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Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking publication information

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  • Joint resource allocation and base-station assignment for the downlink in CDMA networks

    Page(s): 1 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we jointly consider the resource allocation and base-station assignment problems for the downlink in CDMA networks that could carry heterogeneous data services. We first study a joint power and rate allocation problem that attempts to maximize the expected throughput of the system. This problem is inherently difficult because it is in fact a nonconvex optimization problem. To solve this problem, we develop a distributed algorithm based on dynamic pricing. This algorithm provides a power and rate allocation that is asymptotically optimal in the number of mobiles. We also study the effect of various factors on the development of efficient resource allocation strategies. Finally, using the outcome of the power and rate allocation algorithm, we develop a pricing-based base-station assignment algorithm that results in an overall joint resource allocation and base-station assignment. In this algorithm, a base-station is assigned to each mobile taking into account the congestion level of the base-station as well as the transmission environment of the mobile. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic node activation in networks of rechargeable sensors

    Page(s): 15 - 26
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    We consider a network of rechargeable sensors, deployed redundantly in a random sensing environment, and address the problem of how sensor nodes should be activated dynamically so as to maximize a generalized system performance objective. The optimal sensor activation problem is a very difficult decision question, and under Markovian assumptions on the sensor discharge/recharge periods, it represents a complex semi-Markov decision problem. With the goal of developing a practical, distributed but efficient solution to this complex, global optimization problem, we first consider the activation question for a set of sensor nodes whose coverage areas overlap completely. For this scenario, we show analytically that there exists a simple threshold activation policy that achieves a performance of at least 3/4 of the optimum over all possible policies. We extend this threshold policy to a general network setting where the coverage areas of different sensors could have partial or no overlap with each other, and show by simulations that the performance of our policy is very close to that of the globally optimal policy. Our policy is fully distributed, and requires the sensor nodes to only keep track of the node activation states in its immediate neighborhood. We also consider the effects of spatial correlation on the performance of the threshold activation policy, and the choice of the optimal threshold. View full abstract»

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  • A new networking model for biological applications of ad hoc sensor networks

    Page(s): 27 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce the Shared Wireless Infostation Model (SWIM), which extends the Infostation model by incorporating information replication, storage, and diffusion into a mobile ad hoc network architecture with intermittent connectivity. SWIM is able to reduce the delay of packet delivery at the expense of increased storage at the network nodes. Furthermore, SWIM improves the overall capacity-delay tradeoff by only moderately increasing the storage requirements. This tradeoff is examined here in the context of a practical application-acquisition of telemetry data from radio-tagged whales. To reduce the storage requirements, without affecting the network delay, we propose and study a number of schemes for deletion of obsolete information from the network nodes. In particular, through the use of Markov chains, we compare the performance of five such storage deletion schemes, which, by increasing the computational complexity of the routing algorithm, mitigate the storage requirements. The results of our study will allow a network designer to implement such a system and to tune its performance in a delay-tolerant environment with intermittent connectivity, as to ensure with some chosen level of confidence that the information is successfully carried through the mobile network and delivered within some time period. View full abstract»

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  • Network correlated data gathering with explicit communication: NP-completeness and algorithms

    Page(s): 41 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of correlated data gathering by a network with a sink node and a tree-based communication structure, where the goal is to minimize the total transmission cost of transporting the information collected by the nodes, to the sink node. For source coding of correlated data, we consider a joint entropy-based coding model with explicit communication where coding is simple and the transmission structure optimization is difficult. We first formulate the optimization problem definition in the general case and then we study further a network setting where the entropy conditioning at nodes does not depend on the amount of side information, but only on its availability. We prove that even in this simple case, the optimization problem is NP-hard. We propose some efficient, scalable, and distributed heuristic approximation algorithms for solving this problem and show by numerical simulations that the total transmission cost can be significantly improved over direct transmission or the shortest path tree. We also present an approximation algorithm that provides a tree transmission structure with total cost within a constant factor from the optimal. View full abstract»

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  • Connected sensor cover: self-organization of sensor networks for efficient query execution

    Page(s): 55 - 67
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    Spatial query execution is an essential functionality of a sensor network, where a query gathers sensor data within a specific geographic region. Redundancy within a sensor network can be exploited to reduce the communication cost incurred in execution of such queries. Any reduction in communication cost would result in an efficient use of the battery energy, which is very limited in sensors. One approach to reduce the communication cost of a query is to self-organize the network, in response to a query, into a topology that involves only a small subset of the sensors sufficient to process the query. The query is then executed using only the sensors in the constructed topology. The self-organization technique is beneficial for queries that run sufficiently long to amortize the communication cost incurred in self-organization. In this paper, we design and analyze algorithms for suchself-organization of a sensor network to reduce energy consumption. In particular, we develop the notion of a connected sensor cover and design a centralized approximation algorithm that constructs a topology involving a near-optimal connected sensor cover. We prove that the size of the constructed topology is within an O(logn) factor of the optimal size, where n is the network size. We develop a distributed self-organization version of the approximation algorithm, and propose several optimizations to reduce the communication overhead of the algorithm. We also design another distributed algorithm based on node priorities that has a further lower communication overhead, but does not provide any guarantee on the size of the connected sensor cover constructed. Finally, we evaluate the distributed algorithms using simulations and show that our approaches results in significant communication cost reductions. View full abstract»

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  • Inverting sampled traffic

    Page(s): 68 - 80
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    Routers have the ability to output statistics about packets and flows of packets that traverse them. Since, however, the generation of detailed traffic statistics does not scale well with link speed, increasingly routers and measurement boxes implement sampling strategies at the packet level. In this paper, we study both theoretically and practically what information about the original traffic can be inferred when sampling, or "thinning", is performed at the packet level. While basic packet level characteristics such as first order statistics can be fairly directly recovered, other aspects require more attention. We focus mainly on the spectral density, a second-order statistic, and the distribution of the number of packets per flow, showing how both can be exactly recovered, in theory. We then show in detail why in practice this cannot be done using the traditional packet based sampling, even for high sampling rate. We introduce an alternative flow-based thinning, where practical inversion is possible even at arbitrarily low sampling rate. We also investigate the theory and practice of fitting the parameters of a Poisson cluster process, modeling the full packet traffic, from sampled data. View full abstract»

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  • Fine-grained Layered multicast with STAIR

    Page(s): 81 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional approaches to receiver-driven layered multicast have advocated the benefits of cumulative layering, which can enable coarse-grained congestion control that complies with TCP-friendliness equations over large time scales. In this paper, we quantify the costs and benefits of using noncumulative layering and present a new, scalable multicast congestion control scheme called STAIR that embodies this approach. Our first main contribution is a set of performance criteria on which we base a comparative evaluation of layered multicast schemes. In contrast to the conventional wisdom, we demonstrate that fine-grained rate adjustment can be achieved with only modest increases in the number of layers, aggregate bandwidth consumption and control traffic. The STAIR protocol that we subsequently define and evaluate is a multiple rate congestion control scheme that provides a fine-grained approximation to the behavior of TCP additive increase/multiplicative decrease (AIMD) on a per-receiver basis. View full abstract»

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  • Global stability conditions for rate control with arbitrary communication delays

    Page(s): 94 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze Kelly's optimization framework for a rate allocation problem in communication networks and provide stability conditions with arbitrary fixed communication delays. We demonstrate the existence of a fundamental tradeoff between users' price elasticity of demand and the responsiveness of resource through a choice of price function. We also show that the stability of the system can be studied by looking at a much simpler discrete time system that emerges from the underlying market structure of the rate control system with a homogeneous delay. We study the effects of nonresponsive traffic on system stability and show that the presence of nonresponsive traffic enhances the stability of system. We also investigate the system behavior beyond stable regime. View full abstract»

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  • Asymptotic behavior of heterogeneous TCP flows and RED gateway

    Page(s): 108 - 120
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    We introduce a stochastic model of a bottleneck ECN/RED gateway under a large number of heterogeneous TCP flows, i.e., flows with diverse round-trip delays and session dynamics. We investigate the asymptotic behavior of the system and show that as the number of flows becomes large, the buffer dynamics and aggregate traffic simplify and can be accurately described by simple stochastic recursions independent of the number of flows, resulting in a scalable model. Based on the Central Limit analysis in the paper, we identify the sources of fluctuations in queue size and describe the relationship between the system parameters such as the marking function and variance of queue size. A closed-form approximation for the mean queue size as a function of system parameters is provided from a simple steady-state analysis. Numerical examples are provided to validate our results. View full abstract»

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  • Matching output queueing with a multiple input/output-queued switch

    Page(s): 121 - 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have previously proposed an efficient switch architecture called multiple input/output-queued (MIOQ) switch and showed that the MIOQ switch can match the performance of an output-queued switch statistically. In this paper, we prove theoretically that the MIOQ switch can match the output queueing exactly , not statistically, with no speedup of any component. More specifically, we show that the MIOQ switch with two parallel switches (which we call a parallel MIOQ (PMIOQ) switch in this paper) can provide exact emulation of an output-queued switch with a broad class of service scheduling algorithms including FIFO, weighted fair queueing (WFQ) and strict priority queueing regardless of incoming traffic pattern and switch size. To do that, we first propose the stable strategic alliance (SSA) algorithm that can produce a stable many-to-many assignment, and prove its finite, stable and deterministic properties. Next, we apply the SSA algorithm to the scheduling of a PMIOQ switch with two parallel switches, and show that the stability condition of the SSA algorithm guarantees for the PMIOQ switch to emulate an output-queued switch exactly. To avoid possible conflicts in a parallel switch, each input-output pair matched by the SSA algorithm must be mapped to one of two crossbar switches. For this mapping, we also propose a simple algorithm that requires at most 2N steps for all matched input-output pairs. In addition, to relieve the implementation burden of N input buffers being accessed simultaneously, we propose a buffering scheme called redundant buffering which requires two memory devices instead of N physically-separate memories. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the MIOQ switch requires two crossbar switches in parallel and two physical memories at each input and output to emulate an output-queued switch with no speedup of any component. View full abstract»

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  • A hierarchical characterization of a live streaming media workload

    Page(s): 133 - 146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a thorough characterization of what we believe to be the first significant live Internet streaming media workload in the scientific literature. Our characterization of over 3.5 million requests spanning a 28-day period is done at three increasingly granular levels, corresponding to clients, sessions, and transfers. Our findings support two important conclusions. First, we show that the nature of interactions between users and objects is fundamentally different for live versus stored objects. Access to stored objects is user driven, whereas access to live objects is object driven. This reversal of active/passive roles of users and objects leads to interesting dualities. For instance, our analysis underscores a Zipf-like profile for user interest in a given object, which is in contrast to the classic Zipf-like popularity of objects for a given user. Also, our analysis reveals that transfer lengths are highly variable and that this variability is due to client stickiness to a particular live object, as opposed to structural (size) properties of objects. Second, by contrasting two live streaming workloads from two radically different applications, we conjecture that some characteristics of live media access workloads are likely to be highly dependent on the nature of the live content being accessed. This dependence is clear from the strong temporal correlation observed in the traces, which we attribute to the impact of synchronous access to live content. Based on our analysis, we present a model for live media workload generation that incorporates many of our findings, and which we implement in GISMO. View full abstract»

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  • On the complexity of and algorithms for finding the shortest path with a disjoint counterpart

    Page(s): 147 - 158
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    Finding a disjoint path pair is an important component in survivable networks. Since the traffic is carried on the active (working) path most of the time, it is useful to find a disjoint path pair such that the length of the shorter path (to be used as the active path) is minimized. In this paper, we first address such a Min-Min problem. We prove that this problem is NP-complete in either single link cost (e.g., dedicated backup bandwidth) or dual link cost (e.g., shared backup bandwidth) networks. In addition, it is NP-hard to obtain a K-approximation to the optimal solution for any K>1. Our proof is extended to another open question regarding the computational complexity of a restricted version of the Min-Sum problem in an undirected network with ordered dual cost links (called the MSOD problem). To solve the Min-Min problem efficiently, we introduce a novel concept called conflicting link set which provides insights into the so-called trap problem, and develop a divide-and-conquer strategy. The result is an effective heuristic for the Min-Min problem called COnflicting Link Exclusion (COLE), which can outperform other approaches in terms of both the optimality and running time. We also apply COLE to the MSOD problem to efficiently provide shared path protection and conduct comprehensive performance evaluation as well as comparison of various schemes for shared path protection. We show that COLE not only processes connection requests much faster than existing integer linear programming (ILP)-based approaches but also achieves a good balance among the active path length, bandwidth efficiency, and recovery time. View full abstract»

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  • Differentiated reliability (DiR) in wavelength division multiplexing rings

    Page(s): 159 - 168
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    Extant (optical) networks normally offer two degrees of service reliability: full protection in the presence of a single fault in the network, and no protection at all. This situation reflects the historical duality that has its roots in the once divided telephone and data environment. The telephone circuit oriented service requires protection, i.e., provisioning of readily available spare resources to replace working resources in case of a fault. The datagram oriented service relies upon restoration, i.e., dynamic search for and reallocation of affected resources via actions such as routing table updates. The current trend in networking, however, is gradually driving the design of networks toward a unified solution that will jointly support traditional voice and data services, as well as a variety of novel multimedia applications. The growing importance of concepts, such as quality of service (QoS) and differentiated services-which provide multiple levels of service performance in the same network-evidences this trend. Consistently with this evolution, the concept of differentiated reliability (DiR) is formally introduced in the paper and applied to provide multiple reliability degrees (or classes) at the same network layer using a common protection mechanism, i.e., path switching. According to the DiR concept, each connection is guaranteed a minimum reliability degree, or equivalently a maximum downtime ratio, that is chosen by the client. The reliability degree chosen for a given connection is thus determined by the application requirements, and not by the actual network topology, design constraints, robustness of the network components, and span of the connection. An efficient algorithm is proposed to sub-optimally design the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) layer of a ring and illustrate the advantages of the DiR concept. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength assignment for multicast in all-optical WDM networks with splitting constraints

    Page(s): 169 - 182
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    Multicast is an important application in all-optical WDM networks. The wavelength assignment problem for WDM multicast is to assign a set of wavelengths to the links of a given multicast tree. In an all-optical WDM network without wavelength conversions, wavelength assignment is the key to guarantee the quality of service and to reduce communication costs. In this paper, we study wavelength assignment for WDM multicast with two criteria, to cover the maximum number of destinations, and to minimize the wavelength costs. The computational complexity of the problem is studied. Three heuristic algorithms are proposed and the worst-case approximation ratios for some heuristic algorithms are given. We also derive a lower bound of the minimum total wavelength cost and an upper bound of the maximum number of reached destinations. The efficiency of the proposed heuristic algorithms and the effectiveness of the derived bounds are verified by the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual topologies for multicasting with multiple originators in WDM networks

    Page(s): 183 - 190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the problem of multicasting with multiple originators in WDM optical networks. In this problem, we are given a set S of source nodes and a set D of destination nodes in a network. All source nodes are capable of providing data to any destination node. Our objective is to find a virtual topology in the WDM network which satisfies given constraints on available resources and is optimal with respect to minimizing the maximum hop distance. Although the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete in general, we give polynomial time algorithms for the cases of unidirectional paths and rings. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed buffer management for 40 gb/s-based photonic packet switches

    Page(s): 191 - 204
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    We develop a method of high-speed buffer management for output-buffered photonic packet switches. The use of optical fiber delay lines is a promising solution to constructing optical buffers. The buffer manager determines packet delays in the fiber delay line buffer before the packets arrive at the buffer. We propose a buffer management method based on a parallel and pipeline processing architecture consisting of (log2N+1) pipeline stages, where N is the number of ports of the packet switch. This is an expansion of a simple sequential scheduling used to determine the delays of arriving packets. Since the time complexity of each processor in the pipeline stages is O(1), the throughput of this buffer management is N times larger than that of the sequential scheduling method. This method can be used for buffer management of asynchronously arriving variable-length packets. We show the feasibility of a buffer manager supporting 128 × 40 Gb/s photonic packet switches, which provide at least eight times as much throughput as the latest electronic IP routers. The proposed method for asynchronous packets overestimates the buffer occupancy to enable parallel processing. We show through simulation experiments that the degradation in the performance of the method resulting from this overestimation is quite acceptable. View full abstract»

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  • Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion

    Page(s): 205 - 217
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    Constructing fast wavelength division multiplexing switches with cheap, integratable components, less power consumption and noise accumulation, and low complexity is an important problem in optical networking. Typically, there are two request models widely considered. In one model, a connection request asks to go from a wavelength on an input fiber of the WDM switch to a particular wavelength on an output fiber. In the other, a connection only needs to get to a particular output fiber, irrespective of what wavelength it will be on. In this paper, we give novel constructions of strictly nonblocking and rearrangeably nonblocking WDM switches for both request models using limited range wavelength converters and arrayed waveguide grating routers. We fully analyze their blocking characteristics. Our designs are all relatively simple and easy to be laid out, consume little power, do not accumulate much noise, and are useful for both optical circuit-switching and optical packet/burst switching. As far as we know, these are the first of such constructions. View full abstract»

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  • Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks

    Page(s): 218 - 231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Next-generation SONET/SDH technologies-namely, generic framing procedure, virtual concatenation, and link-capacity-adjustment scheme-enable network operators to provide integrated data and voice services over their legacy SONET/SDH infrastructure to generate new revenue. An important open research problem on data over SONET/SDH (DoS) is survivability: SONET automatic protection switching is too resource inefficient for data services, and the protection mechanisms of data networks are too slow for mission-critical applications. We propose two approaches for provisioning survivable DoS connections. Our approaches exploit the tradeoff between resource overbuild and fault-recovery time while utilizing the inverse-multiplexing capability of virtual concatenation to increase backup sharing. Our results show that one approach achieves low resource overbuild and much faster fault recovery than that of data networks, and the other approach achieves fast fault recovery comparable to SONET 50-ms protection (for typical U.S. backbone networks) while still achieving modest backup sharing. We further investigate the tradeoff between network blocking performance and network control and management complexity resulting from the number of paths M a connection can be inversely multiplexed onto: larger M leads to more freedom in routing and better network performance but increases network control and management complexity. Our results indicate that the network blocking performance for small values of M (e.g., M=2 for some representative backbone network topologies) is almost as good as the case in which M is infinity. View full abstract»

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  • List of reviewers

    Page(s): 232 - 235
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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 236
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking society information

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Information for authors

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking’s high-level objective is to publish high-quality, original research results derived from theoretical or experimental exploration of the area of communication/computer networking.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Srikant
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign