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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 59
  • Correction to 'Contamination performance of silicone rubber cable terminations'

    Publication Year: 1992
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)  

    The last page of the above-named work by R.S. Gorur et al. (see ibid., vol.6, no.4, pp.1366-1373, Oct. 1991) was missing. It is given here.<> View full abstract»

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  • Bibliography of relay literature, 1990-IEEE Committee Report

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 173 - 181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB)  

    A series of classified lists of power system relaying references covering the period 1988-1990 is presented. The 120 papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, and the field of relaying. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter.<> View full abstract»

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  • Real-time fiber optic network for an integrated digital protection and control system

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 160 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The authors present a real-time network using an optical-fiber transmission line and implement the prototype network system for a proposed integrated digital protection and control system. A single network structure is investigated which supports both protection and control functions. It realizes high-speed communications among the power equipment. As a communication protocol the IEEE 802.4 token passing bus protocol with fiber-optic medium is employed, taking substation environments into account. Two implementation schemes for the communication scheme are suggested which are based on the IEEE 802.4 specifications. An allocation method is presented for setting the network parameter and some performance indices are analyzed. Through the experiments, it is shown that the proposed prototype network system satisfies the necessary requirements in substations View full abstract»

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  • Line trapped charge discharging characteristic of gas insulated magnetic voltage transformer

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 370 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    Line charge, which is trapped after opening the line circuit breaker of a long overhead transmission line or power cable, is discharged through magnetic voltage transformers (VTs) or shunt reactors, if either is connected to the power line or cable. Although this duty is very important for a VT, there is no description or specification on the relevant international standards. The authors analyze the discharging conditions and their effects on the gas insulated magnetic VT design and propose a specification based on full-scale discharging tests at a laboratory using gas insulated magnetic VTs with various voltage ratings View full abstract»

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  • Development of `information collection and delivery sensor base system' for large-scale power systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 16 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (988 KB)  

    The authors present a real-time database system capable of collecting and delivering a large amount of information accurately at a high speed and by a simple method. This system has a microprocessor unit (MPU) for each private communication line around the main memory and coordinates the independent parallel operation for a number of these MPUs with the main memory access operation, using a fixed cyclic scan method and having all the MPUs perform multi-operation. Many advantages can be expected when this method is adopted, especially for the monitoring and control of power systems. Degradation of the system can be avoided during an information rush due to accidents, and it can be easily extended when adding to or expanding the power facilities in the future. Excellent daily maintainability can be assured, and a low overall cost can be expected View full abstract»

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  • A 50 Hz after laying test for high-voltage extruded insulation cables

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    A 50 Hz after laying test for high-voltage extruded insulation cables is proposed. This test, which takes place in the network during normal operation, was successfully carried out twice, and one fault was detected. The authors present the circumstances under which the tests were made, the possible risk factors, and the results. The method of applying the after laying test as a sufficient discriminatory commissioning test was found to be perfectly feasible. The results of the measurements show that this manner of testing does not involve any extra risks to the supplying network. From the experience with two tests, it is concluded that this manner of testing brings weak points of the system to light View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-high speed protection of series compensated lines

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 139 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    An ultra-high-speed (UHS) protective algorithm based on traveling waves was developed and applied to the protection of series compensated lines. The basic principles of the algorithm are described and its response to protective gap flashover is studied for a range of fault conditions. Results of simulations confirm the efficacy and the excellent discriminating features of the algorithm. The nonuniformities introduced by the presence of compensating capacitors can be accounted for in the discriminating features of the algorithm. The impedance of the capacitors is negligible for the incremental components used by the UHS algorithm. Protective gap flashover, which normally causes difficulties with conventional schemes, does not normally occur within the time interval analyzed by the algorithm. In the unlikely event of a flashover occurring discrimination is still maintained. These features make the UHS algorithm particularly suitable for application to series compensated lines View full abstract»

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  • Fault section detection system for 66 kV underground branch transmission lines using optical magnetic field sensors

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB)  

    A fault section detection system that uses optical magnetic field sensors and instantly detects the section in which a ground fault occurred was developed for 66 kV underground multiterminal systems having Y-branch joint boxes. The optical magnetic field sensor, which is based on the Faraday effect in Bi-doped YIG ((BiYbGd)3Fe5O12) having a large Verdet constant, detects cable conductor currents of 0 to 2000 A with high precision with the use of a laminated magnetic ring core of silicon steel plates. Sensors and a fault section detector/indicator of a system are connected with optical fibers capable of nonrepeated transmission of over 6 km View full abstract»

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  • A digital multifunction protective relay

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 193 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)  

    The author describes the development of a digital multifunction relay for the protection of the intertie between a customer-owned generator and a utility system. The relay uses state-of-the-art digital signal processing techniques to measure the relay parameters, thereby eliminating analog hardware. The hardware design uses a dual microprocessor architecture to achieve flexibility and high speed operation. The relay uses the DFT (discrete Fourier transform) to obtain the fundamental frequency phasor measurements, and hence the frequency and power related functions are immune to harmonic distortion in the voltage and current signals. In addition to costing less than the existing package of single function relays, the relay also provides improved performance, user friendly human interface, remote communication, self-checking, and self-calibration functions View full abstract»

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  • Efficient calculation of elementary parameters of transformers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 376 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    Very efficient procedures for computing elementary parameters (turn leakage inductances and capacitances) in a transformer are presented. The turns are used as a calculation base to permit modeling at very high frequencies. Turn-to-turn (or loop) leakage inductances are obtained by an image method. The charge simulation method is used for finding the capacitances between turns and from turns to ground. The new methods are very efficient compared with the use of the technique of finite elements and are also remarkably accurate. Thus, the short circuit (or test) leakage inductance can be obtained from turn-to-turn information. Examples of calculated parameters are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the parameters obtained using finite elements and tests. The elementary parameters can be used to create reduced-order computational models for the calculation of transient phenomena View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of voltage phase for the French future defence plan against losses of synchronism

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 62 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    A sure way of detecting loss of synchronism is to measure the rotation of the voltage vector at various points on the grid. Electricite de France plans to use this method to detect loss of synchronism on the French EHV network. The authors describe some of the work which has been undertaken in order to perform local measurements of voltage characteristics such as phase. Particular attention is given to the hypotheses adopted concerning signal modeling, definition of magnitudes and parameter variation; a review of existing calculation methods (zero-crossing algorithm, FFT, etc); the search for a new type of algorithm; the implementation of this algorithm using 16-bit signal processors; and experimentation on the future defense plan. The first stage of the plan, covering the South-East and Alps region of the French network, is to come into service in 1994 View full abstract»

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  • Power transformer resonance-measurements and prediction

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 245 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    The authors describe and summarize the results of impedance measurements of 12 converter transformers and 12 nonconverter transformers in the 50 Hz to 1 MHz frequency range. Impedance characteristics associated with various parameters are discussed. Studies of transformer winding first resonant frequencies and prediction equations are presented. Many conditions are represented: single and three-phase transformers, different core and winding designs, high voltage and low voltage windings, and various terminations. From measured driving point impedance, it can be clearly seen that the profile of impedance changes both in terms of magnitude and phase angle as a function of frequency. The first resonant frequency is found at the first zero crossing of the phase angle. The highest value found was 80 kHz View full abstract»

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  • Impulse impedance of rectangular grounding grids

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 214 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)  

    In an earlier work B.R. Gupta and B. Thapar (1980) presented the results of investigations and empirical formulae to evaluate the impulse impedance of square grounding grids. In the present work, the authors extend those investigations to the rectangular grounding grids. Empirical formulae for the effective area and impulse coefficient for center-fed and corner-fed rectangular grids are presented. The validity of the analytical method has been verified experimentally with model tests. Comparison of square and rectangular grids is presented. The effect of length-to-breadth ratio of the grid on the impulse impedance is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Design, implementation and testing of a microprocessor-based high-speed relay for detecting transformer winding faults

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 108 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)  

    The authors present the design, implementation and testing of a microprocessor-based high-speed relay that correctly detects transformer winding faults. Instead of relying on the presence of harmonics to identify magnetizing inrush, it uses a nonlinear model of the transformer to determine the state of its health. One version of the relay is suitable for protecting single-phase transformers, whereas another version is for protecting three-phase transformers. A three-phase delta-wye 15 kVA transformer was used to test the relay for a variety of operating conditions. The results show that the relay performs well View full abstract»

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  • Methods and uses of precise time in power systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 126 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    As evidenced by recent work on disturbance recorder synchronization, protective and adaptive relaying, and state vector measurement, utility interest in using accurate and standardized time over wide geographical areas has increased. Microsecond timekeeping is now available to the utility user. Power system applications include maintaining the general public's timekeeping, event recorder synchronization, relay testing, synchronous digital sampling, voltage phase angle (and hence system state vector) measurement, and fault location. The authors describe worldwide standard times, practical methods of transferring time from government standards agencies to the utility user, applications, and utility experience. New material is presented on the performance of standard timekeeping services and utility experience with equipment in substations and control centers View full abstract»

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  • A new approach for fault location problem on power lines

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 146 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    In most traditional approaches, fault locations have been detected through the use of lumped models. Since these models do not represent the capacitance of the transmission lines, significant errors are generally encountered in exact location of faults. The authors suggest a novel technique based upon the distributed model of power transmission lines to overcome the problems encountered in traditional approaches. This approach considers the effects of capacitance explicitly and therefore enables the detection of faults in transmission lines more precisely. The proposed method can calculate a fault location even for a zero fault inception angle. It requires a lower rate of sampling frequency. The maximum error of the method is less than Dx/2 where Dx is the distance between two consecutive points along the transmission line at which the values of the new function are calculated View full abstract»

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  • An investigation of breakdown voltage with small arc current due to poor contact in SF6 gas

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 332 - 338
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    Using an experimental apparatus modeled for the contact portion of a gas insulated switchgear (GIS), the influence of the distance between the portion and the dead tank of the GIS and arc duration on the breakdown voltage was investigated. The study was conducted both experimentally and theoretically for the case when the arc was ignited in the portion. In the theoretical analysis, profiles of flow velocity and gas density were calculated. Breakdown voltage evaluated through the gas density was in relatively good agreement with that of the experiment View full abstract»

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  • More accurate modeling of gas insulated substation components in digital simulations of very fast electromagnetic transients

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 434 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    It is pointed out that very fast electromagnetic transients caused by switching operations in gas insulated substations (GIS) cannot be calculated if conventional techniques of modeling and simulation are used. The selection and adjustment of the most suitable models as well as determinations of their limitations in digital simulations of very fast transients in GIS are investigated. Results obtained from very extensive field tests and from digital simulations for different types of GIS have been used for the development of more accurate models for GIS components and GIS as a whole. A comparison between field test and calculation results permits the development of a model which takes into account the most decisive physical phenomena inherent in the very fast transients in the GIS. This is a prerequisite for designing and manufacturing power system components as well as for control and protection of the system View full abstract»

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  • Noninvasive condition assessment and event timing for power circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 353 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    Noninvasive diagnostics, involving short-time spectra, short-time energy, and automatic timing techniques, were used to assess the mechanical condition of oil and puffer circuit breakers and to determine the timing of events occurring during operation. Analysis of the vibration signatures leads to (1) the characterization of a circuit breaker through a single index, the resolution ratio, and (2) automatic timing algorithms. The accuracy of the automatic timing algorithms permits both the timing of events and the detection of shifts in the timing associated with changes in the condition of a unit. Application of these methods to several oil and SF6 puffer circuit breakers is described. Results are reported for circuit breaker operation under unenergized and energized-loaded conditions View full abstract»

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  • A review on testing and evaluating substation grounding systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 53 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    A systematic approach of testing and modeling grounding system performance of large multi-grounded power stations is described. Simple and detailed test methods using 65-70 Hz current injection are explained. A simple model including distribution neutrals and shielding factors has been developed to validate measurements and is based on hand calculations. The testing and modeling procedure has been successfully used at more than 20 Ontario Hydro stations spanning a period of more than a decade. Results at one transformer substation are presented as an example View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic investigations on bit error ratio requirement for digital teleprotection employing digital microwave links

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 202 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    The authors describe a bit error ratio (BER) requirement for a pulse-code-modulation current differential teleprotection system employing digital microwave links. Assuming random errors in the microwave communication channel, relay downtime ratio due to errors or relay lock ratio was evaluated. To meet an existing relay lock ratio in an FM current differential teleprotection system with analog microwave links, a threshold BER to determine the propagation path unavailability should be 10-7 to 10-6. The teleprotection system unavailability is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Risk of burn-through-a quantitative assessment of the capability of gas-insulated equipment to withstand internal arcs

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 225 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)  

    The author introduces the notion of the risk of burn-through, borrowed from the risk of failure widely used in the statistical approach to insulation coordination, to evaluate the capability of gas-insulated equipment and substations (GIS) to withstand burn-through due to internal arcs. A sensitivity analysis performed to identify the main parameters affecting the risk of burn-through showed that the risk increases with the mean fault current. Both the fault-clearing characteristics of the switching apparatus and the GIS design, namely the envelope thickness and the GIS section length between two consecutive insulators, were found to have a significant influence on the risk of burn-through. To keep the risk of burn-through reasonably low, appropriate coordination must be made among the fault-clearing characteristics of the switching apparatus, the GIS design, and the distribution of the local fault currents View full abstract»

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  • The application of the current-comparator technique in instrumentation and measurement equipment for the calibration of non-conventional instrument transformers with non-standard rated outputs

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 46 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)  

    An overview of the development of instrumentation and measurement techniques at the National Research Council of Canada, based on current comparator technology, for calibration of nonconventional instrument transformers with nonstandard rated outputs, is presented. The instruments include: (1) a wide-dynamic-range transimpedance amplifier for operation of input currents from 1 A to 1000 A with means for modifying the in-phase and quadrature components of the output voltage (rated 10 V) within a ±10% range; (2) a high-voltage high-current transconductance amplifier with output current ranges of 10 A, 100 A, and 1000 A; and (3) a voltage ratio standard also with means for modifying the in-phase and quadrature components of the output voltage (rated 100 V) within a ±10% range. The current comparator technique is used to obtain accuracies of better than 20 parts per million in both magnitude and phase of the associated outputs of these instruments View full abstract»

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  • Development of a model for predicting flicker from electric arc furnaces

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 416 - 426
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB)  

    Owing to the characteristics of electric-arc phenomena electric arc furnace loads can result in serious electrical disturbances on a power system. Low level frequency modulation of the supply voltage of less than 0.5% can cause annoying flicker in lamps and invoke public complaints when the frequency lies in the range of 6-10 Hz. There is a need therefore to develop better techniques to predict flicker effects from single and multiple arc furnace loads and the effects of compensation schemes. The authors discuss the nature of arc furnace loads, and describe the instrumentation, field measurements, and signal analysis techniques which were undertaken to develop an arc furnace model. A single-phase furnace model is proposed suitable for use on digital simulation programs such as the EMTP or other appropriate commercial software simulation programs. Representative results based on actual furnace input data are included to show the validity of the model View full abstract»

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  • Single phase tripping and auto reclosing of transmission lines-IEEE Committee Report

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 182 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    The present work has been prepared as an aid in the effective and uniform application of the single-phase tripping and auto reclosing of transmission lines. The benefits of application, relaying techniques, performance, and statistics are discussed. Such areas as system stability, single-phase tripping and auto reclosing, methods of secondary arc extinction, and related system requirements are covered. Descriptions of the various devices, definitions of terms, and references to other technical publications are included to make the present work useful not only to relay engineers, but also to other technical people who are responsible for the installation and operation of such systems View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811