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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - 3861
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial - Status Report on Your TRANSACTIONS

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3862 - 3864
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  • Awards

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3865 - 3869
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Antenna design for UHF RFID tags: a review and a practical application

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3870 - 3876
    Cited by:  Papers (345)  |  Patents (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an overview of antenna design for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented. We discuss various requirements of such designs, outline a generic design process including range measurement techniques and concentrate on one practical application: RFID tag for box tracking in warehouses. A loaded meander antenna design for this application is described and its various practical aspects such as sensitivity to fabrication process and box content are analyzed. Modeling and simulation results are also presented which are in good agreement with measurement data. View full abstract»

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  • Circuit model of microstrip patch antenna on ceramic land grid array package for antenna-chip codesign of highly integrated RF transceivers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3877 - 3883
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the circuit model of a microstrip patch antenna on a ceramic land grid array (CLGA) package for the antenna-chip codesign of a highly integrated radio-frequency (RF) transceiver. The microstrip patch antenna is fed by packaging interconnect components such as bond wires, signal traces, and vias in a ground-signal-ground (G-S-G) configuration from the carried chip. The circuit model that consists of RLC lumped elements of both microstrip patch antenna and feeding interconnect components has been developed with an emphasis on verifying existing or deriving analytical formulas. The RLC values of the microstrip patch antenna are calculated with our improvements to existing computer-aided design formulas, while the RLC values of the feeding interconnect components are calculated with more efforts. In particular the C values related to the vias and signal traces require to be calculated numerically and they are calculated here with the method of moments and the conformal mapping method, respectively. The circuit model is validated with numerical simulations (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and network analyzer measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Novel small-size directional antenna for UWB WBAN/WPAN applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3884 - 3896
    Cited by:  Papers (68)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel small-size directional antenna design for ultrawide-band wireless body area networks/wireless personal area networks applications. The design is based on a typical slot antenna structure with an added reflector in order to achieve directionality. The effects of different antenna parameters and human body proximity on the radiation characteristics are analyzed. Antenna measurements with an optic RF setup were performed in order to characterize the small-size antenna far field radiation pattern. The different structural antenna parameters were optimized via extensive numerical simulations. Results show that for frequencies above 3.5 GHz, where the power front-to-back ratio of the directional antenna is greater than 10 dB, its impedance is nearly the same as in the free space. It is not the case neither for the omnidirectional slot antenna nor the monopole antenna next to the body. Between 3 and 6 GHz performance of the novel directional antenna, in terms of radiation efficiency and SAR values, is significantly improved compared to omnidirectional antenna designs. View full abstract»

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  • Dual frequency and dual circular polarization microstrip nonresonant array pin-fed from a radial line

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3897 - 3905
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new type of a dual frequency and dual circular polarization multilayer microstrip nonresonant antenna array for satellite communication is presented. The microstrip radiating elements in the array are arranged in concentric circles and fed through pins embedded in a radial line. The radial line is excited through a probe at its center. The microstrip array exhibits a dual frequency band of operation, low side-lobes in the radiation pattern, and high radiation efficiency (more than 65%) for both polarizations. The microstrip element has been designed using commercial software based on the method of finite integral time domain algorithm, and the feed network has been designed by a theoretical analysis. A prototype of the array has been built and tested. The agreement between the measured and numerical results is satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Field patterns of resonant noncircular closed-loop arrays: further analysis

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3906 - 3914
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previous papers have introduced the continuous-current model for resonant closed-loop arrays of cylindrical dipoles and, for a certain class of array shapes, have determined the resulting field patterns analytically. Those analytical calculations involve several approximations. In the present paper, we first study the aforementioned model numerically for the case of elliptical closed-loop arrays. The results-which involve fewer approximations than those of the previous papers, but which refer to different array shapes-imply that elliptical arrays have a bidirectional, highly directive field and, unlike conventional arrays, have no sidelobes. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we then investigate the relationship between the aforementioned continuous-current model and what we call the discrete-current model which, in a certain sense, is more realistic. The results indicate that, subject to suitable conditions, the two models yield virtually identical results. In our analytical investigations, an important tool is the Poisson summation formula for finite sums; we have devoted a stand-alone section to this formula which supplements recent, unrelated publications in antenna theory. View full abstract»

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  • The use of side-mounted loop antennas on platforms to obtain nearly omnidirectional radiation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3915 - 3919
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Antennas mounted to vehicles at VHF frequencies are limited to whip and loop antennas. Often, mechanical constraints force antenna placement to be less than optimal. In this work, we investigate the use of side-mounted loops on rectangular conducting platforms. It will be shown that tall thin platforms radiate similar to a dipole. In addition, as the thickness increases, the loop antennas can radiate in a nearly omnidirectional fashion if the antenna-mounted sides of the platform are not too wide. In effect, a narrow platform width implies return currents for a loop antenna that remain mostly vertical. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of reactance loading for circularly polarized circular loop antennas with a uniform traveling-wave current distribution

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3920 - 3929
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple theory is presented to predict the lumped reactance loading for circularly polarized circular loop antennas with a uniform traveling-wave current distribution. The reactive load is located on a circular wire loop of one-wavelength circumference at a position of 45° away from the feed point. To achieve a uniform traveling-wave current distribution, the loading reactance and the input impedances of the loaded and unloaded loop antennas need to satisfy certain conditions. First, the input resistance and the input reactance of the unloaded loop antenna should have the same absolute value. Second, the input impedance of the loaded loop must be purely resistive and its value needs to be two times of the input resistance of the unloaded loop. Third, the loading reactance should be chosen to be two times in value and opposite in sense of the input reactance of the unloaded loop. These conditions can be approximately met when the circular loop is placed above a ground plane. The loading reactance is determined from the input impedance of the unloaded loop and is optimized for an optimal performance of circular polarization. It is found that the reactive load must be capacitive and its value depends on the height of the loop above the ground plane and the thickness of the wire. The characteristics of the circular polarization and the input impedance of the capacitance-loaded circular loop antennas are investigated. An experimental example is presented to verify the theoretical prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of circularly polarized loop antennas with a parasitic element for bandwidth enhancement

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3930 - 3939
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is demonstrated that the bandwidth of circular polarization (CP) can be significantly increased when one more parasitic loop is added inside the original loop. A single-loop antenna has only one minimum axial ratio (AR) point while the two-loop antenna can create two minimum AR points. An appropriate combination of the two minimum AR points results in a significant enhancement for the CP bandwidth. A comprehensive study of the new type of broad-band circularly polarized antennas is presented. Several loop configurations, including a circular loop, a rhombic loop, and a dual rhombic loop with a series feed and a parallel feed, are investigated. The AR (≤2 dB) bandwidth of the circular-loop antenna with a parasitic circular loop is found to be 20%, more than three times the AR bandwidth of a single loop. For the rhombic-loop antenna with a parasitic rhombic loop, an AR bandwidth (AR≤2dB) of more than 40% can be achieved by changing the rhombus vertex angle. The AR (≤2 dB) bandwidths of the series-fed and parallel-fed dual rhombic-loop antennas with a parasitic element are 30% and 50%, respectively. A broad-band balun is incorporated into the series-fed dual rhombic-loop antenna for impedance matching. The broad-band CP performance of the loop antennas is verified by experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Dual reflector feed system for hologram-based compact antenna test range

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3940 - 3948
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Manufacturing of large computer-generated submillimeter wave holograms with high pattern accuracy has been the main challenge in the development of hologram based compact antenna test ranges (CATRs). Illumination of the hologram with a shaped beam produced by a dual reflector feed system (DRFS) simplifies the hologram manufacturing by eliminating the narrow slots in the hologram pattern. In this paper, the design of a shaped dual reflector feed for a hologram CATR is described. The simulated and measured illumination field amplitude and phase at 310 GHz are presented and compared to the desired hologram illumination. The measured amplitude is within ±0.5 dB from the design objective in the most significant central region of the illuminating beam. Measurement results of the quiet-zone field of a demonstration CATR illuminated by the DRFS are presented and compared to the measured quiet-zone amplitude and phase of a hologram fed directly with a corrugated horn. The quiet-zone diameters of the both holograms are over 0.25 meters and the measured root mean squared (rms) amplitude and phase ripples are below ±0.4 dB and ±5°, respectively. Further improvements to the hologram CATR, such as greater tolerance to manufacturing errors, are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The probe-fed zonal slot antenna cut onto a cylindrical conducting cavity

