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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity-part I: theoretical analysis

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 89 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A two modes rate equation model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity (ESEC) is presented. By making use of it we develop a map of bistability to investigate the parametric dependence of polarization properties of VCSELs in such configuration, finding out a periodic dependence of the polarization switching (PS) currents on the ESEC length. By increasing the external mirror reflectivity we can make this periodic dependence stronger and strongly asymmetric providing the possibility to prevent PS for any injection current achieving polarization stabilization in VCSELs. Further numerical simulations with isotropic and non isotropic feedback show how parameters as the compression coefficients, the frequency splitting between the linearly polarized (LP) modes, the differential gain and the top mirror reflection coefficient, affect the map of bistability. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity-part II: experiments

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 102 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of isotropic optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity on the emission properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is experimentally investigated. When changing the external cavity length a modulation of the total power and the wavelength emitted by the VCSEL is observed with a period of half the wavelength of operation of the device. When biasing the VCSEL around its solitary (without optical feedback) polarization switching (PS) current, PS between the two linearly polarized modes is observed by changing the external cavity length. This PS is found to occur through a hysteresis region. Our experimental results show a modulation of the PS currents and the hysteresis width when changing the external cavity length with a period of half the wavelength of operation. The experimental results are well explained by a two mode rate equation model. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic behavior of wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 108 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    As wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) attract more attention, dynamic effects and wavelength dependent performance become key aspects to be investigated. Such issues are particularly important, as complex configurations are likely to be used to overcome challenges like tunability and polarization dependence. In this paper a numerical model is used to predict the dynamic performance of three FWM configurations and an analytical model is used to derive design rules. First, the wavelength dependent behavior of a wavelength converter is investigated and the requirement for a widely tunable converter is identified. Secondly, a configuration for extinction ratio (ER) improvement is studied and novel design rules are obtained analytically, tested experimentally and explained by the numerical model; experimental results with ER improvement at 10 Gb/s were achieved for the first time. The third configuration studied is a dual-pump arrangement enabling wide tunability. Fixed input/tunable output and tunable input/fixed output configurations are discussed in terms of optical signal-to-noise ratio and tunability. Design rules are extracted and verified for all three configurations that are likely to be deployed: simple wavelength converters, regenerating converters and tunable wavelength converters. View full abstract»

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  • Electroluminescence of InAs-GaSb heterodiodes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 126 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electroluminescence of a Type II InAs-GaSb superlattice heterodiode has been studied as a function of injection current and temperature in the spectral range between 3 and 13 μm. The heterodiode comprises a Be-doped midwavelength infrared (MWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap around 270 meV and an undoped long wavelength infrared (LWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap of 115 meV. At high injection currents and elevated temperatures the band to band transitions of both superlattices can be observed. By increasing the temperature the intensity of the MWIR emission component shows a well defined thermally activated increase. The activation energy of the Beryllium doping was evaluated to be 28 meV. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonator and curved microfiber

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 131 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The evanescent coupling from a photonic crystal resonator to a micron-thick optical fiber is investigated in detail by using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. Properly designed photonic crystal cavity and taper structures are proposed, and optimal operating conditions are found to enhance the coupling strength while suppressing other cavity losses including the coupling to the slab propagating mode and to the higher-order fiber mode. In simulation, the coupling into the fundamental fiber mode is discriminated from other cavity losses by spatial and parity filtering of the FDTD results. The coupling efficiency of more than 80% into the fundamental fiber mode together with a total Q factor of 5200 is achieved for the fiber diameter of 1.0 μm and the air gap of 200 nm between the fiber and the cavity. View full abstract»

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  • Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 137 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A rigorous model is developed for determining single-photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) with simple or heterojunction multiplication regions. The analysis assumes nanosecond gated-mode operation of the SPADs and that band-to-band tunneling of carriers is the dominant source of dark current in the multiplication region. The model is then utilized to optimize the SPQE as a function of the applied voltage, for a given operating temperature and multiplication-region structure and material. The model can be applied to SPADs with In0.52Al0.48As or InP multiplication regions as well as In0.52Al0.48As--InP heterojunction multiplication regions for wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 μm. The predictions show that the SPQE generally decreases with decreasing the multiplication-region thickness. Moreover, an InP multiplication region requires a lower breakdown electric field (and, hence, offers a higher SPQE) than that required by an In0.52Al0.48As layer of the same width. The model also shows that the fractional width of the In0.52Al0.48As layer in an In0.52Al0.48As--InP heterojunction multiplication region can be optimized to attain a maximum SPQE that is greater than that offered by an InP multiplication region. This effect becomes more pronounced in thin multiplication regions as a result of the increased significance of dead space. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of mode quality factors and mode reflectivities for nanowire cavity by FDTD technique

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 146 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mode frequency and the quality factor of nanowire cavities are calculated from the intensity spectrum obtained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade´ approximation. In a free-standing nanowire cavity with dielectric constant ε=6.0 and a length of 5 μm, quality factors of 130, 159, and 151 are obtained for the HE11 modes with a wavelength around 375 nm, at cavity radius of 60, 75, and 90 nm, respectively. The corresponding quality factors reduce to 78, 94, and 86 for a nanowire cavity standing on a sapphire substrate with a refractive index of 1.8. The mode quality factors are also calculated for the TE01 and TM01 modes, and the mode reflectivities are calculated from the mode quality factors. View full abstract»

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  • Full characterization of packaged Er-Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 152 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a procedure for the characterization of packaged Er-Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides. The procedure is based on precise measurements of the output optical powers when the waveguide is diode-laser pumped at 980 nm. The dependence of these optical powers on the input pump power is then fitted to the results from a numerical model that describes in detail the propagation of the optical powers inside the waveguide. The best fit is obtained for the following parameters: the signal wavelength scattering losses are α(1534)=8.3×10-2 dB/cm, the Yb3+ absorption and emission cross sections (≈980 nm) are 5.4×10-25 m2 and 7.0×10-25 m2, the Er3+ absorption and emission cross sections (≈980 nm) are 1.6×10-25 m2 and 1.2×10-25 m2, the Yb3+--Er3+ energy-transfer coefficient is 1.8×10-23 m3/s and the cooperative-upconversion coefficient is 8×10-25 m3/s. An approximate method is introduced that allows the determination of the absorption and emission cross section distributions for the erbium 4I132/⇔4I152/ transition from the amplified spontaneous emission power spectrum. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 160 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of pulsed stimulated Raman scattering in silicon wires. The pulse dynamics is described by a system of coupled equations, which describes intrinsic waveguide optical losses, phase shift and losses due to free-carriers (FCs) generated through two-photon absorption (TPA), first- and second-order frequency dispersion, self-phase and cross-phase modulation, TPA losses, and the interpulse Raman interaction. Furthermore, the influence of the FCs on the pulse dynamics is incorporated through a rate equation. The corresponding system of equations has then been numerically integrated, and phenomena such as noise-seeded Raman amplification, pulsed Raman amplification, and Raman-mediated pulse interaction have been described. View full abstract»

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  • Design and demonstration of novel QW intermixing scheme for the integration of UTC-type photodiodes with QW-based components

