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Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering publication information

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  • Design and quantitative evaluation of a stance-phase controlled prosthetic knee joint for children

    Page(s): 437 - 443
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate a theoretical basis for the design of a stance-phase controlled paediatric prosthetic knee joint, clinically test prototypes of the knee, and use a questionnaire to evaluate its efficacy. Biomechanical models were used to analyze the stance-phase control characteristics of the proposed knee, and those of three other commonly prescribed paediatric knee joint mechanisms, which were also the conventional knee joints used by the six participants of this study (mean age 10.8 years). A questionnaire pertaining to stance-phase control was designed and administered twice to each child; once for the evaluation of the prototype knee joint and once for the conventional knee joint. Stance-phase modeling results indicated decreased zones of instability for the new knee as compared to other paediatric knee joints. Questionnaire results revealed a decrease in the frequency of falls with the prototype compared to other knees, especially in highly active children. The children also reported worrying less about the knee collapsing during walking. No differences were evident for stance-phase stability during running, walking on uneven terrain, ambulating up and down stairs and inclines, fatigue, and types of activities performed. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of models of force production during stimulated isometric ankle dorsiflexion in humans

    Page(s): 444 - 451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we compare seven models on their ability to fit isometric muscle force. We stimulated the ankle dorsiflexors of eight subjects at seven ankle angles (85°-120°). Three different stimulation patterns (twitch, triangular, and random) were applied at all ankle angles. Four additional patterns (doublets, steady rates, "catch property," and walking-like) were applied at 95°. Parameter values were optimized for each model at each angle. Parameters for the general linear model were calculated using a novel least-squares algorithm. A linear, second-order critically damped model gave the poorest fits (average root mean square (rms) error: 15 N). The models of Ding et al. (2002) and Bobet and Stein (1998) gave the best fits (average rms errors: 9.2 and 9.4 N). The other models (general linear second-order model, Wiener model, Zhou et al. (1995) model, general linear model) gave intermediate results. Results were similar at all ankle angles. We conclude that the Ding and Bobet-Stein models are the best overall for isometric contractions, that no linear model of any kind will give an error less than 9% of maximum force, and that the models tested are consistent across lengths. View full abstract»

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  • School-based use of a robotic arm system by children with disabilities

    Page(s): 452 - 460
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    A robotic arm system was developed for use by children who had very severe motor disabilities and varying levels of cognitive and language skills. The children used the robot in a three-task sequence routine to dig objects from a tub of dry macaroni. The robotic system was used in the child's school for 12-15 sessions over a period of four weeks. Goal attainment scaling indicated improvement in all children in operational competence of the robot, and varying levels of gain in functional skill development with the robot and in carryover to the classroom from the robot experiments. Teacher interviews revealed gains in classroom participation, expressive language (vocalizations, symbolic communication), and a high degree of interest by the children in the robot tasks. The teachers also recommended that the robot should have more color, contrast and character, as well as generating sounds and/or music for student cues. They also felt that the robotic system accuracy should be increased so that teacher assistance is not necessary to complete the task. View full abstract»

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  • A time-series prediction approach for feature extraction in a brain-computer interface

    Page(s): 461 - 467
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a feature extraction procedure (FEP) for a brain-computer interface (BCI) application where features are extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from subjects performing right and left motor imagery. Two neural networks (NNs) are trained to perform one-step-ahead predictions for the EEG time-series data, where one NN is trained on right motor imagery and the other on left motor imagery. Features are derived from the power (mean squared) of the prediction error or the power of the predicted signals. All features are calculated from a window through which all predicted signals pass. Separability of features is achieved due to the morphological differences of the EEG signals and each NNs specialization to the type of data on which it is trained. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used for classification. This FEP is tested on three subjects off-line and classification accuracy (CA) rates range between 88% and 98%. The approach compares favorably to a well-known adaptive autoregressive (AAR) FEP and also a linear AAR model based prediction approach. View full abstract»

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  • Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm

    Page(s): 468 - 472
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Evidence indicates that user acceptance of modern artificial limbs by amputees would be significantly enhanced by a system that provides appropriate, graded, distally referred sensations of touch and joint movement, and that the functionality of limb prostheses would be improved by a more natural control mechanism. We have recently demonstrated that it is possible to implant electrodes within individual fascicles of peripheral nerve stumps in amputees, that stimulation through these electrodes can produce graded, discrete sensations of touch or movement referred to the amputee's phantom hand, and that recordings of motor neuron activity associated with attempted movements of the phantom limb through these electrodes can be used as graded control signals. We report here that this approach allows amputees to both judge and set grip force and joint position in an artificial arm, in the absence of visual input, thus providing a substrate for better integration of the artificial limb into the amputee's body image. We believe this to be the first demonstration of direct neural feedback from and direct neural control of an artificial arm in amputees. View full abstract»

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  • An apparatus for characterization and control of isolated muscle

    Page(s): 473 - 481
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    An apparatus for characterization and control of muscle tissue is presented. The apparatus is capable of providing generalized mechanical boundary conditions to muscle tissue, as well as implementing real-time feedback control via electrical stimulation. The system is intended to serve as an experimental platform for implementing a wide variety of muscle control and identification studies that will serve as fundamental investigations of muscle mechanics, energetics, functional electrical stimulation, and fatigue. In one illustration of the capabilities of the apparatus, pilot experimental results of muscle workloops against a finite-admittance passive load are presented, illustrating how richer boundary conditions may reveal interesting muscle behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic determination of synergies by radial basis function artificial neural networks for the control of a neural prosthesis

    Page(s): 482 - 489
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    This paper describes an automatic method for synthesizing the control for a neural prosthesis (NP) that could augment elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination in persons with hemiplegia. The basis for the control was a synergistic model of reaching and grasping that uses temporal and spatial synergies between the arm and body segments. The synergies were determined from the movement data measured in nondisabled persons during the performance of functional tasks. The work space was divided into six zones: distance (two attributes) and laterality (three attributes). Radial basis function artificial neural networks (RBF ANN) were used to determine synergies. Sets of RBF ANN characterized with good generalization were selected as control laws for elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination. The validation was performed for three categories: inter-subject, distance, and laterality generalization. For all of the defined spatial synergies, the correlation was high for inter-subject and distance, yet low for the laterality scenario. This suggests the necessity for implementing different maps for different directions, but the same maps for different distances. The natural movements of the upper arm then drive the lower arm (elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination) in a way that is very well suited for the administration of functional electrical therapy (FET) in persons with hemiplegia soon after the onset of impairment. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal arrangement of magnetic coils for functional magnetic stimulation of the inspiratory muscles in dogs

    Page(s): 490 - 496
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In an attempt to maximize inspiratory pressure and volume, the optimal position of a single or of dual magnetic coils during functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) of the inspiratory muscles was evaluated in twenty-three dogs. Unilateral phrenic magnetic stimulation (UPMS) or bilateral phrenic magnetic stimulation (BPMS), posterior cervical magnetic stimulation (PCMS), anterior cervical magnetic stimulation (ACMS) as well as a combination of PCMS and ACMS were performed. Trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), flow, and lung volume changes with an open airway were measured. Transdiaphragmatic pressure was also measured with an occluded airway. Changes in inspiratory parameters during FMS were compared with 1) electrical stimulation of surgically exposed bilateral phrenic nerves (BPES) and 2) ventral root electrical stimulation at C5-C7 (VRES C5-C7). Relative to the Pdi generated by BPES of 36.3±4.5 cm H2O (Mean ± SEM), occluded Pdi(s) produced by UPMS, BPMS, PCMS, ACMS, and a combined PCMS + ACMS were 51.7%, 61.5%, 22.4%, 100.3%, and 104.5% of the maximal Pdi, respectively. Pdi(s) produced by UPMS, BPMS, PCMS, ACMS, and combined ACMS + PCMS were 38.0%, 45.2%, 16.5%, 73.8%, and 76.8%, respectively, of the Pdi induced by VRES (C5-C7) (48.0±3.9 cm H2O). The maximal Pdi(s) generated during ACMS and combined PCMS + ACMS were higher than the maximal Pdi(s) generated during UPMS, BPMS, or PCMS (p<0.05). ACMS alone induced 129.8% of the inspiratory flow (73.0±9.4 L/min) and 77.5% of the volume (626±556 ml) induced by BPES. ACMS and combined PCMS + ACMS produce a greater inspiratory pressure than UPMS, BPMS or PCMS. ACMS can be used to generate sufficient inspiratory pressure, flow, and volume for activation of the inspiratory muscles. View full abstract»

