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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology publication information

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  • An enhancement of leaky prediction layered video coding

    Page(s): 1317 - 1331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we focus on leaky prediction layered video coding (LPLC). LPLC includes a scaled version of the enhancement layer within the motion compensation (MC) loop to improve the coding efficiency while maintaining graceful recovery in the presence of error drift. However, there exists a deficiency inherent in the LPLC structure, namely that the reconstructed video quality from both the enhancement layer and the base layer cannot be guaranteed to be always superior to that of using the base layer alone, even when no drift occurs. In this paper, we: 1) highlight this deficiency using a formulation that describes LPL; 2) propose a general framework that applies to both LPLC and a multiple description coding scheme using MC and we use this framework to further confirm the existence of the deficiency in LPLC; and 3) furthermore, we propose an enhanced LPLC based on maximum-likelihood estimation to address the previously specified deficiency in LPLC. We then show how our new method performs compared to LPLC. View full abstract»

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  • A new technique for quality scalable video coding with H.264

    Page(s): 1332 - 1340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide a technique that allows H264/AVC to achieve quality scalable coding by allowing the coder to produce different coded motion qualities. This technique is called block ordering scalability. It realizes scalability by exploiting the existing building blocks of the standard. It may need minor changes of the current standard, but in its simple form, presented here, it does not need any change at all. The blocks carrying the updating picture information are ordered according to their importance into different slices. This reordering allows realizing a gradual refinement of the quality of coded pictures. An implementation of such a system is achieved by analyzing the motion of a given picture to determine the most important blocks to code for basic quality and the less important ones used for enhancement. In this case, scalability affects the quality of the reproduced motion. This way of coding the enhancement blocks allows achieving rate-adaptive coding. Many experimental results that show the efficiency of the technique are provided. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient parallel video transmission system including codecs with functions of failure detection and coding noise evaluation

    Page(s): 1341 - 1353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For contribution and primary distribution of television, i.e., television transmission to broadcasting stations, parallel transmission links that include codecs are often set up for reliability. However, this configuration still faces the following issues: 1) during normal periods, the reserve link is totally wasted and 2) when a failure occurs, the disrupted signal continues to be transmitted until the system switches to the reserve link. In addition, in digital video transmission, automatic assessment of received video quality is an important issue. To address these issues, the authors developed a processing system for parallelly transmitted video signals, which mainly consists of the following three elements: 1) when both links are normal, outputting the average signal of both links reduces compression coding noise and improves picture quality compared to only one link (efficiency); 2) comparison of the pictures from the two links enables failure detection in either link, to switch to the normal link (support of failure detection); and 3) comparison of the two normally decoded pictures enables evaluation of picture quality (automatic coding noise evaluation). This unique system improves the reliability and operational efficiency of conventional parallel video transmission links. View full abstract»

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  • A novel PDE-based rate-distortion model for rate control

    Page(s): 1354 - 1364
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel rate-distortion (R-D) model for rate control of video coding. First, we investigate the well-known heat conduction equation (HCE) in the heat conduction process for a thin bar. HCE describes the dynamic distribution of temperature in a thin bar using a partial differential equation (PDE). Motivated by the heat conduction process in a thin bar, a new rate transmission equation (RTE) is proposed to describe the dynamic behaviors of the bit-rate fluctuation during video coding. Second, a particular solution of RTE is employed as our proposed R-D model, which consists of two variables, i.e., the distortion D and the source statistical character M. Based on our model, a corresponding rate-control scheme is proposed for MPEG coding. Finally, extensive experimental results are reported to show that, compared with the well-known MPEG-4 Q2 rate-control scheme, our proposed work achieves better buffer status, higher control accuracy, and stabler and more consistent picture quality. View full abstract»

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  • A practical foveation-based rate-shaping mechanism for MPEG videos

    Page(s): 1365 - 1372
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Foveation is one of the nonuniform resolution properties of the human visual system. Recently, different foveation models are proposed and utilized for image and video coding, for the sake of bit-rate saving with no or minor perceptual quality distortion. In the first part of this paper, we propose an efficient and practical DCT-domain foveation model, which is deduced from existing experimental results. In the second part, we present a foveation-based rate-shaping mechanism for MPEG bitstreams, as an application example of the proposed foveation model. The rate shaper is based on eliminating DCT coefficients embedded in MPEG bitstreams. An efficient rate-shaping mechanism is developed to meet various bit-rate requirements. Our simulation confirmed that the proposed foveation model and the rate-shaping mechanism are practical for real-world usage. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive fast block-matching algorithm by switching search patterns for sequences with wide-range motion content

    Page(s): 1373 - 1384
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Content with rapid, moderate, and slow motion is frequently mixed together in real video sequences. Until now, no fast block-matching algorithm (FBMA), including the well-known three-step search (TSS), the block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS), and the diamond search (DS), can efficiently remove the temporal redundancy of sequences with wide range motion content. This paper proposes an adaptive FBMA, called A-TDB, to solve this problem. Based on the characteristics of a proposed predicted profit list, the A-TDB can adaptively switch search patterns among the TSS, DS, and BBGDS, according to the motion content. Experimental results reveal that the A-TDB successfully adopts the search patterns to remove the temporal redundancy of sequences with slow, moderate and rapid motion content. View full abstract»

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  • Temporal error concealment algorithm by recursive block-matching principle

    Page(s): 1385 - 1393
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressed video bitstream is sensitive to channel errors that may degrade the reconstructed pictures severely. Error concealment is an effective approach to reduce the impact of errors, and it is implemented at the decoders. Its aim is to mask the effect of the missing blocks to create image or video of subjectively acceptable quality by using the spatial or/and temporal correlation. This paper proposes a temporal error concealment method that exploits the temporal redundancy of a video sequence using a block-matching approach. A recursive block-matching algorithm, based on the two-step block-matching principle, is presented to refine the concealed video. The proposed algorithm can also conceal the multiple erroneous slices. The proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithms presented in previous studies. View full abstract»

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  • A robust error concealment technique using data hiding for image and video transmission over lossy channels

    Page(s): 1394 - 1406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust error concealment scheme using data hiding which aims at achieving high perceptual quality of images and video at the end-user despite channel losses is proposed. The scheme involves embedding a low-resolution version of each image or video frame into itself using spread-spectrum watermarking, extracting the embedded watermark from the received video frame, and using it as a reference for reconstruction of the parent image or frame, thus detecting and concealing the transmission errors. Dithering techniques have been used to obtain a binary watermark from the low-resolution version of the image/video frame. Multiple copies of the dithered watermark are embedded in frequencies in a specific range to make it more robust to channel errors. It is shown experimentally that, based on the frequency selection and scaling factor variation, a high-quality watermark can be extracted from a low-quality lossy received image/video frame. Furthermore, the proposed technique is compared to its two-part variant where the low-resolution version is encoded and transmitted as side information instead of embedding it. Simulation results show that the proposed concealment technique using data hiding outperforms existing approaches in improving the perceptual quality, especially in the case of higher loss probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • An effective post-refinement method for shot boundary detection

    Page(s): 1407 - 1421
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In content-based video analysis, shot boundary detection (SBD) is a common first step which segments video data into elementary shots, each comprising a sequence of consecutive frames recording a video event or scene continuous in time and space. Many SBD methods have been proposed in the literature, and experimental results show that the existing methods work reasonably well for abrupt shot boundaries, but less effectively for gradual shot boundaries. In this paper, we propose an effective post-refinement method for identifying actual shot boundaries from the results obtained by existing SBD methods. The proposed method formulates the SBD problem as sequential detection of changes in the underlying feature distributions whose parameters are estimated from existing video shots. Specifically, the proposed post-refinement method enhances the performance of SBD by identifying as many false positives (false detections) and false negatives (miss detections) as possible. Experiments conducted on a large set of test videos, whose initial shot boundaries are obtained by four existing SBD methods, show that the proposed post-refinement method can improve markedly the detection recall and precision and is rather insensitive to the thresholds used by the existing methods in detecting the initial shot boundaries. View full abstract»

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  • An HMM-based framework for video semantic analysis

    Page(s): 1422 - 1433
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video semantic analysis is essential in video indexing and structuring. However, due to the lack of robust and generic algorithms, most of the existing works on semantic analysis are limited to specific domains. In this paper, we present a novel hidden Markove model (HMM)-based framework as a general solution to video semantic analysis. In the proposed framework, semantics in different granularities are mapped to a hierarchical model space, which is composed of detectors and connectors. In this manner, our model decomposes a complex analysis problem into simpler subproblems during the training process and automatically integrates those subproblems for recognition. The proposed framework is not only suitable for a broad range of applications, but also capable of modeling semantics in different semantic granularities. Additionally, we also present a new motion representation scheme, which is robust to different motion vector sources. The applications of the proposed framework in basketball event detection, soccer shot classification, and volleyball sequence analysis have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed framework on video semantic analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Multiscale recurrent patterns applied to stereo image coding

    Page(s): 1434 - 1447
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the compression of stereo images, several techniques employing the concept of disparity compensation have been developed. In this paper, we present a new method for stereo-image compression which is based on a different paradigm. It relies on approximate matching of multiscale recurrent patterns, which is an extension of ordinary pattern matching, where an image block is represented using dilated, contracted, displaced, and deformed versions of blocks already processed. To achieve this, the input image is segmented into variable-sized blocks. Each segment is represented by an element in a dictionary. The segmentation is performed according to a rate × distortion criterion, and the dictionary is updated with the concatenation, contraction, expansion, displacement, and deformation of previously coded elements. Unlike most other methods, in this approach the disparity map is not transmitted. That is, the generation of the error images, as well as their coding and transmission, is not necessary. In brief, the proposed method presents high-quality results at the decoder end, compared to other coding methods for stereo images that transmit the disparity map. View full abstract»

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  • Voting-based simultaneous tracking of multiple video objects

    Page(s): 1448 - 1462
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an automatic object tracking method based on both object segmentation and motion estimation for real-time content-oriented video applications. The method focuses on the issues of speed of execution and reliability in the presence of noise, coding artifacts, shadows, occlusion, and object split. Objects are tracked based on the similarity of their features in successive frames. This is done in three steps: feature extraction, object matching, and feature monitoring. In the first step, objects are segmented and their spatial and temporal features are computed. In the second step, using a nonlinear two-stage voting strategy, each object of the previous frame is matched with an object of the current frame creating a unique correspondence. In the third step, object changes, such objects occlusion or split, are monitored and object features are corrected. These new features are then used to update results of previous steps creating module interaction. The contributions in this paper are the real-time two-stage voting strategy, the monitoring of object changes to handle occlusion and object split, and the spatiotemporal adaptation of the tracking parameters. Experiments on indoor and outdoor video shots containing over 6000 frames, including deformable objects, multi-object occlusion, noise, and coding and object segmentation artifacts have demonstrated the reliability and real-time response of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Modified virtually scaling-free adaptive CORDIC rotator algorithm and architecture

    Page(s): 1463 - 1474
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we proposed a novel Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) rotator algorithm that converges to the final target angle by adaptively executing appropriate iteration steps while keeping the scale factor virtually constant and completely predictable. The new feature of our scheme is that, depending on the input angle, the scale factor can assume only two values, viz., 1 and 1/√2, and it is independent of the number of executed iterations, nature of iterations, and word length. In this algorithm, compared to the conventional CORDIC, a reduction of 50% iteration is achieved on an average without compromising the accuracy. The adaptive selection of the appropriate iteration step is predicted from the binary representation of the target angle, and no further arithmetic computation in the angle approximation datapath is required. The convergence range of the proposed CORDIC rotator is spanned over the entire coordinate space. The new CORDIC rotator requires 22% less adders and 53% less registers compared to that of the conventional CORDIC. The synthesized cell area of the proposed CORDIC rotator core is 0.7 mm2 and its power dissipation is 7 mW in IHP in-house 0.25-μm BiCMOS technology. View full abstract»

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  • Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern

    Page(s): 1475 - 1492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A zooming framework suitable for single-sensor digital cameras is introduced and analyzed in this paper. The proposed framework is capable of zooming and enlarging data acquired by single-sensor cameras that employ the Bayer pattern as a color filter array (CFA). The approach allows for operations on noise-free data at the hardware level. Complexity and cost implementation are thus greatly reduced. The proposed zooming framework employs: 1) a spectral model to preserve spectral characteristics of the enlarged CFA image and 2) an adaptive edge-sensing mechanism capable of tracking the underlying structural content of the Bayer data. The framework readably unifies numerous solutions which differ in design characteristics, computational efficiency, and performance. Simulation studies indicate that the new zooming approach produces sharp, visually pleasing outputs and it yields excellent performance, in terms of both subjective and objective image quality measures. View full abstract»

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  • A low-power system-on-chip for the documentation of road accidents

    Page(s): 1493 - 1501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, the implementation of a system-on-chip for the documentation of road accidents is presented. Key features of the system are the implementation on a programmable architecture of a compression algorithm capable of encoding up to 20 black and white QCIF frames/s, and the computation of a digital signature performed every frame which is applied to the encoded bitstream certifying the source of the video sequence. The acquired images are then stored on a battery of on-chip flash memories that can be used to retrieve accident information to be used in legal confrontations. Having to perform in critical energy conditions (e.g., continued image acquisition for up to 10-20 s after an accident has occurred), the system was designed to minimize energy consumption at all levels. The system-on-chip has been implemented in 6×6 mm2 on a 0.25-μm 6-metal standard-cell CMOS technology and works at 40 MHz with a 2.5-V power supply. Performance can be decreased to 12 QCIF frames/s, 24 MHz, and 1.3-V power supply in order to achieve 30-mW power consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Erratum

    Page(s): 1502
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  • 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006)

    Page(s): 1503
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  • 49th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS 2006)

    Page(s): 1504
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology Information for authors

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it