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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Green's function for multilayer arbitrarily biased anisotropic structures-application to phase shifters, transducers, and magnetization angle effect

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 513 - 521
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the closed-form Green's function for an arbitrarily biased magnetically anisotropic slab. The Green's function formulated using the transmission matrix is compared with the previously published data for two special cases: the transversely and normally biased ferrite slab. An excellent agreement is achieved. Three microwave devices are investigated using one numerical model that utilizes the derived Green's function by changing the magnetization angle. In the normal magnetization case, the ferrite substrate supports the edge-mode isolators. In the transversal magnetization case, the same structure supports the phase shifters. In the longitudinal magnetization case, the same structure supports magnetic surface wave transducers. The propagation direction in the three cases is kept in the longitudinal direction. A good agreement in all cases with previously published results is achieved. Here, we show only our analysis and results for the phase shifters and transducers, since edge isolator analysis was presented by Elshafiey et al. in 1996. In addition, the effect of the deviation of the magnetization direction from the assumed one is studied, and the improvement of the predicted results compared with experimental ones is shown. View full abstract»

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  • Data analysis of the extraction of dielectric properties from insulating substrates utilizing the evanescent perturbation method

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 522 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The evanescent perturbation technique utilizing open-ended coaxial resonator probes was investigated as a nondestructive method for measuring the dielectric properties of insulating substrates in the microwave frequency region. As an investigative result, we have proposed a new formulaic method of data analysis by which the complex permittivity of samples, from changes in resonant frequency (f) and the quality factor of the resonance (Q), may be extracted in a concise and highly reproducible manner. The proposed formula has been developed based upon experimentation and detailed numerical studies of full-wave Maxwell equations coupled with physical observation and interpretation of experimental data. The new formula is applicable to both bulk and film samples with zero and finite tip-sample distances. The geometric factors derived were analyzed for variable parameters such as tip curvature, sample thickness, and tip-sample distance. Additionally, the calibration procedures necessary for experimental determination of these geometric factors were established. View full abstract»

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  • Compact microstrip bandpass filters with good selectivity and stopband rejection

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 533 - 539
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compact microstrip bandpass filters (second- and fourth-order) are proposed based on the folded quarter-wavelength (λ/4) resonators, which are mainly coupled through the shunt inductors connected to the ground. By introducing a cross-coupling capacitance directly between the input and output ports of the second-order filter, a pair of transmission zeros may be created to improve the selectivity. Moreover, by an extension of the proposed second-order filter with the incorporation of an additional cross-coupling capacitance, a fourth-order filter is also proposed in which two pairs of transmission zeros may be created to improve both the selectivity and stopband rejection. The proposed fourth-order filter also has the merits of small circuit area and no spurious response up to 3f0, where f0 is the passband center frequency. To provide effective design tools, simple equivalent-circuit models are also established. View full abstract»

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  • Novel microstrip coupled-line bandpass filters with shortened coupled sections for stopband extension

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 540 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel microstrip coupled-line bandpass filters with extended rejection band are proposed using the transmission zeros inherently associated with the shortened coupled sections to suppress the odd spurious harmonics at (2n+1)fo (n=1,2,...), where fo is the passband center frequency. The proposed filters feature compact size and low insertion loss, and have two cross- coupled-induced transmission zeros near the passband edges for improving the filter selectivity. To demonstrate this novel technique of shortening coupled sections, the second-order filter with the stopband extended up to 4.6 fo is implemented and carefully examined. To further improve the filter response, the fourth-order filter with the rejection extended up to 7.4 fo and better than 30 dB is also implemented. View full abstract»

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  • Low-noise 0.8-0.96- and 0.96-1.12-THz superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixers for the herschel space observatory

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 547 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Heterodyne mixers incorporating Nb SIS junctions and NbTiN-SiO2-Al microstrip tuning circuits offer the lowest reported receiver noise temperatures to date in the 0.8-0.96- and 0.96-1.12-THz frequency bands. In particular, improvements in the quality of the NbTiN ground plane of the SIS devices' on-chip microstrip tuning circuits have yielded significant improvements in the sensitivity of the 0.96-1.12-THz mixers relative to previously presented results. Additionally, an optimized RF design incorporating a reduced-height waveguide and suspended stripline RF choke filter offers significantly larger operating bandwidths than were obtained with mixers that incorporated full-height waveguides near 1 THz. Finally, the impact of junction current density and quality on the performance of the 0.8-0.96-THz mixers is discussed and compared with measured mixer sensitivities, as are the relative sensitivities of the 0.8-0.96- and 0.96-1.12-THz mixers. View full abstract»

