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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2006

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c2
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  • Message From the Outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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  • Message From the Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2
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  • Kalman filtering based rate-constrained motion estimation for very low bit rate video coding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rate-constrained (R-D) motion estimation techniques have been presented to improve the conventional block-matching algorithm by using a joint rate and distortion criterion. This paper presents two motion estimation algorithms using Kalman filter to further enhance the performance of the conventional R-D motion estimation at a relative low computational cost. The Kalman filter exploits the correlation of block motion to achieve higher precision of motion estimation and compensation. In the first algorithm, the Kalman filter is utilized as a postprocessing to raise the motion compensation accuracy of the conventional R-D motion estimation. In the second algorithm, the Kalman filter is embedded into the optimization process of R-D motion estimation by defining a new R-D criterion. It further improves the rate-distortion performance significantly. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient reverse-play algorithms for MPEG video with VCR support

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 19 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    Reverse playback is the most common video cassette recording (VCR) function in digital video players and it involves playing video frames in reverse order. However, the predictive processing techniques employed in MPEG severely complicate the reverse-play operation. For displaying single frame during reverse playback, all frames from the previous I-frame to the requested frame must be sent by the server and decoded by the client machine. It requires much higher bandwidth of the network and complexity of the decoder. In this paper, we propose a compressed-domain approach for an efficient implementation of the MPEG video streaming system to provide reverse playback over a network with the minimal requirements on the network bandwidth and the decoder complexity. In the proposed video streaming server, it classifies macroblocks in the requested frame into two categories-backward macroblocks (BMBs) and forward macroblock (FMBs). Two novel MB-based techniques are used to manipulate the necessary MBs in the compressed domain and the server then sends the processed MBs to the client machine. For BMBs, we propose a sign inversion technique, which is operated in the variable length coding (VLC) domain, to reduce the number of MBs that need to be decoded by the decoder and the number of bits that need to be sent over the network in the reverse-play operation. The server also identifies the previous related MBs of FMBs and those related maroblocks coded without motion compensation are then processed by a technique of direction addition of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients to further reduce the computational complexity of the client decoder. With the sign inversion and direct addition of DCT coefficients, the proposed architecture only manipulates MBs either on the VLC domain or DCT domain to achieve the server with low complexity. Experimental results show that, as compared to the conventional system, the new streaming system reduces the required network bandwidth and the decoder complexity significantly. View full abstract»

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  • Performance and computational complexity optimization in configurable hybrid video coding system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 31 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a configurable coding scheme is proposed and analyzed with respect to computational complexity and distortion (C-D). The major coding modules are analyzed in terms of computational C-D in the H.263 video coding framework. Based on the analyzed data, operational C-D curves are obtained through an exhaustive search, and the Lagrangian multiplier method. The proposed scheme satisfies the given computational constraint independently of the changing properties of the input video sequence. A technique to adaptively control the optimal encoding mode is also proposed. The performance of the proposed technique is compared with a fixed scheme where parameters are determined by off-line processing. Experimental results demonstrate that the adaptive approach leads to computation reductions of up to 19%, which are obtained with test video sequences and compared to the fixed, while the peak signal-to-noise ratio degradations of the reconstructed video are less than 0.05 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Spatio-temporal scalability-based motion-compensated 3-D subband/DCT video coding

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 43 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    The existing standard video coding schemes support spatial scalability because of its prospective applications. Unfortunately, spatial scalable codecs produce high bit rate overhead as compared to a single layer coder. In this paper, we propose a spatio-temporal scalable video coding system based on motion compensated (MC) three-dimensional subband/discrete cosine transform (3-D SBC/DCT). This coder is proposed as a solution to improve the compression performance of spatial scalability and at the same time to reduce the high bit rate consumption of the base layer. In this system, the temporal subbands are generated by a novel approach called MC DCT temporal filtering (MCDCT-TF). The temporal subbands are further spatially decomposed using two-dimensional (2-D) DCT decimation technique . The generated spatio-temporal subbands are then quantized, entropy encoded, and transmitted along with the motion vectors. Several experiments are carried out on various image sequences to test the performance of the proposed coding scheme. The simulation results show that its performance exceeds that of H263+ single layer, spatial and spatio-temporal scalable coders. View full abstract»

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  • A sequence-based rate control framework for consistent quality real-time video

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 56 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most model-based rate control solutions have the generally questionable assumption that video sequence is stationary. In addition, they often suffer from the fundamental problem of model parameter misestimation. In this paper, we propose a sequence-based frame-level bit allocation framework employing a rate-complexity model that has the capability of tracking the nonstationary characteristics in the video source without look-ahead encoding. In addition, a new nonlinear model parameter estimation approach is proposed to overcome the existing problems in previous model parameter estimation schemes where quantization parameter (QP) is determined to achieve the allocated bits for a frame. Furthermore, a general concept of bit allocation guarantee is discussed and its importance is highlighted. The proposed rate control solution can achieve smoother video quality with less quality flicker and motion jerkiness. Both a complete solution where requantization is employed to guarantee the achievement of the allocated bits, and a simplified solution without requantization are studied. Experimental results show that they both provide significantly better performance, in terms of average peak-signal-to-noise ratio and quality smoothness, than the MPEG-4 Annex L frame-level rate control solution. View full abstract»

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  • Network-adaptive low-latency video communication over best-effort networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 72 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality of service limitation of today's best-effort networks poses major challenge for low-latency video communication. To combat network losses for real-time and on-demand video communication, which exhibits stronger dependency across packets, a network-adaptive coding scheme is employed to dynamically manage the packet dependency using optimal reference picture selection. The selection of the reference is achieved within a rate-distortion optimization framework and is adapted to the varying network conditions. For network-adaptive streaming of prestored video, based on an accurate loss-distortion model, a prescient scheme that optimizes the dependency of a group of packets is proposed to achieve global optimality as well as improved rate-distortion performance. With the improved trade-off between compression efficiency and error resilience, the proposed system does not require retransmission of lost packets, which makes less than one-second low-latency communication possible. View full abstract»

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  • Information theory-based shot cut/fade detection and video summarization

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 82 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (77)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New methods for detecting shot boundaries in video sequences and for extracting key frames using metrics based on information theory are proposed. The method for shot boundary detection relies on the mutual information (MI) and the joint entropy (JE) between the frames. It can detect cuts, fade-ins and fade-outs. The detection technique was tested on the TRECVID2003 video test set having different types of shots and containing significant object and camera motion inside the shots. It is demonstrated that the method detects both fades and abrupt cuts with high accuracy. The information theory measure provides us with better results because it exploits the inter-frame information in a more compact way than frame subtraction. It was also successfully compared to other methods published in literature. The method for key frame extraction uses MI as well. We show that it captures satisfactorily the visual content of the shot. View full abstract»

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  • Video filtering with Fermat number theoretic transforms using residue number system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 92 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate image and video convolutions based on Fermat number transform (FNT) modulo q=2M+1 where M is an integer power of two. These transforms are found to be ideal for image convolutions, except that the choices for the word length, restricted by the transform modulus, are rather limited. We discuss two methods to overcome this limitation. First, we allow M to be an arbitrary integer. This gives much wider variety in possible moduli, at the cost of decreased transform length of 16 or 32 points for M<32. Nevertheless, the transform length appears still to be useful especially with block-based image and video filtering applications. We call these transforms the generalized FNT (GFNT). The second solution is to use a residue number system (RNS) to enlarge the effective modulus, while performing actual number theoretic transforms with smaller moduli. This approach appears to be particularly useful with moduli q1=216+1 and q2=28+1, which allow transforms up to 256 points with a dynamic range of about 24 bits. We design an efficient reconstruction circuit based on mixed radix conversion for converting the result from diminished-1 RNS into normal binary code. The circuit is implemented in VHDL and found to be very small in area. We also discuss the necessary steps in performing convolutions with the GFNT and evaluate the integrated circuit implementation cost for various elementary operations. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive reconstruction of intermediate views from stereoscopic images

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 102 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with disparity estimation and the reconstruction of intermediate views from stereoscopic images. Using block-wise maximum-likelihood (ML) disparity estimation, it was found that the Laplacian model outperformed the Cauchy and Gaussian models in terms of disparity compensation errors and the number of correspondence matches. The disparity values in occluded regions were then determined using both object-based and reliability-based interpolation. Finally, an adaptive technique was used to interpolate the intermediate views. One distinguishing characteristic of this algorithm is that the left and right-eye images were projected onto the plane of the intermediate view to be reconstructed. This resulted in two projected images. The intermediate view was created using a weighted average of these two projected images with the weights based on the quality of the corresponding areas of the projected images. Subjective examination of the reconstructed images indicate that they have high image quality and good stable depth when viewed stereoscopically. An objective evaluation with the test image sequence "Flower Garden" shows that the proposed algorithm can achieve a peak signal-to-noise ratio gain of around 1 dB, when compared to a reference algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Low bit rate image compression core for onboard space applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 114 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents low-cost, purpose optimized discrete wavelet transform-based image compressors for future spacecrafts and microsatellites. The hardware solution proposed here exploits a modified set partitioning in hierarchical trees algorithm and ensures that appropriate reconstructed image qualities can be achieved also for compression ratios over 100:1. Several implementations are presented varying the parallelism level and the tile size. Obtained results demonstrate that, using a parallel implementation operating on a 64 /spl times/ 64 size tile, a maximum data rate of about 18 Mpixels/s can be sustained. In this case, only 4500 slices and 24 BlockRAMs of a XILINX Virtex II device are required. View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm for removable visible watermarking

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 129 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A visible watermark may convey ownership information that identifies the originator of image and video. A potential application scenario for visible watermarks was proposed by IBM where an image is originally embedded with a visible watermark before posting on the web for free observation and download. The watermarked image which serves as a "teaser." The watermark can be removed to recreate the unmarked image by request of interested buyers. Before we can design an algorithm for satisfying this application, three basic problems should be solved. First, we need to find a strategy suitable for producing large amount of visually same but numerically different watermarked versions of the image for different users. Second, the algorithm should let the embedding parameters reachable for any legal user to make the embedding process invertible. Third, an unauthorized user should be prevented from removing the embedded watermark pattern. In this letter, we propose a user-key-dependent removable visible watermarking system (RVWS). The user key structure decides both the embedded subset of watermark and the host information adopted for adaptive embedding. The neighbor-dependent embedder adjusts the marking strength to host features and makes unauthorized removal very difficult. With correct user keys, watermark removal can be accomplished in "informed detection" and the high quality unmarked image can be restored. In contrast, unauthorized operation either overly or insufficiently removes the watermark due to wrong estimation of embedding parameters, and thus, the resulting image has apparent defect. View full abstract»

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  • Rate-distortion performance of H.264/AVC compared to state-of-the-art video codecs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 134 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the domain of digital video coding, new technologies and solutions are emerging in a fast pace, targeting the needs of the evolving multimedia landscape. One of the questions that arises is how to assess these different video coding technologies in terms of compression efficiency. In this paper, several compression schemes are compared by means of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and just noticeable difference (JND). The codecs examined are XviD 0.9.1 (conform to the MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile), DivX 5.1 (implementing the MPEG-4 Visual Advanced Simple Profile), Windows Media Video 9, MC-EZBC and H.264/AVC AHM 2.0 (version JM 6.1 of the reference software, extended with rate control). The latter plays a key role in this comparison because the H.264/AVC standard can be considered as the de facto benchmark in the field of digital video coding. The obtained results show that H.264/AVC AHM 2.0 outperforms current proprietary and standards-based implementations in almost all cases. Another observation is that the choice of a particular quality metric can influence general statements about the relation between the different codecs. View full abstract»

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  • Unsupervised extraction of visual attention objects in color images

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 141 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (74)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a generic model for unsupervised extraction of viewer's attention objects from color images. Without the full semantic understanding of image content, the model formulates the attention objects as a Markov random field (MRF) by integrating computational visual attention mechanisms with attention object growing techniques. Furthermore, we describe the MRF by a Gibbs random field with an energy function. The minimization of the energy function provides a practical way to obtain attention objects. Experimental results on 880 real images and user subjective evaluations by 16 subjects demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of multihypothesis motion compensated prediction (MHMCP) for robust visual communication

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 146 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multihypothesis motion compensated prediction (MHMCP) scheme, which predicts a block from a weighted superposition of more than one reference blocks, is proposed and analyzed for error resilient visual communication in this research. By combining these reference blocks effectively, MHMCP can enhance the error resilient capability of compressed video as well as achieve a coding gain. In particular, we investigate the error propagation effect in the MHMCP coder and analyze the rate-distortion performance in terms of the hypothesis number and hypothesis coefficients. It is shown that MHMCP suppresses the short-term effect of error propagation more effectively than the intra-refreshing scheme. View full abstract»

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  • 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006)

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 154
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 155 - 156
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it