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Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2005

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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 617 - 618
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  • Golden Reviewer List

    Page(s): 619
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  • The Golden List

    Page(s): 620
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  • Characterization and control of microcontamination for advanced technology nodes and 300-mm wafer processing: overview and challenges

    Page(s): 623 - 630
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    Advanced process technologies have been introducing many unseen problems on process yield and device reliability. Microcontamination, which enables defects causing electric faults, has also been hard to understand, detect, and control. In this paper, the requirements and methodologies for contamination control in advanced technologies such as at the 90-nm processing technology node and immersion lithography using 300-mm wafer processing were addressed. Combining techniques of vapor phase decomposition (VPD) and wafer outgassing system (WOS) for characterizing the very low levels of surface metallic and organic contaminants on 300-mm wafers makes a front-end process capable of realizing and deploying the necessary controls. Applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the identification of contaminants of immersion fluids is a new experience for 193-nm lithography technology. Furthermore, the wafer-environment contamination controls, such as airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs), process critical material assurance and point-of-use quality are reviewed in the paper. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges for characterization and control of microcontamination in future manufacturing technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of metal contaminants in pre-gate oxide cleans for sub-100-nm devices

    Page(s): 631 - 638
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    Metal contaminants at trace levels in the pre-gate oxide clean solutions have always been a concern with scaling down trends in CMOS-based devices. The effect of multielement contamination (alkali, transition, and noble metals up to 200 ppb levels) in dilute hydrofluoric acid (DHF), standard clean one (SC1), and standard clean two (SC2) solutions is investigated for an Intel Pentium-based sub-100-nm microprocessor technology. The main significance of this work is to achieve a rational specification for process chemical purity. Results from surface analyses of monitor wafers and device level electrical measurements of production scale wafers along with yield and reliability analyses are presented in this paper. Deposition of metallic contaminants from clean solutions has been explained qualitatively based on electrochemical theory of reduction potentials. Among the 35 elements investigated in this study, only platinum at very low parts-per-billion levels in the HF-based cleans has been found to affect the gate oxide integrity producing zero yield. An increase in the surface roughness (2-8×) was also observed with silicon monitor wafers for 100-ppb-platinum-contaminated DHF solutions and could play an important role in degrading the gate oxide performance. Other alkali and transition metals including copper up to 200 ppb levels in the HF-based cleans studied here did not show any deleterious effects in the gate oxide integrity and product reliability measurements. The effect of contamination in the SC1 and SC2 cleans was negligible even for 100 ppb platinum. Significant cost reduction can be realized by safely relaxing the process chemical contamination disposition limits for alkali and transition elements. View full abstract»

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  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the introduction of novel materials in clean-room production environments

    Page(s): 639 - 651
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    In this paper, a number of case studies on the analysis of novel metallic contaminants on conventional and alternative substrates using the technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is presented. Investigated materials include Si and Ge substrates, high-κ dielectric contaminants, and layers, and Si wafers contaminated with elements from metal gates and Cu interconnects. One focus is on the application and optimization of detection limits in direct TXRF. For the TXRF analysis of contaminants on Si wafers, a general conclusion is that a combination of three excitation sources is needed to cover the whole range of interest: a low-energy excitation (about 5 keV, e.g., WMα, Cr Kα) for the low Z elements such as Na, Mg, and Al, a moderate-energy excitation (10-20 keV, e.g., WLβ, MoKα) for the 3d-transition elements, and a high-energy excitation (25-35 keV, e.g., W, continuum) for the analysis of elements such as Zr, Ru, Mo, and Pd. Also, for the analysis of novel substrates using direct TXRF, a careful selection of the excitation source results in better detection limits. In this way, detection limits at 1010-1011 at/cm2 can be achieved, even for novel contaminants and substrates. As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) requires control below 5×109 at/cm2, the application of a preconcentration procedure such as vapor phase decomposition-droplet collection TXRF (VPD-DC-TXRF) is required. Proper use of this procedure allows the improvement of the detection limits by two to three orders of magnitude, depending on wafer size and chemical collection efficiency. The usability of this preconcentration procedure in combination with TXRF will be demonstrated for noble elements and germanium substrates. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous qualitative analysis of volatile and nonvolatile organic contamination on silicon wafer by online pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    Page(s): 652 - 658
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    This paper presents a new analytical setup that aims for a qualitative analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile organic contamination simultaneously from one whole silicon wafer. The aim was to develop a screening method that can be used for the identification of the source(s) of organic contamination for quality control in the manufacturing process. The model compounds used in the analysis were a solvent (toluene), a photoresist, and a resist stripper solution. The instrumental setup consisted of a heatable chamber for sample handling and an online mass spectrometer for detection. The organic contamination could be directly desorbed from the surface of the silicon wafer (volatile organic components) or pyrolyzed/desorbed from the surface in air atmosphere at elevated temperature (nonvolatile components), and consequently detected by the mass spectrometer. The mass spectra and the ion chromatograms obtained by the mass spectrometer during the heating of the silicon wafer can be used for the identification of all organic compounds on the silicon wafer and thus, for the identification of a possible source of contamination. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study on the intrinsic response, optical and electrical parameters of 1.55-μm DFB BH laser diodes during aging tests