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3949 - 3952
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A zonal slot antenna cut onto a cylindrical cavity is investigated in this paper. An L-probe is placed inside the cavity to feed the antenna efficiently. Ansoft HFSS is used to simulate the input impedance, radiation pattern, and antenna gain of the antenna. It is found that design of the antenna is very easy and simple. The resonant frequency is predominantly controlled by the cavity radius, whereas the impedance match can easily be obtained by varying the cavity height and/or the parameters of the L-probe. Measurements were carried out to verify the simulations, and reasonable agreement between them is found. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation from a flanged rectangular waveguide

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3953 - 3962
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radiation from a rectangular waveguide with a perfectly conducting infinite flange is rigorously studied by using the method of the Kobayashi potential (KP). The fields in the waveguide and half-space are expanded in terms of the waveguide modes and the Weber-Schafheitlin discontinuous integrals, respectively. Continuity of the tangential aperture fields yields matrix equations for the expansion coefficients and the matrix elements consist of double infinite integrals and double infinite series of Bessel functions, which are calculated efficiently by applying the asymptotic approximation of the Bessel function. Numerical results are presented for various physical quantities, such as the aperture admittance, reflection coefficient of the incident wave, and magnitudes of higher-order mode waves, as well as the far-radiation pattern and aperture fields. To verify the validity of our method, the results are compared with other methods and excellent agreement is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Far field radiation from an arbitrarily oriented Hertzian dipole in the presence of a layered anisotropic medium

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3963 - 3973
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    Far field radiation from an arbitrarily oriented Hertzian dipole for two-layered uniaxially anisotropic medium with a tilted optic axis is treated analytically by using the dyadic Green's function of the problem when the dipole is placed over or embedded in a two-layered uniaxially anisotropic medium. The radiation fields are evaluated using the steepest descent method. Parameter studies including anisotropy, layer thickness and dipole location are performed to investigate the effects of changing different variables on the radiation fields. Results of this work can be applied in microstrip circuits and antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Exact radiation for dipoles on metallic spheroids at the interface between isorefractive half-spaces

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3974 - 3981
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Oblate and prolate metallic spheroids located at the interface between isorefractive half-spaces are considered. The electromagnetic fields produced by electric and magnetic dipoles located on the symmetry axis of the structure are determined exactly. Particular cases are discussed, and numerical results are presented for far fields and surface currents. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic scattering by an inhomogeneous plasma anisotropic sphere of multilayers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3982 - 3989
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic scattering by an inhomogeneous plasma anisotropic sphere is formulated and obtained, where the inhomogeneous plasma anisotropic sphere is divided into (s-1) homogeneous anisotropic spherical layers. The electromagnetic fields in the inner spherical multilayers and outer free space of the inhomogeneous plasma anisotropic spherical structure can be expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions in plasma anisotropic medium and in isotropic medium, respectively. By applying the continuous boundary conditions of electromagnetic fields on the spherical interfaces of the (s-1)-layered homogeneous anisotropic plasma medium, the unknown expansion coefficients of fields in the multilayered plasma spherical structure are obtained, and then the electromagnetic field distributions are calculated. Numerical results for the very general inhomogeneous plasma dielectric material sphere are given and the data in a special case are obtained using the present method and the method of moments accelerated with the conjugate-gradient fast-Fourier-transform approach and compared to each other to verify the correctness and applicability of the present analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudospectral method based on prolate spheroidal wave functions for frequency-domain electromagnetic simulations

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3990 - 4000
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    We apply prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero as basis functions in the pseudospectral method for frequency-domain electromagnetic simulation problems. Like the traditional pseudospectral frequency-domain (PSFD) methods based on Chebyshev and Legendre polynomial series, the prolate PSFD method yields exponential order of accuracy. In terms of the number of samples utilized per wavelength, the prolate expansion is superior to the Chebyshev and Legendre polynomial series by a factor of π/2. In addition, the prolate PSFD method employs a more uniform spatial grid, achieving better resolution near the center of the domain. View full abstract»

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  • A surface integral formulation of Maxwell equations for topologically complex conducting domains

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4001 - 4014
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A general and effective method is presented to numerically solve the electric field integral equation (EFIE) for topologically complex conducting domains by the finite element method. A new technique is proposed to decompose the surface current density into a solenoidal part and a nonsolenoidal remainder to avoid the low frequency breakdown. The surface current density field is approximated through div-conforming (facet) elements. The solenoidal part is represented through the space of the discrete approximation D of the surface divergence operator in the subspace spanned by the facet elements, whereas the nonsolenoidal remainder is represented through its complement. The basis functions of the space and its complement are evaluated, respectively, by the and pseudo-inverse of the matrix D. The completeness of the -pinv basis functions is studied. Unlike the loop-star and loop-tree basis functions, the -pinv basis functions allow to deal with topologically complex conducting domains in a general and readily applicable way. A topological interpretation of the "-pinv" decomposition is given and a general and simple method to evaluate the and pseudo-inverse of D is proposed. The computational complexity of the proposed method is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • On the optical behavior of the electromagnetic field excited by a semi-infinite electric traveling-wave current