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 171 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design and demonstration of unitraveling carrier (UTC) photodiodes fabricated using a novel quantum-well (QW) intermixing and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) regrowth fabrication platform. The photodiodes discussed here were realized on the same chip as high gain centered QW active regions, intermixed passive centered well waveguides, and low optical confinement offset QW active regions regrown over intermixed wells. This demonstration lifts previous constraints imposed on high functionality photonic circuits, which forced a common waveguide architecture in the detector, laser, and amplifier by validating a platform suited for the monolithic integration of UTC photodiodes into photonic integrated circuits comprised of widely tunable high gain laser diodes, high efficiency modulators, and low optical confinement high saturation power semiconductor optical amplifiers. In this manuscript we focus on the design and performance of UTC photodiodes fabricated on intermixed QWs using this novel scheme. The photodiodes exhibit ∼90% internal quantum efficiency, excellent photocurrent handling capabilities, and minimal response roll-off over the 20 GHz of our testing capability. The 40 Gb/s operation was achieved with the demonstration of open eye diagrams. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 182 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    A 1534-nm fiber laser pumped Er:YAG laser action at room temperature has been demonstrated with high efficiency at two emission wavelengths: 1645 and 1617 nm. Multiwatt continuous-wave power was demonstrated at both wavelengths and active electrooptic Q-switch operation with >90% Q-switch efficiency was achieved at 1645 nm. Etalon tuned wavelength selection showed excellent agreement with theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Midinfrared holmium fiber lasers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 187 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    The use of the high-power Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser as a pump source for Ho3+-doped silica and Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber lasers for the generation of 2.1-μm radiation is demonstrated. The Ho3+-doped silica fiber laser produced a maximum output power of 1.5 W at a slope efficiency of ∼82%; one of the highest slope efficiencies measured for a fiber laser. In a nonoptimized but similar fiber laser arrangement, a Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser produced an output power of 0.38 W at 2.08 μm at a slope efficiency of ∼50%. A Raman fiber laser operating at 1160 nm was also used to pump a Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser operating at a wavelength of 2.86 μm. An output power of 0.31W was produced at a slope efficiency of 10%. The energy transfer upconversion process that depopulates the lower laser level in this case operates at a higher efficiency when the pump wavelength is closer to the absorption peak of the 5I6 energy level, however, this energy transfer process does not impede to a great extent the performance of the Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser based on the ∼2.1μm laser transition. View full abstract»

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  • The influence of pump wavelength on Er:YAG Green-emitting laser characteristics

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 192 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    Mathematical modeling is used to study the influence of pump wavelength on the emission of an Er(0.5 at.%):YAG laser on the transition 4S32/→4I152/ (561 nm). Three pump wavelengths (direct pumping: 488 nm, upconversion pumping: 800 and 810 nm) are investigated and the corresponding laser emission regimes are discussed. For upconversion pumping, we find an optimum pump wavelength and optimum resonator losses for lowering of the continuous-wave emission threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 198 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the output characteristics of an oxide-confined AlGaAs-As quantum well vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under orthogonal optical injection are mapped as a function of the strength of the optical injection and the detuning between the injection frequency and the free-running frequency of the solitary laser, for a very large range of frequency detuning (from -82 to 89 GHz). The injection light is polarized orthogonally with respect to the solitary VCSEL output light. As the injection strength increases the VCSEL switches to the master laser polarization. Polarization switching is accompanied by a rich nonlinear dynamics, including limit cycle, wave mixing, subharmonic resonance and period doubling route to chaos. Polarization switching is found with but also without injection locking. Injection locking occurs with the slave fundamental transverse mode or, for large positive detunings, with the first-order transverse mode. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of an electrooptically tunable microchip laser

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 208 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dynamics of a short-cavity, electrooptically tunable microchip laser is studied using the Maxwell-Bloch equations for a unidirectional ring cavity. Within this model, the electrooptic tuning medium is treated rigorously by a wave propagation equation and the electrooptic tuning is equivalent to introducing a time varying perturbation to the boundary condition. With the help of an approximate analytic solution as well as numerical simulations, we find that the laser relaxation does not pose limitations to the intracavity frequency modulation bandwidth. Instead, the bandwidth is a sensitive function of the cavity length and also of the fraction of the cavity length taken up by the electrooptic section. In addition, under large-signal sinusoidal modulation, the numerical solutions reveal complicated dynamical behaviors when the modulation frequencies are near the cavity free spectral range. View full abstract»

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 218 - 219
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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 220
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 221
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2006 Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 222
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Call for papers on solid state lighting

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 223
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on polarization effects in fiberoptic networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 224
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 225
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University