    Page(s): 659 - 664
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    This paper reports on an investigation on the light-current, relative intensity noise, and chirp variations of life-tested InGaAsP/InP multiquantum-well buried heterostructure (BH) laser diodes (LDs). The devices have been stressed at highly accelerated aging conditions (I=170 mA, T=140°C for 3000 h). Typically, the operating current at constant output optical power (Iop) increases logarithmically with time in stable devices while the noise resonance frequency remains stable. High-frequency RF signal-induced chirp for relative stable LDs at constant output power shows very little change with time. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of etched-mesa buried-heterostructure semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 665 - 674
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    This paper reviews the effects of metal-contact-type buried-heterostructure (BH) interfaces and substrate quality on the reliability of BH distributed-feedback (DFB) InGaAsP/InP lasers. For electrical contact, the significant improvement in device lifetime using Au/Ti/Pt/Au p-metallization over Au/Zn/Au will be shown. The temperature and current-density-acceleration factors of the diffusion of Au spiking during life-test aging are estimated. For BH interfaces, performance degradation related to damage on the mesa sidewall generated during the etching process and regrowth processes will be discussed. For the substrate, various failure mechanisms related to the formation and propagation of dark-spot defects (DSD) will be reviewed. The authors discussed various process remedies and show that a thicker buffer may lead to reliability-performance improvement with experimental results. This paper concludes with a brief description of the time-to-failure extrapolation methodology used. View full abstract»

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  • The Simulation of a new asymmetrical double-gate poly-Si TFT with modified channel conduction mechanism for highly reduced OFF-state leakage current

    Page(s): 675 - 682
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    Poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs) exhibit large OFF-state reverse leakage currents since their channel conduction is controlled by the gate-induced grain barrier lowering (GIGBL). This also leads to the presence of the pseudosubthreshold region in the transfer characteristic. In this paper, we report a novel poly-Si multiple-gate TFT (MG-TFT), where the front gate consists of three sections with two different materials, in order to reduce the OFF-state leakage current with no significant change in the ON-state current. We demonstrate that the dominant conduction mechanism in the channel can be controlled entirely by the accumulation charge density modulation by the gate (ACMG) instead of the GIGBL, leading to a steep subthreshold slope without any pseudosubthreshold region when compared to an asymmetrical double-gate poly-Si TFT (DG-TFT), resulting in a significantly reduced OFF-state leakage current. Using two-dimensional (2-D) and two-carrier device simulation, we have analyzed the various performance and design considerations of the MG-TFT and explained the reasons for the improved performance of the MG-TFT. View full abstract»

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  • Wafer level reliability and lifetime analysis of InGaAsP/InP quantum-well Fabry-Perot laser diode

    Page(s): 683 - 687
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    This paper investigated the reliability of semiconductor 1.3-μm multiquantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot laser diodes (LDs) in a quarter 2-in wafer level that are measured to have uniform threshold currents, slope efficiencies, and wavelengths within 4% of the maximum deviation. By performing the accelerated aging test under a constant optical power of 3 mW at 85°C for 2100 h, the lifetime of the fabricated optoelectronic devices was estimated, where the failure rate was matched on the fitted line of the lognormal distribution model resulting in the mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) of 2×106 h operating at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of DC current accelerated life tests of GaN LEDs using a Weibull-based statistical model

    Page(s): 688 - 693
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    Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) accelerated life tests were carried out over devices adopting two different packaging schemes (i.e., with plastic transparent encapsulation or with pure metallic package). Data analyses were done using a Weibull-based statistical description with the aim of estimating the effect of high current on device performance. A consistent statistical model was found with the capability to estimate the mean time to failure (MTTF) of devices during DC current stress and the accelerating factors of high current stresses. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of new anisotropic conductive film (ACF)

    Page(s): 694 - 700
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    This paper designs a new multilayered particle anisotropic conductive film (ACF) compound. Using the particle-reinforced composite model and probability theory, the novel ACF compound is compared with three traditional ACFs having the same particle volume fraction. The particle-reinforced model applies the concept of bonded and debonded structures in the interfaces between the adhesive resin and the particles. The elastic modulus of the particle-reinforced ACF is a function of the particle volume fraction and the bonded condition. In the failure model, probability theory is used to calculate the probability of opening and bridging. The volume fraction of the conductive particles plays an important role in determining the optimal ACF design. The current results indicate that the flip chip packaging performed using the novel multilayered particle ACF compound (particles distributed in the top/bottom surface layers) exhibits superior particle-reinforcement properties and a lower failure probability than traditional ACFs. The improved understanding of reinforcement mechanisms and failure probability developed by this study facilitates the enhanced design of novel ACF compounds. View full abstract»

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  • The energy-driven paradigm of NMOSFET hot-carrier effects

    Page(s): 701 - 705
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    As negative-MOSFET (NMOSFET) size and voltage are scaled down, the electron-energy distribution becomes increasingly dependent only on the applied bias, because of quasi-ballistic transport over the high-field region. A new paradigm, or underlying concept, of NMOSFET hot-carrier behavior is proposed here, in which the fundamental "driving force" is available energy, rather than peak lateral electric field, as it is in the lucky electron model (LEM). The new prediction of the energy-driven paradigm is that the bias dependence of the impact-ionization (II) rate and hot-carrier lifetime is, to the first order, given by the energy dependences of the II scattering rate SII(E) and an effective interface state generation (ISG) cross section SIT(E), whereas, under the LEM, these bias dependences are determined by the number of electrons with energy above the II and ISG "threshold energies." This approach allows an experimental determination of SIT. View full abstract»

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  • Strained epilayers effectively reduce plasma-induced fluorine damage in P-HEMTs

    Page(s): 706 - 712
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    We intentionally inserted several strained epilayers, namely In0.5Ga0.5As, InAs, and InSb, as fluorine-trapping barriers in a conventional pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (P-HEMT) structure and investigated their effectiveness against plasma-induced fluorine damage using Hall measurements and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis. The strained barriers effectively diminished plasma-induced fluorine incorporation into deeper layers than the δ-doped layer and improved the carrier density and electron mobility compared with those of the conventional P-HEMT. In particular, when the most strained InSb barrier was inserted into the P-HEMT using post-thermal annealing, the carrier density and electron mobility remarkably recovered to 85% and 97% of their respective values before processing because of diminished fluorine incorporation and reduction of incorporated fluorine from the channel layer to the upper layers. This confirms that highly strained barriers are very effective at suppressing plasma-induced fluorine damage in P-HEMTs. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration of MEMS-based test structures for predicting thermomechanical stress in integrated circuit interconnect structures

    Page(s): 713 - 719
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    This paper uses a rotating-beam-sensor structure to show that the extrinsic stress from the mismatch in expansion coefficient between the aluminum and the silicon substrate dominates over the compressive stress from the sputter growth. Sintering the layers at temperatures above 150°C reduces this compressive stress due to the action of creep. Calibration of the rotation of the device has been undertaken by direct comparison to high resolution X-ray-diffraction measurements and these show that the sensor has a resolution better than 2.8 MPa. Furthermore, we have used the sensor to investigate the variation of in-plane stress with the compliance of the intermetal dielectric, by directly comparing sensors fabricated on SiO2 and polyimide layers. View full abstract»

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  • Ferroelectric polymer Langmuir-Blodgett films for nonvolatile memory applications

    Page(s): 720 - 735
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    We review the potential for integrating ferroelectric polymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films with semiconductor technology to produce nonvolatile ferroelectric random-access memory (NV-FRAM or NV-FeRAM) and data-storage devices. The prototype material is a copolymer consisting of 70% vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and 30% trifluoroethylene (TrFE), or P(VDF-TrFE 70:30). Recent work with LB films and more conventional solvent-formed films shows that the VDF copolymers are promising materials for nonvolatile memory applications. The prototype device is the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitance memory. Field-effect transistor (FET)-based devices are also discussed. The LB films afford devices with low-voltage operation, but there are two important technical hurdles that must be surmounted. First, an appropriate method must be found to control switching dynamics in the LB copolymer films. Second, the LB technology must be scaled up and incorporated into the semiconductor-manufacturing process, but since there is no precedent for mass production of LB films, it is difficult to project how long this will take. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on reliability studies on nanotechnology

    Page(s): 736
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  • 13th International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits

    Page(s): 737
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  • Special issue on smart power device reliability

    Page(s): 738
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  • 2005 Index

    Page(s): 739 - 752
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  • IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability is published quarterly. It provides leading edge information that is critical to the creation of reliable electronic devices and materials, and a focus for interdisciplinary communication in the state of the art of reliability of electronic devices, and the materials used in their manufacture. It focuses on the reliability of electronic, optical, and magnetic devices, and microsystems; the materials and processes used in the manufacture of these devices; and the interfaces and surfaces of these materials.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Anthony S. Oates
Taiwan Semiconductor Mfg Co.