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4015 - 4025
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A closed-form solution for the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic field excited by an electric traveling-wave current source is presented. Incomplete Hankel and modified Bessel functions are employed to represent progressive and evanescent wave fields, respectively. It is shown that these fields are expressed in terms of spherical and cylindrical waves exhibiting optical character. Using the properties of the incomplete Hankel and modified Bessel functions, the spatial regions where the fields exist in optical sense are determined. It is shown that different shadow boundaries (SBs), featuring complex shapes, identify discontinuity surfaces for the geometrical optics (GO) field. Three surfaces, one being the well-know Keller's cone, are found to describe in the general case the SBs for both the progressive and the evanescent wave fields. It is demonstrated that these surfaces collapse to the Keller's cone surface in the limit of β→∞. View full abstract»

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  • RF propagation in finite thickness unidirectional magnetic photonic crystals

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4026 - 4034
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of a new class of magnetic photonic crystals (MPCs) constructed from periodic arrangements of available (possibly anisotropic) homogeneous material layers. Earlier, analytical studies of semi-infinite versions of these crystals demonstrated that they exhibit the phenomena of minimal reflection at their interface, large amplitude growth of the harmonic wave within the crystal, and concurrent group velocity slow-down. These characteristics are associated with the so called frozen mode and occur at a specific frequency associated with a stationary inflection point within the Bloch diagram. In this paper, we present a characterization of these phenomena for a practical, finite thickness crystal slab and propose a realizable combination of materials consisting of available ferrite and dielectric media. The existence of significant wave amplitude growth and slow down are verified for materials with realistic losses. In addition, we identify and characterize the bandwidth of the magnetic photonic crystals and examine its relationship to the amplitude growth. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and experiment of novel frequency selective surface based on substrate integrated waveguide technology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4035 - 4043
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    A novel frequency selective surface (FSS) based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is investigated with simulation and experiment. The periodic unit is made of a SIW cavity with slots on the top and bottom surfaces, and the whole FSS is fabricated on a microwave substrate with standard PCB process. The high-Q property of SIW cavities greatly improved the frequency selectivity of the FSS, which is significant for the application in antenna cover or object stealth etc. The finite difference frequency domain (FDFD) method is adopted to simulate the transmission and reflection characteristics of the proposed FSS, and the simulated results are in good agreement with the experiment data. Both simulated and experiment results show that the FSS proposed in this paper takes the advantages of low passband insertion loss, good frequency selectivity, and insensitive to the incident angle and polarization etc. Besides, the FSS can be easily fabricated using normal PCB process with low cost. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of a continuous-wave terahertz photoconductive photomixer array source

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4044 - 4050
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An array of photoconductive photomixer/antenna elements as a continuous-wave terahertz source is proposed, and its radiation characteristic is studied. Employing photomixer/antenna elements in an array configuration increases available terahertz power, while each of the array elements consumes optical power less than its maximum sustainable power. A few microwatt terahertz power is achievable from a typical array structure. It is shown that the radiated beam can be steered by changing the angle between the two exciting laser beams. View full abstract»

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  • A beam-scanning and polarization-agile antenna array using mutually coupled oscillating doublers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4051 - 4057
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a two-dimensional mutually coupled oscillator array is studied for the application of a beam-scanning and polarization-agile antenna array. In the design of antenna array, a two-dimensional oscillator array is implemented in x-y plane, the polarization agility is provided by one dimension (or y-direction) and the other dimension (or x-direction) is for beam scanning. By properly tuning the free-running frequencies of these oscillators, the array radiation direction can be scanned at the selected polarization states including linearly polarized, left-hand and right-hand circularly polarized states. The maximal phase difference of ±180° between coupled oscillating signals is acquired by utilizing their second-harmonic signals. This then gives well-defined phase differences among oscillators for beam scanning in addition to the required quadrature phase difference for circular polarization. The performances of polarization agility and beam scanning for a four-element antenna array are verified experimentally and shown to have the potential for adaptive antenna array applications. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung