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Display Technology, Journal of

Issue 2 • Date Dec. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Display Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 177 - 178
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  • The wide view (WV) film for enhancing the field of view of LCDs

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 179 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the technologies of the wide view (WV) film. The WV film is an optical compensation film, which remarkably enhances the field of view of twisted nematic (TN) thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). We have recently developed a new WV film for the OCB mode, which promises a fast optical response speed and wide viewing angle LCD-TV. The WV film is made of a hybrid alignment polymerized discotic material (PDM) layer coated on a (tri-acetyl cellulose (TAC) substrate. The PDM layer alignment technology and the TAC retardation control technology give us the flexibility to develop a compensation film for any LCD mode and allow a cost effective roll-to-roll polarizer lamination process. View full abstract»

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  • Wideviewing technologies of liquid crystal displays based on dielectric surface patterns

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 187 - 193
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1792 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spontaneous formation of self-aligned multidomains is used for fabricating wideviewing liquid crystal displays (LCDs) based on dielectric surface patterns (DSPs). The periodic DSPs can be produced on substrates through either the curing of photopolymers or the replica molding of dielectric polymers. Due to the symmetric multidomain structure associated with the initial liquid crystal (LC) director distribution, the LC cells with the periodic DSPs are found to show high contrast and wideviewing characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive three-dimensional dynamic modeling of liquid crystal devices using finite element method

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 194 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a comprehensive open-source three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element method (FEM) is proposed to model the dynamic behavior of liquid crystal (LC) directors in complex structures. This dynamic model is based on interactively iterating the vector representation of director profile and potential distribution. The director update formulations are derived in detail from the Galerkin's approach of FEM, including the weak form approach to simplify the highly nonlinear iteration equation. The potential update formulations are derived from the Ritz's approach of FEM. A 2-D in-plane switching (IPS) structure is used as an example to compare our approach with the FEM based commercial software (2dimMOS). The results from both programs show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, our method also agrees well with the finite-difference method (FDM) in studying a 3-D super IPS LC cell with zigzag electrodes. View full abstract»

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  • Bending angle effects on the multi-domain in-plane-switching liquid crystal displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 207 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electro-optic properties of a multi-domain in-plane switching liquid crystal display (IPS LCD) are investigated through a three-dimensional (3-D) simulator, which combines the finite element and finite difference methods for fast solutions. The bending angle between the chevron-shaped electrodes makes an important contribution to the operating voltage and response time, and suppresses the color shift. Using optimized uniaxial compensation films, the viewing cone of the multi-domain IPS LCD is widened to ±80° at 100:1 contrast ratio. These properties are especially desirable for LCD TV and computer monitor applications. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic solution of film compensated bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 217 - 224
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we studied the optics of transmissive bistable nematic liquid crystal displays by using the Poincare sphere approach. We derived analytical solutions of the polarization state of the outcoming light for the two bistable states. We have found the optimum modes of film compensated bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays. Our results show that the number of optimized modes at a fixed wavelength of film-compensated bistable twisted nematic (BTN) is infinite. We identified the optimized modes for displays operated in the whole visible light wavelength region. We calculated the transmission spectra of the two bistable states of the optimized modes. View full abstract»

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  • IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 225 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A transflective cholesteric liquid crystal display (Ch-LCD) is demonstrated by using the image-enhanced reflector (IER) film on the top of the transmissive region to provide the similar paths for both transmissive and reflective light, thus, to display same image color in any ambience, improving the image quality. For full color display, the inkjet printing was applied and the patterned Ch-LC droplet was successfully deposited on the substrate. Thus, full-color Ch-LCD can be fabricated by IJP. View full abstract»

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  • Reflective direct-view displays using a dye-doped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 230 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-contrast, fast-response, and polarizer-free reflective display using a dye-doped dual-frequency liquid crystal gel is demonstrated. The high contrast ratio originates from the combination of light scattering from the microdomain polymer gel and absorption from the black dyes. The fast response is due to the frequency modulation of the dual-frequency liquid crystal. View full abstract»

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  • Dopant-induced contrast enhancement of vertically aligned liquid crystal cells

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 234 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple method is developed for aligning the laterally difluorinated high birefringence liquid crystal (LC) compounds and mixtures in a homeotropic cell. Adding a few percent positive dielectric anisotropic or nonpolar LC material not only enhances the contrast ratio but also improves the overall figure-of-merit. Several negative LC compounds with a wide variation of birefringence are used to investigate this phenomenon. Molecular modeling and experimentation are demonstrated to support this concept. View full abstract»

