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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing [call for papers]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1881
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 1882
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  • Special Issue on Power Technology and Policy: Forty Years After the 1965 Blackout

    Page(s): 1883 - 1886
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  • A Time for Rejuvenation of This Journal!

    Page(s): 1887 - 1889
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  • Power System Control Centers: Past, Present, and Future

    Page(s): 1890 - 1908
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we review the functions and architectures of control centers: their past, present, and likely future. The evolving changes in power system operational needs require a distributed control center that is decentralized, integrated, flexible, and open. Present-day control centers are moving in that direction with varying degrees of success. The technologies employed in today's control centers to enable them to be distributed are briefly reviewed. With the rise of the Internet age, the trend in information and communication technologies is moving toward Grid computing and Web services, or Grid services. A Grid service-based future control center is stipulated. View full abstract»

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  • Merging the Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Data and Information for Improved Power System Monitoring Applications

    Page(s): 1909 - 1919
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    Many power system applications, particularly those related to monitoring,control, and protection, depend on the use of field data recorded by intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) in substations. With the introduction of IEDs in the last 20 years, the amount and type of data collected in substations have dramatically increased. This paper explores the benefits of data integration and information extraction achieved by merging temporal and spatial considerations. In the new approach, time and space issues are treated consistently across all IEDs, and as a result new applications with improved performance characteristics can be defined. As an illustration, two new monitoring functions are discussed in detail: 1) automated fault analysis and 2) hierarchical state and topology estimation. Discussion ends with a description of an implementation framework that will allow development of other functions that will benefit from the merger of time and space considerations. View full abstract»

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  • Preventing Future Blackouts by Means of Enhanced Electric Power Systems Control: From Complexity to Order

    Page(s): 1920 - 1941
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    This paper concerns the critical role enhanced control will play in the operating of future electric power systems reliably and efficiently. The nonstandard control problems are due to a large variety of controllers, presently acting in a multirate mode at various levels of the system. Today's monitoring and control logic is largely effective during normal conditions. This paper concerns its possible enhancements which might enable the system to operate reliably over broader ranges of loading and equipment status. In particular, it is suggested that major benefits could come from providing computer tools to assist human operators with their decision making when the system is under stress. A multilayered approach is introduced to support:1) on-line adjustment of available resources; 2) monitoring the interconnection based on qualitative indices (QIs) essential for deciding the severity of the operating mode; and 3) using the QIs to adjust structure of control as the system evolves from one mode to the next. An equivalenced model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) interconnection is used to illustrate the potential of enhanced control in scenarios that resemble the blackout of August 2003. Also, the potential for efficient use of the resources during normal conditions is illustrated using this multilayered monitoring and control architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Blackout Prevention in the United States, Europe, and Russia

    Page(s): 1942 - 1955
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    Tens and hundreds of thousands of disturbances occur annually in modern power systems. The overwhelming majority of them are eliminated by relay protection devices and other automatic systems and by the actions of the dispatching personnel. A small fraction of the emergencies (tens of cases in such large power interconnections as those in the United States and Canada, Europe, and the United Power System (UPS) of Russia) result in significant system failures, sometimes of a cascading nature. They are consequences of unusual primary disturbances, failures of automatic emergency control systems, protection device malfunctions, and errors by personnel, but do not cause extreme consequences for the power system and the consumers. Of these, only some rare failures-blackouts-become catastrophes with severe long-term consequences for the national economies and population. Recent blackouts in North America, Europe, Russia, and other countries require specialists once again to pay closer attention to the blackout phenomenon. It is often believed that the philosophy of preventing blackouts should be based on dispatching personnel training, wide-area system visibility,and better computer models for the analysis of the stability and security of power systems. The authors of this paper also think that in emergency situations of a cascading nature, automatic emergency control systems should play a major role. A confirmation for this statement is the fact that from 1975 to 2005 there were no blackouts in the UPS of Russia (where automatic emergency control systems are widely used). At the same time, the Moscow blackout demonstrated that the growing problems in the Russia's UPS (such as aging equipment and load growth) made it also vulnerable to major blackouts. This stresses again that the electrical power industry faces common global problems and that a global effort, cooperation, and exchange of the best practices are needed to prevent blackouts. This paper describes the Russian View full abstract»

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  • Electricity Market Design: An Integrated Approach to Reliability Assurance

    Page(s): 1956 - 1969
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    System reliability is an integral part of a properly designed deregulated electricity market, even though wholesale energy prices are its most visible piece. This paper discusses the resources, collectively known as the ancillary services, in a power system for maintaining reliability. It then discusses an integrated approach in systematically determining and securing the needed ancillary services and system configuration across multiple time spans, culminating in the cooptimization of energy and ancillary services for security-constrained generator unit commitment in the day-ahead market and security-constrained economic dispatch of the generators in real-time operation. The paper also provides a summary of the ancillary services market in several U.S. power markets and proposes several technical issues for further discussion and research. View full abstract»

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  • Scheduling and Pricing of Coupled Energy and Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Reserves

    Page(s): 1970 - 1983
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    Current practice in some electricity markets is to schedule energy and various reserve types sequentially, first clearing the energy market, followed by the reserves needed. Since distinct reserve services can in fact be strongly coupled, and the heuristics required to bridge the various sequential markets can ultimately lead to loss of social welfare, simultaneous energy/reserves market-clearing procedures have been proposed and are in use. However, they generally schedule reserve services subject to exogenous rules and parameters that do not relate to actual operating conditions. The weaknesses of the current approaches warrant the investigation of alternatives. In that regard, we present a different methodology to the simultaneous market clearing of energy and reserve services. This approach avoids the pitfalls of the sequential procedures, while at the same time its basis for scheduling reserve services does no longer rely on some rules of thumb. The salient feature of the proposed approach is that, under marginal pricing, it yields a single price for all reserve types scheduled at a bus, unlike the current approaches. We show that this common price is given by the nodal marginal cost of security. We present two specific implementations of a simultaneous security-constrained market-clearing procedure, one deterministic and one probabilistic. An example of joint market clearing of energy with reserves required for primary and tertiary regulation illustrates how their strong coupling affects their schedule and prices. View full abstract»

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  • Interface Between Engineering and Market Operations in Restructured Electricity Systems

    Page(s): 1984 - 1997
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    We examine the impact of wholesale markets on operations of the bulk power system and elaborate some basic implications of engineering practices for designs of wholesale markets. This analysis is intended to provide a basis for enhancements to existing principles of engineering management. Wholesale markets bring economic and financial aspects that alter the context in which system operations are conducted, and introduce incentive and benefit-cost considerations that might alter operating procedures that previously were based on reliability considerations. The principles addressed are those relevant to the interface between engineering aspects of system operations, and economic aspects of market operations. We outline ways that engineering practices developed in the era of vertically integrated utilities might be adapted to the wholesale markets introduced since restructuring began in 1998 in the United States. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Efficient Generation Markets

    Page(s): 1998 - 2012
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    The design of spot markets for generation services, such as energy, regulation,and operating reserves, and longer term markets for capacity, remain in evolution in many countries. Market design includes definition of the service, bid, or offer requirements, and rules for pricing and financial settlement. In the United States, most organized regional markets have converged on similar elements of spot market design. The design of capacity markets remains influx. Market power mitigation is currently a regulatory requirement in the United States, and experience with different methods shows that it must be carefully aligned with market design to ensure both efficient pricing and efficient investment. This paper surveys these topics and their relationships to each other and identifies researchable issues. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Security on Power Systems Operation

    Page(s): 2013 - 2025
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    This paper reviews the status of security analyses in vertically integrated utilities and discusses the impact of system security on the operation and the planning of restructured power systems. The paper is focused on the static security rather than the dynamic security of power systems. The paper also discusses assumptions, functions, and calculation tools that are considered for satisfying power systems security requirements. In addition, the security coordination among time-based scheduling models is presented. In particular, real-time security analysis, short-term operation,midterm operation planning, and long-term planning are analyzed. The paper highlights issues and challenges for implementing security options in electricity markets and concludes that global analyses of security options could provide additional opportunities for seeking optimal and feasible schedules in various time scales. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission System Planning-The Old World Meets The New

    Page(s): 2026 - 2035
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    Transmission systems in the United States and around the world have become more difficult to plan under deregulation. Uncertainties in generation type, location, and pricing coupled with market mechanisms that encourage transfers not designed for in the legacy transmission system have made the transmission planner's life difficult. This paper describes the planning process under regulation, some of the issues encountered during the present transition to a deregulated industry, and some of the open questions that need to be addressed in the United States. View full abstract»

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  • Exploring Risk-Based Approaches for ISO/RTO Asset Managers

    Page(s): 2036 - 2048
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    In competitive power markets, the independent system operator (ISO/RTO) manages assets and obligations on behalf of owners to meet ISO/RTO goals of reliability, equal access, and market efficiency. Merchant generators make unit commitment decisions, transmission operators receive a regulated payment for transmission assets operated by the ISO/RTO asset manager. Load is scheduled with the ISO/RTO as either price responsive or price taking. As asset managers, the ISO/RTO can benefit from a menu of approaches introduced to identify, measure and manage risks in power systems under uncertain economic conditions. Since competitive markets have introduced new roles for existing participants and new participants to the industry, appetite for these new tools has never been higher. However, applying these new tools has not been without difficulty. In this paper, the authors illustrate three issues facing the ISO/RTO asset manager: 1) planning for reserves in the face of uncertainty; 2) line maintenance which minimizes market disruption; and 3) measuring tradeoffs between investments in reliability and market efficiency. The authors use several approaches and highlight areas for new research using real options,portfolio optimization, and efficiency/reliability tradeoffs in the context of a simple two-bus example. Areas which require more work include the integration of nonpower risks to unit commitment models, applying real options to load variations, using options premiums to compensate out of merit units, using real options to measure transmission decisions, and performance metrics for monitoring dollars spent on reliability and efficiency tradeoffs. View full abstract»

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  • Power System Planning and Operation in International Markets-Perspectives From the Nordic Region and Europe

    Page(s): 2049 - 2059
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    This paper describes development and experiences from the Nordic region and the current status and trend toward an integrated and open electricity market comprising most of Europe. The paper describes practical experiences as well as theoretical investigations and modeling studies. We focus on the following subjects: Congestion management: There are a variety of arrangements for transfer across national borders and for congestion management in Europe. A common future system based on an improved version of the Nordic market splitting system can be a good alternative. Management of ancillary services: We see certain trends concerning ancillary services in the Nordic market: 1) more focus on cost effectiveness and a move toward market arrangements including cross border trade in ancillary services; 2) increased use of the demand side in the provision of ancillary services; and 3) increased flexibility in defining the demand for ancillary services. Investment incentives: Experience as well theoretical investigations indicate that investment in generating capacity is a problem in an open electricity market, where investors are exposed to high risk and uncertainty. One important conclusion from our studies is that end user response (elasticity) to electricity prices is important in an open market. We also discuss how additional incentive mechanisms can be used as a measure to achieve capacity adequacy, when the market fails to provide sufficient signals for new investments. View full abstract»

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  • Utilizing System Dynamics Modeling to Examine Impact of Deregulation on Generation Capacity Growth

    Page(s): 2060 - 2069
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    Widespread deregulation of the U.S. wholesale power industry in the late 1990s was followed in many regions by substantial overbuilding of capacity. This behavior calls in to question the longer term stability of the deregulated industry. A dynamic model structure of power-producing regions, suitable for longer term analysis of capacity investment and market stability, was created and validated against 20 years of data for two regions. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that for a realistic range of assumptions, the deregulated wholesale power markets are substantially more cyclical than they would have been under a regulated monopoly regime. The models can be improved in several areas, most notably further simplification, analysis of impacts of market structure and design, and addition of transmission constraints among regions. View full abstract»

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  • Brokaw Mansion: An Age of Elegance

    Page(s): 2070 - 2072
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 2073 - 2074
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 2075 - 2076
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Page(s): c3
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE check out our January issue

    Page(s): c4
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North Carolina State University