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  • A high-temperature superconducting bandpass filter with microstrip quarter-wavelength spiral resonators

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 559 - 563
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-temperature superconducting bandpass filter at 408 MHz using microstrip quarter-wavelength spiral resonators is demonstrated. The quarter-wavelength spiral resonators were shorted to ground, as in a combline filter, via a grounding strip that is attached to the box wall by a number of aluminum bonding wires. The introduction of the normal metal wires does not introduce a measurable attenuation. The filter achieves a symmetrical quasi-elliptic characteristic by using two cross-coupling links. The experimental results of the filter are in very good agreement with the simulated ones. View full abstract»

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  • Modal analysis of two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides formed by rectangular cylinders using an improved Fourier series method

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 564 - 571
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A full-wave method for modal analysis of two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides consisting of layered arrays of rectangular cylinders is presented. The mode propagation constants and the mode field profiles can be derived by an improved Fourier series method, which is of very simple form, and is always suitable for all the arrays of arbitrary profiles, any depth, and any permittivity. The dispersion equation is expressed by using the generalized reflection matrices for space harmonic waves. The validity of the proposed method has been confirmed by comparison with other methods. Numerical examples of the dispersion characteristics and field distributions are presented for the lowest TE and TM modes of several waveguides in different structures. This method can analyze not only the propagation properties of waveguides, but also their loss natures. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear RF circuits and systems simulation when driven by several modulated signals

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 572 - 579
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The simulation of nonlinear RF circuits and systems driven by digitally modulated signals with a large number of carriers is addressed by combining the envelope transient harmonic balance method with the artificial frequency mapping technique. The co-simulation of low-pass equivalent behavioral models with circuit based models is addressed by simulating the overall wireless communication path. Several application examples are considered, in particular, the modeling of complete wireless communications circuits and systems incorporating the radio channel model. View full abstract»

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  • Micromachined CMOS LNA and VCO by CMOS-compatible ICP deep trench technology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 580 - 588
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Selective removal of the silicon underneath the inductors in RF integrated circuits based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) deep trench technology is demonstrated by a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) 5-GHz low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a 4-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). Design principles of a multistandard LNA with flat and low noise figures (NFs) within a specific frequency range are also presented. A 2-dB increase in peak gain (from 21 to 23 dB) and a 0.5-dB (from 2.28 to 1.78 dB) decrease in minimum NF are achieved in the LNA while a 3-dB suppression of phase noise is obtained in the VCO after the ICP backside dry etching. These results show that the CMOS-process-compatible backside ICP etching technique is very promising for system-on-a-chip applications. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of transmission lines fabricated by CMOS process with deep n-well implantation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 589 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We characterized the properties of transmission lines fabricated using a CMOS process with a deep n-well implantation and compared them with the properties of the transmission lines on the silicon substrate with other well formations, e.g., a p-well and those without well formations. The series inductance of the transmission line is nearly constant, for both the various well formations and the resistivities of the silicon substrate. The characteristic impedance of the transmission line on the silicon substrate with the deep n-well is higher than this value on the substrates with the p-well and those without well formations. This is because the capacitance of the transmission line on the silicon substrate with the deep n-well is larger due to the p-n junction. Moreover, the capacitance of the transmission line on the substrate with the deep n-well decreases when the dc bias voltage applied to the deep n-well is increased. The capacitance of the transmission line on the substrate with the deep n-well is nearly constant for the various resistivities of the silicon substrate, while the capacitance of the line on the substrate with the p-well decreases with higher resistivity of the substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Design of variable gain amplifier with gain-bandwidth product up to 354 GHz implemented in InP-InGaAs DHBT technology

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 599 - 607
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-gain and wide-band variable gain amplifier (VGA) is developed using 300-GHz InP-InGaAs double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). Negative-RE quad is used to enhance amplifier gain-bandwidth product. At maximum gain, the single-ended S21 of 17 dB and the associated 3-dB bandwidth of 50 GHz are measured to produce a gain-bandwidth product of 354 GHz in a VGA including a Gilbert multiplier and an output driver. The gain-bandwidth product is twice the value measured from the VGA designed by single resistor degeneration in the same process. The circuit is designed in terms of detailed stability considerations and the experimental results show it to be unconditionally stable over 0.5-50 GHz. The linearity of the VGA is affected by nonlinear effects in DHBTs, and different design approaches are analyzed. An output interception point of the third harmonic of 16.2 dBm is measured. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental validation of generalized equations for FET cold noise source design

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 608 - 614
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work advances the capabilities of accurately quantifying the microwave noise temperature that exits port one of a two-port active device when port two is terminated with a complex load of known temperature. This noise temperature is of interest when characterizing and designing field-effect transistor (FET)-based cold noise sources or active cold loads that can be used as radiometer calibration reference standards. Unlike prior efforts, noise wave theory is used herein to derive an equation that embodies the complete effects of load mismatch, thus providing a new expression that correctly predicts the available noise temperature exiting port one of the two-port device. An electronic tuner is used to vary the impedance presented to port two of an on-wafer device while the port-one noise temperature is measured. The measured forward noise parameters of the device, the tuner impedance, and the tuner temperature (usually ambient) are used to compute the predicted output noise temperature values. Good agreement was observed between the noise wave-based predicted noise temperature and the measured noise temperature. Equations are developed for achieving minimum noise temperature, and a procedure including simulations and a flowchart are also presented for the design of FET-based synthetic cold loads. View full abstract»

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  • Combined use of genetic algorithms and gradient descent optmization methods for accurate inverse permittivity measurement

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 615 - 624
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel inverse transmission-line method for the complex permittivity determination of arbitrary shaped materials is presented. Complex permittivity is inferred by using an inverse calculation procedure, which is based on a combined optimization strategy of both genetic algorithms and the gradient descent method. The optimization procedure matches the measured and simulated complex scattering parameters' frequency behavior of materials within a WR340 waveguide. High accuracy and practical suitability are validated through experimental tests. The dielectric properties of PTFE and epoxy resin mixed with iron-oxide-doped fiberglass have been measured for different shapes and positions. Dielectric multilayer structures have been used to demonstrate that this technique is able to measure the individual permittivity of each element of the structure. Both two- and three-dimensional approaches have been carried out and their advantages and drawbacks discussed. View full abstract»

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  • W-band multiport substrate-integrated waveguide circuits

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 625 - 632
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Millimeter-wave passive circuits that are designed and fabricated in the form of substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) are presented in this paper. A W-band SIW 90° hybrid coupler and multiport SIW circuit are made and synthesized on alumina substrate using metallized slot arrays. In order to connect the SIW circuits with WR-10 standard rectangular waveguides for measurement purposes, a new transition is also proposed and developed. Such millimeter-wave integrated passive circuits are developed for applications in radar sensors operating at 94 GHz. Performances of these circuits are evaluated and discussed on the basis of a series of S-parameter simulations and measurements. Excellent agreement between simulated and measured results is observed. View full abstract»

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  • A high stopband-rejection LTCC filter with multiple transmission zeros

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 633 - 638
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-temperature-cofired ceramic (LTCC) bandpass filter with high stopband rejection is presented for multistandard coexisted wireless communication applications, such as the integrated wireless local area network (WLAN)/wavelength code-division multiple access handset, the dual-band triple-mode WLANs, and the global system for mobile communications/global positioning system receivers. By improving the filter cell structure, 2n transmission zeros can be generated to achieve wide-band suppression from cascading n filter cells. The presented method provides the design flexibility of locating these transmission zeros distributed in the lower and upper stopbands. An LTCC bandpass filter with four transmission zeros has been implemented for experimental demonstration. The measured insertion loss is less than 1.5 dB at 2500 MHz, and four transmission zeros are obtained at 1.64, 1.88, 4.36, and 5.32 GHz, respectively. These result in 48-59 dB for lower stopband suppression and 38-55 dB for higher stopband reduction. This paper demonstrates that the proposed filter is extremely suitable for the multiband RF transceivers where the cross-band interference must be adequately reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity and resolution of evanescent microwave microscope

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 639 - 647
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A near-field evanescent microwave microscope is based on a λ/4 coaxial TEM transmission-line resonator with a silver-plated tungsten tip extending through an end-wall aperture. This microwave microscope is used to characterize local electromagnetic properties of dielectrics, conductors, and superconductors. The resolution of the probe is verified experimentally by scanning etched gold lines on a sapphire substrate. A first-order sensitivity estimation generated from a unified equivalent circuit model of the probe and sample is investigated. The sensitivity inherent to the resonant probe and system noise is discussed. Experimental validation of sensitivity is given. View full abstract»

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  • Error correction for diffraction and multiple scattering in free-space microwave measurement of materials

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 648 - 659
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Metamaterials often have sharp resonances in permittivity or permeability at microwave frequencies. The sizes of the inclusions are of the order of millimeters, and this means that it is more convenient to carry out the measurement in free space. Time gating is often used in the free-space method to remove multiple scattering from the antennas and the surrounding objects. However, this lowers the resolution in the frequency domain, making it difficult to resolve the resonances reliably. Diffraction around the sample could also reduce measurement accuracy. A calibration procedure, based on the 16-term error model, which removes the need for time gating by correcting for both multiple scattering and diffraction, is developed. This procedure is tested on carbonyl iron composite and split-ring resonators, and the results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A 5.25-GHz CMOS folded-cascode even-harmonic mixer for low-voltage applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 660 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a 5.25-GHz folded-cascode even-harmonic mixer (FEHM) for low-voltage applications. This FEHM employs the folded technique to reduce the headroom voltage, a current reuse circuit in the RF stage to improve its linearity, and the frequency-doubling technique in the local oscillator (LO) stage to produce an LO double-frequency signal. In addition, the proposed technique exhibits the advantage of high conversion gain. In order to demonstrate the benefits and optimize the circuit design, the theoretical studies of conversion gain, linearity, and noise performance are described. For measurement, the proposed FEHM possesses conversion gain of 8.3 dB, third-order input intercept point (IIP3) of 0.03 dBm, and second-order input intercept point (IIP2) of 31.2 dBm under the supply voltage of 0.9 V and LO power of 5.5 dBm. The power consumption of the proposed mixer is about 4.95 mW at an IF frequency of 500 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity analysis of network parameters with electromagnetic frequency-domain simulators

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 670 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new practical approach to sensitivity analysis of the network parameters of high-frequency structures with commercial full-wave electromagnetic (EM) solvers is proposed. We show that the computation of the linear-network parameter derivatives in the design-parameter space does not require an adjoint-problem solution. The sensitivities are computed outside the EM solver, which simplifies the implementation. We discuss: 1) features of commercial EM solvers which allow the user to compute network parameters and their sensitivities through a single full-wave simulation; 2) the accuracy of the computed derivatives; and 3) the overhead of the sensitivity computation. Through examples based on FEMLAB and FEKO simulations, comparisons are made with the forward finite-difference derivative estimates in terms of accuracy and CPU time. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic and rigorous extraction method of HBT small-signal model parameters

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 682 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a systematic and rigorous analytical parameter-extraction method for a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) small-signal equivalent-circuit model. The proposed method relies exclusively on S-parameter measurements. Exact closed-form equations are used for the direct extraction of circuit elements. The method is characterized by its simplicity and ease of implementation. It is applied to predict the small-signal characteristics of transistors from different foundries. Excellent agreement between modeled and measured S-parameters is observed up to 20 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient modeling of microwave integrated-circuit geometries via a dynamically adaptive mesh Refinement-FDTD technique

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 689 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is combined with an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique, to achieve a fast, time-domain solver for Maxwell's equations (AMR-FDTD), based on a three-dimensional moving/rotating Cartesian mesh. This combination allows the proposed solver to adapt to the problem at hand, optimally distributing computational resources in a given domain as needed, by recursively refining a coarse grid in regions of large over time gradient of electromagnetic field energy. Several applications of the method to the analysis of microwave circuit geometries demonstrate its salient features and its outstanding efficiency as a microwave computer-aided design tool. View full abstract»

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  • Compact wide-band branch-line hybrids

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 704 - 709
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wide-band branch-line couplers are designed and tested. The proposed couplers feature compact size on a single circuit layer structure without via-holes. For the broad-band property and cost effectiveness, we have designed a four-branch hybrid with mixed distributed and lumped distributed elements. Analysis on the equivalent circuits was performed carefully in order to obtain a sufficient bandwidth with reduced design area. The fabricated hybrids have the fractional bandwidth larger than 56% at the center frequency of 2 GHz. They also show size reduction up to 55.2% compared with the conventional design method. View full abstract»

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  • A low-loss silicon-on-silicon DC-110-GHz resonance-free package

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 710 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of a hermetic-compatible wafer-scale package for microwave and millimeter-wave devices. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines on a high-resistivity silicon wafer are covered with another silicon wafer using gold-to-gold thermo-compression bonding. Oxide is used as a dielectric inter-layer for CPW feed-throughs underneath the gold sealing ring. A 130-μm-high cavity is etched in the cap wafer to remove an impact of capping wafer on CPW lines or RF devices. The designed feed-through has an insertion loss of 0.05-0.26 dB at dc-110 GHz with a return loss of <-20 dB (per transition). The gold sealing ring is connected to the CPW ground to eliminate any parasitic resonance and leakage of the package. The whole packaged CPW line has a measured insertion loss of 0.2-0.7 dB and return loss of <-20 dB at dc-110 GHz. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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