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  • Sparse orthogonal matrices for scanning liquid crystal displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 240 - 247
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multi-line addressing technique that is based on sparse orthogonal matrices is proposed to drive the liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Hardware in the column drivers is utilized fully and yet the hardware complexity of the controller is reduced by using sparse matrices to scan the passive matrix LCDs. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 248 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (56)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Various advanced organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for enhancing performances of OLED displays, particularly active-matrix OLED displays, are reviewed in this paper. These include top-emitting OLEDs, inverted OLEDs, high-contrast OLEDs, microcavity OLEDs, and their combinations. How these device structures enhance display performances, such as color saturation, brightness or emission efficiency, contrast, and aperture ratio of pixels, etc., are discussed. The critical technical issues and the status of development associated with each device technology are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Driving schemes for a-Si and LTPS AMOLED displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 267 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    Design of stable active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays comes with significant challenges that stem from the electrical property of the backplane materials, line parasitics in the matrix, and the opto-electronic property of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED). This paper reviews voltage and current programming schemes for AMOLEDs. Following a systematic review of pixel circuits, design considerations are examined for both current and voltage schemes with focus on stability and programming speed for both amorphous silicon (a-Si) and low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) pixel circuits. In particular, spatial parameter variations and stability, which hinder reliable operation of AMOLED display backplanes, are discussed. Analysis shows that while driving schemes reported hitherto maybe suitable for small and medium size displays, new schemes are critically needed for large-area high-resolution AMOLED displays. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 278 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microlens arrays are introduced on glass substrates to improve the out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The microlenses suppress waveguiding loss in the substrate. A theoretical model, based on electromagnetic wave propagation and geometric ray tracing, is developed to simulate the enhancement effects and optimize the structure parameters of the lens pattern. A simple soft-lithography approach is employed to fabricate the microlens array on glass substrates. With the use of an optimized lens pattern, an increase of over 85% in the coupling efficiency of the OLED is expected theoretically. An increase of 70% in the coupling efficiency is achieved experimentally, without detrimental effect to the electrical performance of the OLED. View full abstract»

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  • A fast settling current driver based on the CCII for AMOLED displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 283 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional current drivers are incapable of programming high-resolution hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays within the frame time requirement. This paper presents a new fast settling current driver. While the settling time of the conventional drivers is of the order of milliseconds (ms), the new current driver presented here can settle under 40 μs, thus providing for high-resolution current-programmed a-Si:H AMOLED displays such as QVGA (320×240), SVGA (800×600), and XGA (1024×768). View full abstract»

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  • A lithographic process for integrated organic field-effect transistors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 289 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a photolithographic process for fabricating organic field-effect transistors which provides two layers of metal with arbitrary via placement, and optionally allows for subtractive lithographic patterning of the transistor active layer. The demonstrated pentacene transistors have a field-effect mobility of 0.1±0.05 cm2/(V·s). Parylene-C is used both as the gate dielectric and an encapsulation layer which allows for subtractive lithographic patterning. Also demonstrated is a PMOS inverter without level shifting circuitry and level-restoring VHigh and VLow. This work demonstrates a high definition, multilayer, integrated photolithographic process which creates organic field effect transistors suitable for use in integrated circuit applications such as a display backplanes. View full abstract»

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  • Discharge physics of alternating current plasma display panels (PDPs)

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 295 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the experimental techniques and numerical modeling approaches to understand the alternating current plasma display panel (ac PDP) discharge physics. Conventional ac PDP uses microscale dielectric barrier discharge, and the spatio-temporal visualization of discharge not only helps to understand the discharge dynamics, but also validates the models adopted in the computer simulation study of PDP cell. The experimental observations using optical spectroscopy and imaging method turned out to be very helpful especially for the understanding of discharge dynamics including gas reactions and wall charge formation. The numerical simulation shows good agreement with experimental observations which allows us to use the computer simulation to extract more useful information with more confidence. Some parametric study, such as the effects of the variations of cell pitches, address electrode width, barrier rib height, and geometrical structure, etc., on the luminous characteristics of PDP had been carried out and could now well be explained. View full abstract»

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  • Fringing-field effects on high-resolution liquid crystal microdisplays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 304 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB)  

    Fringing-field effects on high-resolution liquid crystal microdisplay devices, including the reflection-type liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) and transmission-type poly-silicon thin-film-transistor liquid crystal displays are simulated by the beam propagation method. The electro-optic performances of six commonly used liquid crystal modes are analyzed by the two-dimensional optical simulator. The vertically aligned (VA) cell exhibits the highest contrast ratio, but its fringing-field effect is severe. A circularly polarized light illuminated LCOS device is presented to eliminate the fringing-field effect of the VA cell. Both simulated and confirming experimental results show that the long-standing problems of poor sharpness, low brightness, and slow transition time of the VA cell can be overcome by using a circularly polarized light. View full abstract»

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  • Visual fatigue in congenital nystagmus caused by viewing images of color sequential projectors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 314 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Color breakup is the perceived splitting of the white portions of an image into its red, green, and blue components when the image is projected with the color sequential method and the viewer is moving his or her eyes. This study aims to evaluate how color breakup affects symptoms of visual fatigue in people with congenital nystagmus. The eyes of people with congenital nystagmus continuously oscillate leading to color breakup without pause. One in every 1 500 persons is afflicted with congenital nystagmus. Many sufferers have almost no symptoms in daily life except for a mild deterioration of visual acuity. Five subjects with congenital nystagmus were shown a 15-min portion of a movie projected with three video projectors (one liquid crystal display (LCD) projector and two single-chip digital light processing (DLP) projectors). They were subjectively evaluated both pre- and post-viewing with a questionnaire listing visual fatigue symptoms. One subject was tested in an additional experiment using six more projectors. Results indicated that subjects with congenital nystagmus felt severe visual fatigue after they viewed images produced by color sequential projectors. Mechanism of the cause of visual fatigue is not clear in general and in color breakup in congenital nystagmus, however, it was clear that people with nystagmus felt continuing color breakup as a flickering image. Flickering light is a major cause of visual fatigue. Color sequential projectors are best avoided in public settings, such as classrooms, lecture theaters and conference sites. View full abstract»

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  • Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 321 - 327
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main challenges in 3-D display and visualization is to overcome its limited depth of field. Such limitation is due to the fast deterioration of lateral resolution for out-of-focus object positions. Here we propose a new method to significantly extend the depth of field. The method is based on the combined benefits of a proper amplitude modulation of the microlenses, and the application of deconvolution tools. Numerical tests are presented to verify the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 328 - 340
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To evaluate visual fatigue when viewing stereoscopic TV, a technology expected to become the broadcasting display system of the future. Wide public acceptance of stereoscopic TV awaits resolution of many issues, including visual fatigue on viewing TV images. Visual fatigue was induced using a visual function simulator, consisting of prism and lens optical systems, while viewing stereoscopic TV. We assessed subject visual fatigue through subjective reports of symptoms and by the changes in visual functions. These functions included: viewer B [Js fusional break point, recovery point, accommodation step response, and visual evoked cortical potentials (VECP)]. Significant changes of some visual functions were found after watching simulated stereoscopic TV when the vergence load was heavy or when it changed over time; relative vergence limits decreased and the latency of VECP increased after watching, reflecting visual fatigue. After subjects rested, relative vergence limits recovered to pre-viewing levels. Our findings lead us to conclude that, aside from excessive horizontal binocular parallax, discontinuous changes in parallax is also a major factor that contributes to visual fatigue in the viewing of stereoscopic images. It also causes a decreased range of relative vergence, accommodation response, and a delay in the P100 latency of VECP. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional holographic image sensing and Integral imaging display

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 341 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose three-dimensional (3-D) holographic sensing, and computational/optical 3-D integral imaging reconstruction. We demonstrate experimentally that through the integral imaging technique, it is possible to reconstruct a full 3-D scene which has been obtained by digital holograms. Three-dimensional color objects can also be displayed optically in 3-D without convergence-accommodation conflict using a microlens array, and a two-dimensional (2-D) display panel illuminated by incoherent light. The proposed approach takes advantages of high resolution holographic sensing and robust 3-D integral imaging visualization. View full abstract»

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  • Moire´ minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 347 - 353
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A moire´ minimization condition is found analytically for the contact-type three-dimensional (3-D) imaging systems by approximating 3-D displays as four superposed sine gratings. Finding maximization conditions for two-dimensional (2-D) waves in this structure provides minimization of moire´s. The global extremum was found at a certain angle which does not depend on the period. Experiments confirm the analytical findings. Practical advantage of using that angle is in its wide areas of applications: 3-D displays can be made to have almost invisible moire´s with using this angle without regards to other specific parameters like pixel size and pitch of the screen. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral imaging

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 354 - 359
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-dimensional (3-D) scene may contain foreground objects which partially occlude background objects. In this paper, we present experiments on reconstruction of the unobstructed view of the background objects from a partially occluded 3-D scene using an integral imaging system. We have reconstructed images of the scene at various distances of interest through computational and optical integral imaging reconstruction in order to obtain images of the occluding foreground objects and partially occluded background objects. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Arokia Nathan
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, U.K.