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  • A robotic device for studying rodent locomotion after spinal cord injury

    Page(s): 497 - 506
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    We have developed a robotic device (the "rat stepper") for evaluating and training locomotor function of spinal cord injured rodents. This paper provides a detailed description of the device design and a characterization of its robotic performance capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • An android for enhancing social skills and emotion recognition in people with autism

    Page(s): 507 - 515
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (795 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well documented that the processing of social and emotional information is impaired in people with autism. Recent studies have shown that individuals, particularly those with high functioning autism, can learn to cope with common social situations if they are made to enact possible scenarios they may encounter in real life during therapy. The main aim of this work is to describe an interactive life-like facial display (FACE) and a supporting therapeutic protocol that will enable us to verify if the system can help children with autism to learn, identify, interpret, and use emotional information and extend these skills in a socially appropriate, flexible, and adaptive context. The therapeutic setup consists of a specially equipped room in which the subject, under the supervision of a therapist, can interact with FACE. The android display and associated control system has automatic facial tracking, expression recognition, and eye tracking. The treatment scheme is based on a series of therapist-guided sessions in which a patient communicates with FACE through an interactive console. Preliminary data regarding the exposure to FACE of two children are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Colon emptying induced by sequential electrical stimulation in rats

    Page(s): 516 - 523
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    Electrical stimulation could be used to induce colon emptying. The present experiments were performed to establish a stimulation pattern to optimize the stimulation parameters and to test neural involvement in propulsion induced by electrical stimulation. Colon segments were sequentially stimulated using rectangular pulses. The resulting propulsive activity displaced intraluminal content in consecutive propulsion steps. The propulsion steps differed in displacement latency, distance, and velocity along the stimulated colon. Increasing the pulse duration or amplitude resulted in a decrease of the latency. Increasing the stimulation amplitude doubled the displacement distance. The frequencies tested in the present study did not affect propulsion. Inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic pathways inhibited propulsion. Electrical stimulation can induce colonic propulsion. Motor differences are present along the descending colon. The most suitable combination of pulse parameters regarding colon stimulation is 0.3 ms, 5 mA, 10 Hz. Neural circuits are involved in propulsion when using these values. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of signals from a chronically implanted, silicon-based electrode array in non-human primate primary motor cortex

    Page(s): 524 - 541
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    Multiple-electrode arrays are valuable both as a research tool and as a sensor for neuromotor prosthetic devices, which could potentially restore voluntary motion and functional independence to paralyzed humans. Long-term array reliability is an important requirement for these applications. Here, we demonstrate the reliability of a regular array of 100 microelectrodes to obtain neural recordings from primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys for at least three months and up to 1.5 years. We implanted Bionic (Cyberkinetics, Inc., Foxboro, MA) silicon probe arrays in MI of three Macaque monkeys. Neural signals were recorded during performance of an eight-direction, push-button task. Recording reliability was evaluated for 18, 35, or 51 sessions distributed over 83, 179, and 569 days after implantation, respectively, using qualitative and quantitative measures. A four-point signal quality scale was defined based on the waveform amplitude relative to noise. A single observer applied this scale to score signal quality for each electrode. A mean of 120 (±17.6 SD), 146 (±7.3), and 119 (±16.9) neural-like waveforms were observed from 65-85 electrodes across subjects for all recording sessions of which over 80% were of high quality. Quantitative measures demonstrated that waveforms had signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 20 with maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of over 1200 μv with a mean SNR of 4.8 for signals ranked as high quality. Mean signal quality did not change over the duration of the evaluation period (slope 0.001, 0.0068 and 0.03; NS). By contrast, neural waveform shape varied between, but not within days in all animals, suggesting a shifting population of recorded neurons over time. Arm-movement related modulation was common and 66% of all recorded neurons were tuned to reach direction. The ability for the array to record neural signals from parietal cortex was also established. These results demonstrate that neural recordings that can provide movement related signals for neural prostheses, as well as for fundamental research applications, can be reliably obtained for long time periods using a monolithic microelectrode array in primate MI and potentially from other cortical areas as well. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of the toe-only rocker on gait kinematics and kinetics in able-bodied persons

    Page(s): 542 - 550
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rocker sole shoes are commonly prescribed to diabetic patients with insensate feet. Recent passage of the therapeutic shoe bill has drawn an increased focus on prescription of rehabilitative footwear. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dynamics of lower extremity joints (hip, knee, and ankle) with the application of a toe-only rocker sole shoe under controlled laboratory conditions. Forty (40) normal adults volunteered for gait analysis using controlled baseline and prescription toe-only rocker sole shoes. Three-dimensional motion analysis techniques were used to acquire kinematic and kinetic data using a six camera Vicon 370 motion system and two AMTI force plates. While significant changes from baseline to toe-only rocker were noted in cadence (increased) and stride length (decreased), no significant change in walking speed was observed. The most significant kinematic changes with the application of the toe-only shoe occurred at the ankle and knee in the sagittal plane during stance. The most significant kinetic effects were observed in the hip and knee during swing phase. Changes in power were noted at all joints, mostly in terminal stance. These kinematic and kinetic changes, along with previously studied effects of pressure relief at the metatarsal heads, should aid medical professionals in prescribing prophylactic footwear. View full abstract»

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  • A method for aligning trans-tibial residual limb shapes so as to identify regions of shape change

    Page(s): 551 - 557
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    Quantification of the change in shape of a residual limb over time is relevant to the fitting of an external prosthesis. Three algorithms were developed and evaluated to align residual limb shapes: iterative closest points (ICP), mean absolute difference, and weighted surface normals/mean absolute difference. Evaluations were conducted by aligning residual limb shapes with known deformations and transformations with their original shapes. Results showed that ICP did not perform well in that it tended to favor a global distribution of local shape difference rather than localization of the error. The mean absolute difference algorithm performed well as long as the shape difference was localized to one region. Weighted mean surface normals/absolute difference provided the best alignment results, performing well both if shape changes were localized and if they were globally distributed. Mean alignment errors for this method were less than 0.285 mm for each of the three translation directions and less than 0.357° for each of the three rotation directions. This algorithm could be helpful to patients, prosthetists, and researchers developing treatments to overcome the detrimental fitting effects of residual limb shape change. View full abstract»

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  • Experiments with fast Fourier transform, linear predictive and cepstral coefficients in dysarthric speech recognition algorithms using hidden Markov model

    Page(s): 558 - 561
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    In this study, a hidden Markov Model was constructed and conditions were investigated that would provide improved performance for a dysarthric speech (isolated word) recognition system. The speaker dependant system was intended to act as an assistive/control tool. A small size vocabulary spoken by three cerebral palsy subjects was chosen. Fast Fourier transform, linear predictive, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients extracted from data provided training input to several whole-word hidden Markov model configurations. The effect of model structure, number of states, and frame rates were also investigated. It was noted that a 10-state ergodic model using 15 msec frames was better than other configurations. Furthermore, it was found that a Mel cepstrum based model outperformed a fast Fourier transform and linear prediction based model. The system offers effective and robust application as a rehabilitation and/or control tool to assist dysarthric motor impaired individuals. View full abstract»

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  • A low-noise preamplifier for nerve cuff electrodes

    Page(s): 561 - 565
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A single-stage, low-noise preamplifier is designed using the concept of noise matching for recordings of neural signal with cuff electrodes. The signal-to-noise ratio is approximately 1.6 times higher than that of a low-noise integrated amplifier (AMP-01) for a cuff impedance of 1.5 kΩ. The bandwidth is 230 Hz-8.25 kHz (Rs=2 kΩ), and the common-mode-rejection-ratio is 91.2 dB at 1 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 566
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  • 2005 Index

    Page(s): 567 - 576
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the rehabilitative and neural aspects of biomedical engineering.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paul Sajda
Columbia University