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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 1 • Date Nov. 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Solar energy conversion and storage systems for the future

    Page(s): 1926 - 1934
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    The thesis of this paper is that the long-range solution to the energy woes of the world does not lie in any one particular approach and that several avenues should be explored simultaneously, with particular emphasis on the exploitation of solar energy in its various manifestations such as heat, winds, tides, and ocean thermal gradients. Research and development over the past thirteen years at Oklahoma State University has resulted in the evolution of several components required to engineer a continuous duty power system running on nonexpendable energy sources, namely the sun and the wind. This paper presents the system and discusses its applicability to the energy systems of the future. View full abstract»

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  • The combined costs method for optimal economic planning of an electrical power system

    Page(s): 1935 - 1942
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    A mathematical programming model is described for the economic planning of generation and transmission systems. By iterating between the simulation of operating conditions and the combined costs model the number of constraints are reduced by up to one hundredth of those required for early linear programming models. View full abstract»

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  • A field study of the short-line-fault component of transient recovery voltage

    Page(s): 1943 - 1953
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    The short-line-fault transient recovery voltage component is a critical factor in arc interruption. This paper is a study of 345kV field data, generated by a pulse test circuit, which develops inherent characteristics for the "bare" line. The modifying effects of terminal equipment on the shape of the saw-tooth component are demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. Test results are compared with present ANSI Standard requirements to verify the application. View full abstract»

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  • Research into a practical method to determine the probability of failure of an E.H.V. transmission line

    Page(s): 1954 - 1961
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    In this paper different methods are proposed for estimating the risk of failure on lines caused by switching overvoltages. These methods correspond to various degrees of simplification. They are compared in study of a single particular case in order to deduce which the most practical one that gives satisfactory results. View full abstract»

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  • Power engineering education for future manpower needs

    Page(s): 1962 - 1970
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    Forces that influenced engineering education are briefly discussed to demonstrate their effect on electric power engineering courses. Estimates of manpower needs for the power industry in the next decade are presented realistically. Observations about the sources from whence these men and women will come are made. Finally some suggestions are given for required courses in electric power at the undergraduate level; and for those subjects which are considered important in graduate schools. The power industry is urged to show concern for engineering and engineering technology education, career guidance for young people and proper utilization of manpower. View full abstract»

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  • A three-phase differential relay for transformer protection

    Page(s): 1971 - 1980
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    Established harmonic restraint differential relay concepts have been enlarged upon to provide a new static multiple-winding transformer differential relay. The resulting design includes simplification of the frequency selective circuits and new techniques for rapidly determining the harmonic content of the applied currents. The relay is shown to have improved sensitivity, to be responsive to internal transformer winding faults in less than two cycles, and to the more severe type of fault in less than one cycle. Full security against inrush currents and overexcitation as well as to external faults is demonstrated. Poor performance of current transformers is shown not to adversely affect either the security or dependability of the relay. Heavy current test results are presented which confirm the relay principles. View full abstract»

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  • Observability in the state estimation of power systems

    Page(s): 1981 - 1988
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    Power system static state estimators usually employ more measurements than the minimum number necessary to completely define the state of the system. This paper solves the problem of determining the best measurement to add to a given set. This is done by showing that the poorest observability is in the direction of the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of an observability matrix. Added new measurements in this direction are shown to improve observability and the best possible observability is shown to be where all the eigenvalues of the observability matrix are equal. The addition of measurements for determining the static state of a power system should improve observability. The technique for applying this concept to a power system is illustrated by a numerical example. The observability matrix and the smallest eigenvalues are found and the measurement to be added is determined by examining the components of the associated eigenvector. The improvement of this measurement over any other is verified by use of the Kalman filter. View full abstract»

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  • General expression for positive switching impulse strength valid up to extra long air gaps

    Page(s): 1989 - 1993
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    A new algebraic expression has been established for the critical sparkover voltage (CSOV) afair insulation submitted to positive switching impulses. By using the concept of the gap factor, the expression is found to be valid for all practical gap configurations in the distance range 1 to at least 30 m. Based on these considerations, an absolute limit of 2.4 MV is foreseen for the rated voltage of AC systems. Sparkover voltages under A.C. or lightning impulses are also predictable. Complementary investigations concerning the physics of discharge are needed for further improvements. View full abstract»

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  • Freezing of low and medium viscosity pipe type cable filling oils

    Page(s): 1994 - 2001
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    An investigation was conducted to determine the response of various high voltage cable oils to cryogenic temperatures. Typical cooling and thawing curves were developed, through experimentation, for Sun Oil Company #4 Cable Oil and Cosden Low Viscosity Polybutene Oil under various initial and boundary conditions. During the course of this research, the freeze breakup and the possibility of cable damaging piston effects were also studied. Two theoretical approaches were developed to describe the freezing process observed during detailed experiments. Calculations were made and comparisons with actual measured high pressure freeze times discussed. As a result, an optimum freeze method was developed utilizing a liquid nitrogen bath in contact with the surface of the cable pipe. View full abstract»

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  • Qualification testing of class 1E switchgear per 1974 seismic standards

    Page(s): 2002 - 2007
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    The requirements for seismic qualification of Class 1E equipment have been continually evolving for the past several years. 1 Periodically, this evolution arrives at a plateau of such significance that the decision to evaluate the equipment at that level is worth the investment of material, time and money. The IEEE Std. 344-1971, having currently undergone working group revision to Draft Rev. 3, is a broad general document. This paper delineates these general requirements for a specific product, in this case switchgear. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilizing superconductors for power engineering applications

    Page(s): 2008 - 2014
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    Exhibiting essentially zero resistivity at high current densities and large magnetic fields, modern superconducting materials offer intriguing possibilities in power engineering. However, in order to utilize this property in any large scale application, the superconductor must be stable during fault and overload transients in the total system. In order to know whether the superconductor itself is stable, one must understand and control the detailed mechanisms of magnetic flux motion which occur in the material. Such flux motion will give rise to a non-zero resistivity and hence will always involve heat generation, which in turn will perturb the low temperature environment necessary to sustain superconductivity. This paper discusses the essential differences between superconductors and ordinary conductors; the control of heat generation resulting from magnetic flux motion necessary to insure that the superconductor is stable; and some experiments on models of dc superconducting transmission cables which test the theoretical assumptions. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical and mechanical design features of the 615 MVA generators for Grand Coulee Dam

    Page(s): 2015 - 2022
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    The design and construction of the Grand Coulee third power plant and its electromechanical equipment represent and unprecedented advancement in the field of hydroelectric power production. Without a doubt; a number of "firsts" and records will be achieved in its construction. This paper describes the new technology and concepts associated with the design and operation of the 615 MVA generators for this power plant. View full abstract»

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  • Protective characteristics of current-limiting capacitor fuses

    Page(s): 2023 - 2026
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    The use of current-limiting capacitor fuses is increasing because of their ability to limit current and energy, a requirement when fusing large capacitor banks. The performance of these fuses on capacitor discharge currents is described. Test data showing the current and energy limiting action of the fuses is presented. Criteria for evaluating fuse performance is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Review of pressure relief test values

    Page(s): 2027 - 2032
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    This report presents the results of a survey of electric service companies to determine the pressure relief venting reguirements for a failed surge arrester. Users were asked to supply the maximum and majority fault current values and time durations for present and future installations. An analysis of these results indicates that there is a need to increase pressure relief test current values in certain areas. View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of relay literature, 1972-1973

    Page(s): 2033 - 2041
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    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relay references, begun in 1927, is presented. This Bibliography is a continuation of similar bibliographies of relay literature which have been published previously and are contained in the following volumes of this Transactions: 1927-1939, vol. 60, 1941; PP. 1435-1446 1940-1943, vol. 63, 1944; pp. 705-709 1944-1946, vol. 67, pt.I, 1948; pp. 24-27 1947-1949, vol. 70, pt. I, 1951; pp. 247-250 1950-1952, vol. 74, pt. III, 1955; pp. 45-48 1953-1954, vol. 76, pt. III, 1957; pp. 126-128 1955-1956, vol. 78, pt. III, 1959; pp. 78-81 1957-1958, vol. 79, pt. III, 1960; pp. 39-42 1959-1960, vol. 81, pt. III, 1962; pp. 109-111 1961-1964, vol. PAS-85, No. 10; pp. 1044-1053 1965-1966, vol. PAS-88, No. 3; pp. 244-250 1967-1969, vol. PAS-90, No. 5; pp. 1982-1988 1970-1971, vol. PAS-92, No. 3; pp. 1132-1140 The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing, and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign Dublications are included. Many of the articles are available in abstract form in Science Abstracts - Section B, the Engineering Index, and other digesting or indexing periodicals, as well as in the original magazine listed. The listing of the titles is subdivided into 10 sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The entries in each section are listed in alphabetical order. The name of the first author determines the alphabetical position. Each title is listed in only one section even though some of the papers referred to may cover material in various sectiens. A list of the periodicals which have been cited and their place of publication is given following the bibliography. The committee is indebted to Science Abstracts and the Engineering Index for many of the synopses in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Audible noise from power lines measurement, legislative control and human response

    Page(s): 2042 - 2048
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    This paper presents the special problems associated with audible noise from corona on high voltage power lines. Human response to this noise source is examined in the context of requirements for special noise measuring methods and instrumentation and considering existing and proposed legislation for noise control in various countries. The need for a new and more realistic evaluation by regulatory bodies and utilities, of transmission line noise - and its effects on individuals and communities - is stressed. View full abstract»

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  • Reluctance DC generator with feedback and damper loop for output enhancement

    Page(s): 2049 - 2056
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    The performance of brushless, two-phase, heteropolar inductor generators supplying dc loads through bridge rectifiers is improved by means of a compensating scheme employing current-feedback and stationary damper current-loops. Armature reaction upon unconstrained field current in the uncompensated generator is initially investigated. Then several feedback circuits are examined. Accurate solutions for output currents are obtained by the numerical integrations of state variable equations representing up to five circuits with time-varying inductances and rectifiers. Test results on an experimental machine are reported for several compensation methods. View full abstract»

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  • EHV and UHV electrostatic effects: Simplified design calculations and preventive measures

    Page(s): 2057 - 2073
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    Approximate formulae are developed for predicting overhead transmission line electrostatic effects. These formulae, which are based on numerous computer simulations, allow slide rule calculations of sufficient accuracy for preliminary design work. Measures to reduce electrostatic effects, such as increasing conductor height or erecting shield wires are compared. Shield wires are found to be quite effective. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of short circuit load losses in large three phase power transformers using an alternating current comparator bridge

    Page(s): 2074 - 2076
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    The application of a high-voltage alternating-current-comparator capacitance bridge to the measurement of the short circuit load losses of large three phase power transformers at rated current is described. Input of the transformer current to the bridge is provided through a 1000/1 ratio two-stage current transformer with a single turn primary winding Insulated for 50 kilovolts. Voltage input is provided through a loss-free gas dielectric capacitor which serves as the reference. Measurements on typical transformers ranging in size from 450 MVA to 750 MVA; with currents from 600 to 2100 amperes and short-clrcuit power factors from one percent to four percent, are discussed. Comparisons to appropriately corrected wattmeter measurements (aided by low-loss capacitors connected in parallel with the transformer) indicate an overall agreement of better than one percent. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of electromagnetic shields in high voltage laboratories

    Page(s): 2077 - 2083
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    The paper constitutes a systematic investigation into the calculation and measurement of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of high voltage laboratories. Both electromagnetic field and interference measurements were carried out to assess the shielding effectiveness of the UHV hall of Hydro-Quebec Institute of Research. While satisfactory shielding was obtained below 1 MHz, the measurements emphasized the deteriorating influence of seams and corners and revealed a considerable decline in shielding quality above a few MHz. A circuit approach is used to deduce new formulae for computing shielding effectiveness. Furthermore, new expressions are deduced for the increase in the equivalent resistance of a shielded enclosure due to non-uniform distribution of the circulating currents caused by intermittent bonding. A separate analysis is given for the shielding effectiveness above 1 MHz where in an UHV laboratory the dimensions of the enclosure approach the wave-length of the disturbing field. Considering the complex nature of the problem, agreement between theory and measurements is satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic simulation of generator faults using combined abc and 0dq variables

    Page(s): 2084 - 2091
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    A method is described for obtaining dynamic solutions for the electrical and mechanical transients that accompany balanced or unbalanced faults on an isolated synchronous generator. The method is illustrated with a system containing a prime mover plus governor, synchronous generator, manual or automatic voltage regulation, and reclosing feeder circuit breaker. A combination of abc and Odq variables is employed in the interest of simplicity and economy in computation. View full abstract»

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  • A simulation technique for studying real and reactive power flow patterns

    Page(s): 2092 - 2100
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    This paper presents a technique that simulates dispatch actions, such as, changing transformer and phase shifter tap settings and changing voltage magnitudes at voltage controlled buses in a power system. The changes of power injection at one or two system buses, which would simulate the required dispatch action, are calculated using the sensitivity matrix of the basic system state. The real and reactive power flowing in all the system elements and voltages at all the system buses are then computed. The proposed technique has been applied to the interconnected Saskatchewan Power Corporation and Manitoba Hydro systems and to the 118 bus IEEE test system. The power flows and bus voltages calculated by the proposed technique are compared with those obtained from the Newton Raphson load flows. View full abstract»

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  • An approach for preventing system insecurities arising from line and transformer outages

    Page(s): 2101 - 2114
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    This paper presents an algorithm that improves steady state security of a power system. An objective function which includes power flows in the overloaded system elements and bus voltages that exceed the permissible limits is formulated. Weighting factors, obtained from the magnitudes and frequencies of the violations, are also used in this function. An optimal combination of controlling variables, such as voltage magnitudes at generator buses, real power generation, transformer and phase shifter tap settings, is determined by minimizing the objective function. Instead of the non-linear load flow equations, sensitivity analysis approach has been used to reduce computation time and effort. This technique has been applied to a 6 bus model and a 26 bus version of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation transmission system; and some of the more interesting results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Today's large generatorsߞDesign, performance and operation

    Page(s): 2115 - 2123
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    The increase in ratings of the largest generating units being placed in service continues to provide increasing challenges to the designers of large power generation equipment. These challenges have been met with design innovations in large steam turbinedriven generators resulting in a four fold increase in output in the past two decades, making possible the shipment of fully assembled generator stators in the largest ratings. The effects of increased power density on generator component design features and performance characteristics are described, and it is shown that proven design concepts supported by suitable monitoring devices have provided generators for the electric utility industry with excellent reliability and operating performance. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope