges in wet weather. The prediction method considers the changes in spacer surface resistance and the resulting electrical stress on the polyethylene throughout a typical year of varied surface conductivity during rain and fog, together with a measure of the quantity (Q) of surface discharges per power frequency cycle, which is related to the electrical stress. It is believed that the measurements and procedure outlined form a reasonable basis for predicting polyethylene spacer-cable life in wet weather, and for large value surface discharges the life appears to be inversely proportional to the initial Q2. View full abstract»

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  • Field test of HVDC circuit breaker: Load break and fault clearing on the Pacific intertie

    Page(s): 829 - 838
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    A fast-acting HVDC Circuit Breaker was tested on the Pacific HVDC Intertie System. The Intertie was operated as a three-terminal system with the breaker located on one branch. Intentional faults were applied close to the breaker and 250 miles away and successfully cleared. In load-break tests the breaker disconnected one branch of the system without problems. View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography on pumped storage to 1975

    Page(s): 839 - 850
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    This bibliography has been prepared to give a reference of most of the readily available English language literature on electrical aspects of the subject of pumped storage. The literature includes general presentations on planning, design, and operation; and specific presentations on individual projects. The literature is listed chronologically within each section of the bibliography. View full abstract»

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  • Survey of pumped storage projects in the united states and Canada to 1975

    Page(s): 851 - 858
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    This survey of pumped storage projects in the United States and Canada has been prepared by the Hydroelectric Power Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Generation Committee to be used as reference for the IEEE Power Engineering Society. This survey includes two tables listing pumped storage projects. Table I lists pumped storage projects in operation or under construction and gives project, pump/turbine, and generator/motor data. Table II lists pending pumped-storage projects that are being studied or in various stages of licensing by the Federal Power Commission. Table II gives project rating and nominal head, and the data is preliminary. View full abstract»

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  • Common mode forced outages of overhead transmission lines

    Page(s): 859 - 863
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    The studies undertaken by the Task Force addressed the definition and collection of data for common mode outages of multiple transmission lines which are on the same right-of-way for a measurable part of their length. A line-originated common mode outage is defined as an overlapping outage of two or more circuits sharing a right-of-way, from a common event, and due to their proximity on the right-of-way. A preliminary investigation of the available data shows that common mode outage events could be significant in transmission reliability calculations and that most of the data collection procedures are inadequate to provide data needed to evaluate these events. The additional information required to calculate indices of common mode outages is suggested in this paper. A method of calculating these indices is also illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Insulator hot washing with deionized water

    Page(s): 864 - 869
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    The evolution of hot washing insulators with deionized water is reviewed and the most recent washing equipment and practices are described. The effect of increasing the effective washing distance through the use of "slick water" and the safety of this practice are investigated. The safety of using deionized water for hot washing insulators within the confined work area of low profile substations is investigated and Southern California Edison Company's minimum safe washing distances are reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Design, economic and system considerations of large wind-driven generators

    Page(s): 870 - 878
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    The increased search for alternative energy sources has lead to renewed interest and studies of large wind-driven generators. This paper presents the results and considerations of such an investigation. The paper emphasizes the concept selection of wind-driven generators, system optimization, control system design, safety aspects, economic viability on electric utility systems and potential electric system interfacing problems. View full abstract»

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  • Early detection and diagnosis of overheating problems in turbine generators by instrumental chemical analysis

    Page(s): 879 - 886
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    Overheating problems within turbine generators if undetected can lead to catastrophic failures associated with long and costly outages. Instrumental chemical analysis methods used to detect and diagnose these hot spots are described. The Core Monitor, gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer have been applied to the analysis of the generator hydrogen coolant. By determining the concentration and type of organic thermal decomposition products in the hydrogen, the extent and possible location of the problem can be diagnosed. View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state electrical tests on the MIT-EPRI 3-MVA superconducting generator

    Page(s): 887 - 893
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    The design details of a 3-MVA, 2-pole superconducting generator, developed as part of a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute were reported in the literature early in 1973. The goal of this program is to demonstrate the features of superconducting generators that are applicable to very large machines, on a prototype of modest size. This paper reports the results of a series of tests performed on this generator. View full abstract»

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  • Compact HVDC converter station design considerations

    Page(s): 894 - 902
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    In this paper, the possible means to reduce HVDC converter station land area requirements are shown. The split-up of real estate between the different kinds of equipment in present-day terminals is analysed. From this, a priority list for suitable action to be taken is deducted. Three concepts of converter valves suitable for compact converter stations are briefly discussed. By example of a 2400 MW terminal it is shown that with air-insulated liquid cooled thyristor valves a land area requirement of 0.8 m2/MW (8.5 sq. ft./MW) can be achieved, i.e. 1. 2 % of that required by the Pacific Intertie. Alternative solutions with metalclad valves are introduced and it is concluded that for converter stations with high rating in metropolitan areas, air-insulated liquid cooled thyristor valves seem to be the most appropriate choice. Where a low profile station is desirable, dead tank oil-insulated thyristor valves for outdoor mounting could be the optimum solution. View full abstract»

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  • Energy management and control system for Iowa-Illinois gas and electric company

    Page(s): 903 - 908
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    A new control center for energy generation, transmission and distribution (both gas and electric) at Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company improves operator control of the systems and eliminates most manual record-keeping. The system uses two Xerox Sigma 5 computers, each with an effective memory of 96,000 words and back-up stored memory of 12 million bytes. Using analog and digital inputs supplied by Westinghouse REDAC remote processors, the system permits automatic response to many system changes, displays information to permit operator action, and effectively cuts response time even when operator intervention is necessary. On-line graphic and alphanumeric displays provide overviews of the total system or detailed studies of system segments, as necessary. All energy management accounting systems, including off-line analysis, record-keeping and reporting functions, are performed automatically. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a 138-kV superconducting cable termination

    Page(s): 909 - 914
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    Two terminations for the superconducting cable system being developed by Union Carbide have been designed and built by Westinghouse. The major design features of these terminations, which are rated at 138 kV line-to-line and 14,000 amperes, are described in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Improved magnetic retarding system for watthour meters

    Page(s): 915 - 917
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    Because of the squared relationship between the flux and braking torque of the retarding magnet of the watthour meter, and the need to maintain high meter accuracy under all operating conditions over long periods of time, stability of the magnet is essential. Over the years, this stability and the resistance to demagnetization by extraneous magnetic fields or short-circuit currents have increased with each new material development applied to the retarding system of the meter. A continuation of this series of improvements is currently taking place with the introduction of rare earth magnets. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability evaluation of hierarchical power control systems and design of component redundancies

    Page(s): 918 - 926
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    This paper presents a simplified yet practical method to be used for quick evaluation of the reliabilities of hierarchical power control systems consisting of control computers, a variety of regulating devices and human operators interconnected by communication networks. The quantity "percent loss of information" is defined and used as a measure to evaluate the overall reliabilities of hierarchical computer control complexes. The proposed method is tested for a simple control system and the result checked against the Monte Carlo approach. It is then applied to 2- and 3-level hierarchical power control system models. Further applications of the method such as the design of component redundancies are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Steady state performance of inverter fed induction machines by means of time domain complex variables

    Page(s): 927 - 935
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    An induction machine model in which the order of the electrical differential equations is one half of the conventional real variable model is obtained by using the complex time variables introduced by Ku and Lyon in the 1950's. Since the stepped excitation waveforms associated with polyphase inverters are also well suited to complex representation, the method provides a powerful means of exploiting the symmetry inherent in inverter-machine systems. After a brief introduction to the concept of complex time variables, the steady state analysis of six-step voltage and current source inverter driven induction machines is presented. Closed form solutions for the instantaneous voltages, currents and torques are derived. For small slip the current fed machine solutions are reduced to simple expressions involving rotor frequency sinusoidal functions and the relationships between these waveforms and the fundamental component equivalent circuit solutions are demonstrated. The solutions for the voltage fed machine are more complicated, however, hand computation of peak values is feasible or extremely simple computer programs can be written to yield the instantaneous current and torque waveforms. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical stiffness and damping coefficients in the repulsive magnetic levitation system

    Page(s): 936 - 943
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    The electromechanical stiffness and damping coefficient matrices for three translational degrees of freedom are derived for the repulsive levitation system consisting of a single superconducting magnet interacting with a finite width sheet guideway. The persistent node (constant flux linkage) is assumed. The results of this study provide the data for stability and ride quality analysis. The methodology can be extended to multi-magnet systems including active damping coils. View full abstract»

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  • Inverters for commercial fuel cell power generation

    Page(s): 944 - 953
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    This paper describes the results of work accomplished in developing low cost, high efficiency dc to ac power conversion equipment for fuel cell powerplants to be used in two different commercial applications. The first is for on-site power generation in the range of 10 to 500 kW and the second is for dispersed electric utility power generation in substations at a 26 MW power level. Performance data is presented on single-phase and three-phase prototype inverters in the first category. Work currently in progress on the 26 MW inverter is described including operational tests on a 500 kW unit delivering power into the lines of the Connecticut Light and Power Company. To accomplish the desired results, fast switching thyristors with low forward drop and high dv/dt are used. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope