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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 405
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Transmission through axisymmetric, cascaded cylindrical cavities coupled by apertures - part I: structures with coaxial and circular-cylindrical cross-sections

    Page(s): 406 - 416
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique is presented for determining the field in a series of cascaded, axisymmetric cylindrical cavities excited by a φ-independent source. The constituent cavities are either coaxial or circular-cylindrical. The field in each cavity is expressed in terms of the electric field in the apertures at the interfaces where adjacent cavities join. Coupled integral equations are formulated in the frequency domain from which these aperture fields are computed. From knowledge of the aperture fields, the complete field in the cavity structure can be determined. The frequency-domain data are used to compute the time-domain field in the system of cavities. Cavities were constructed and experiments performed to corroborate the computed data. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission through axisymmetric, cascaded cylindrical cavities coupled by Apertures - part II: structures with varying cross-sections

    Page(s): 417 - 423
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    A technique is described for determining the field in a series of cascaded, axisymmetric cylindrical cavities excited by a φ-independent source. The constituent cavities are axisymmetric but may have a cross-section that varies with axial displacement. A set of coupled integral equations are solved for the unknown electric fields in the apertures that separate the constituent cavities. Separate integral equations are formulated to determine the field in each cavity with a variable cross-section. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of power supply noise in large chips using the circuit-based finite-difference time-domain method

    Page(s): 424 - 439
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    In this paper, a multilayered on-chip power distribution network consisting of two million passive elements has been modeled using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In this method, a branch capacitor has been used. The use of the branch capacitor is important for simulating multilayered power grids. In addition, a method for including the CMOS inverter characteristics into the FDTD simulation has been presented. As an example of the application of this method, an H-tree clock network was simulated to compute the power supply noise distribution across an entire chip. Various scenarios with varying decoupling capacitances, load capacitances, number of clock buffers, and rise times have been analyzed to demonstrate the importance of circuit nonlinearity on power supply noise. Also, a method has been presented for analyzing package and board planes. Based on the methods presented, the interaction between chip and package has been discussed for capturing the resonant behavior that is otherwise absent when each section of the system is analyzed separately. View full abstract»

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  • Stable modeling of arbitrarily oriented thin slots in the FDTD method

    Page(s): 440 - 446
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    A subcell model for thin wires in the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method using modified telegraphers equations has been developed by Holland et al. Edelvik has previously presented an extension of their algorithm, which allows for arbitrarily located and oriented wires with respect to the Cartesian grid. This is important to be able to accurately model wires that cannot be aligned to the Cartesian grid, e.g., tilted wires and circular loop wires. Recently, a dual set of equations has been proposed for modeling of thin slots. In this paper, we show that using a similar algorithm as for thin wires we can also handle slots of arbitrary location in Cartesian planes. Previous thin slot models have been susceptible for instabilities. We show that a symmetric coupling between field and slot yields a stable time-continuous field-slot system and that the fully discrete field-slot system is stable under a generalized Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) condition. The proposed method is demonstrated for scattering from a finite-length slot in an infinite conducting wall and a shielding enclosure including a slot. The results are in good agreement with published experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain modeling of electromagnetic wave interaction with thin-wires using TLM

    Page(s): 447 - 455
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    A method for the time-domain simulation of electromagnetic (EM) wave interaction with thin-wires is developed. The technique is based on the standard transmission-line modeling (TLM) technique augmented with systems derived from the telegrapher's equations to represent the propagation of currents in wires. Full details of the numerical algorithms are given and examples are shown to illustrate the application of the technique to typical electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid FD-MoM technique for predicting shielding effectiveness of metallic enclosures with apertures

    Page(s): 456 - 462
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    In this paper, a hybrid technique combining the finite-difference (FD) method and the method of moments (MoM) in the frequency domain is proposed to predict the shielding effectiveness of rectangular conducting enclosures with apertures under external illumination. The interior and exterior regions of the enclosure are analyzed separately by employing the field equivalence principle. Internal electromagnetic fields are discretized using the (FD) method, while external fields are formulated by the MoM. Enforcement of continuity of the tangential magnetic field over the aperture surface gives the desired equation to solve for electromagnetic fields everywhere. Numerical results for the shielding effectiveness of a rectangular cavity with apertures calculated by the new hybrid technique are presented and validated by comparing with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Coupled mode analysis of forward and backward coupling in multiconductor transmission lines

    Page(s): 463 - 470
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    The nonorthogonal coupled mode theory is extended to the analysis of multiconductor transmission lines by including backward coupling. Coupling coefficients are expressed as overlap integrals of the eigenfields and currents belonging to individual lines. These eigenmode solutions are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method, which can provide a broadband solution through a single simulation. General termination conditions are given, and scattering parameters of a multiconductor transmission line can be obtained directly by solving the coupled mode equations subject to these termination conditions. As illustrative examples, several configurations of coupled microstrip lines are analyzed, and numerical results are presented. It is observed that both the forward and backward coupling results agree fairly well with results from Advanced Design System Momentum software. View full abstract»

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  • Radiated susceptibility on the printed-circuit-board level: simulation and measurement

    Page(s): 471 - 478
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    The electromagnetic field coupling into the traces on a printed circuit board (PCB) is investigated. Based on a simplified equivalent-wire model, a practical simulation method is presented, which enables an efficient treatment by the method of moment, with minimum computational and modeling effort. Validation by analytic and measurement results shows an acceptable accuracy within the limits of quasi-TEM propagation. The gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell is found to be a suitable means for measuring the field coupling into PCBs. To reduce additional common-mode coupling, special care has to be taken for the length of the measurement cable connected to the PCB within the cell. View full abstract»

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  • Design and modeling of high-impedance electromagnetic surfaces for switching noise suppression in power planes

    Page(s): 479 - 489
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    This paper presents a detailed design and modeling approach for power planes with integrated high-impedance electromagnetic surfaces (HIS). These novel power planes, which were introduced recently, have the unique ability of providing effective broadband simultaneous switching noise (SSN) mitigation. Full-wave electromagnetic simulation is used to study the impact of the geometry on the performance of these novel power planes. It is demonstrated that power planes using inductance-enhanced HIS can be designed for broadband mitigation of the SSN from the upper hundred megahertz to the gigahertz frequencies. Physics-based compact models for the unit cell of power planes with integrated HIS are developed and several of them connected in a two-dimensional array to build full models for large and multilayer power planes. The compact model offers fast analysis of power planes. As an example, we show that the full-wave simulation time of a 10×10 cm power plane with integrated HIS can be dramatically reduced from 24 to 48 h using a commercially available three-dimensional full-wave solver to less than 1 min when using the compact circuit model developed here. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of inductive common-mode coupling of printed circuit boards by nearby U-shaped metal cabinet panel

    Page(s): 490 - 497
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    The effect of a nearby U-shaped metal cabinet panel on the inductive common-mode coupling of a printed circuit board (PCB) is calculated in a two-dimensional (2-D) model by Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) transformations for doubly connected regions. Such an open metal cabinet can significantly reduce the mutual inductance between the microstrip lines on the PCB and the common-mode circuit if the cabinet is properly connected. But it may also increase the coupling for balanced pairs of tracks, in particular where the coupling for a single track varies strongly with position. Details of the SC approach are presented. The SC results agree with those of a static method of moments approach, but also clearly indicate the accuracy limits of the latter method. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning induced disturbances in buried Cables-part I: theory

    Page(s): 498 - 508
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    In this paper, we present a review of theoretical methods to compute lightning induced currents and voltages on buried cables. The evaluation of such induced disturbances requires the calculation of the electric field produced by lightning along the cable path. We show that the Cooray's simplified formula is capable of predicting accurately the horizontal electric field penetrating the ground, at distances as close as 100 m. Regarding the parameters of the buried cable, a comparison of several approximations of the ground impedance is presented. We show that the Pollaczek expression corresponds to the Sunde general expression, when the displacement current is neglected. The analysis shows also that all the proposed approximations provide very similar results for the considered range of frequencies (up to 30 MHz). Most of the approximate formulas neglect the contribution of the displacement current and, therefore, predict values for the ground impedance which tend to infinity at higher frequencies. This corresponds in the time domain to a singularity of the ground transient resistance at t=0. By analogy to the Sunde approximation for the ground impedance of overhead lines, we propose a logarithmic approximation for the ground impedance of a buried cable. In addition, unlike most of the considered approximations, the proposed formula has an asymptotic behavior at high frequencies; therefore, the corresponding transient ground resistance in the time domain has no singularity at t=0. It is also demonstrated that within the frequency range of interest, the wire impedance can be neglected, due to its small contribution to the overall longitudinal impedance of the line. The ground admittance, however, can play an important role at high frequencies (1 MHz or so) especially in the case of poor ground conductivity. The ground admittance needs to be taken into account in the calculation of lightning induced currents and voltages on buried cables. This is in contrast with the case of overhead lines in which its contribution is generally negligible, even in the MHz range. We also investigate the time-domain representation of field-to-transmission line coupling equations. The coupling model includes the effect of ground admittance which appears in terms of an addi- tional convolution integral. An analytical expression for the ground transient resistance in the time domain is also proposed which is shown to be sufficiently accurate and nonsingular. Finally, we present a time domain solution of field-to-buried cable coupling equations using the point-centered finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, and a frequency domain solution using Green's functions. In our companion paper (Part II), we compare both solutions to experimental waveforms obtained using triggered lightning. View full abstract»

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  • Lightning induced disturbances in buried cables - part II: experiment and model validation

    Page(s): 509 - 520
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    This paper presents experimental results obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida during the summers of 2002 and 2003. Currents induced by triggered and natural lightning events were measured at the terminations of a buried power cable, in the cable shield, and in the inner cable conductor. Measurements of the horizontal component of the magnetic field above the ground surface for both natural and triggered lightning are also presented. For distant natural lightning events, locations of ground strike points were determined using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Based on the theoretical developments presented in Part I of this paper , the field-to-buried cable coupling equations are solved in both the time domain and in the frequency domain. The obtained experimental results are then used to validate the numerical simulations provided by the relevant developed codes. View full abstract»

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  • On the mechanism of attenuation of current waves propagating along a vertical perfectly conducting wire above ground: application to lightning

    Page(s): 521 - 532
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    It is known from both theory and numerical simulations that a current pulse suffers apparent attenuation as it propagates along a vertical perfect conductor of uniform, nonzero thickness (e.g., a cylinder) above perfectly conducting ground, excited at its bottom by a lumped source. The associated electromagnetic field structure is non-transverse electromagnetic (TEM), particularly near the source region. On the other hand, it has been shown analytically by Thottappillil et al. (2001, 2004) that no attenuation occurs and the electromagnetic field structure is pure transverse electromagnetic (TEM) if the conductor thickness and source size are assumed to be infinitesimal. The goal of this paper is to examine the mechanism of current attenuation as it propagates along a nonzero thickness conductor, based on the scattering theory and on a nonuniform transmission line approximation. In applying the scattering theory, we decompose the "total" current in the conductor into two components that we refer to as the "incident" and "scattered" currents. The "incident" current serves as a reference (no attenuation), specified disregarding the interaction of resultant electric and magnetic fields with the conductor, while the "scattered" current, found here using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, can be viewed as a correction to account for that interaction. The scattered current modifies the incident current so that the resultant total current pulse appears attenuated. Thus, the current attenuation is likely to be due to field scattering that does not occur in the case of zero thickness conductor. The attenuation of the total current pulse is accompanied by the lengthening of its tail, such that the total charge transfer is independent of height. Approximation of the vertical conductor above ground by a nonuniform transmission line whose characteristic impedance increases with increasing height is shown to reasonably reproduce the current pulse attenuation predicted by the scattering theory. In this approximation, the apparent current attenuation with height can be attributed to waves reflected back to the source. The results have important implications for development and interpretation of lightning models. View full abstract»

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  • On the interpretation of ground reflections observed in small-scale experiments Simulating lightning strikes to towers

    Page(s): 533 - 542
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    Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell's equations, we have simulated small-scale experiments intended to study the interaction of lightning with towers. In these experiments, employing the time-domain reflectometry (TDR), the tower was represented by a conical conductor placed between two horizontal conducting planes, and a relatively high grounding impedance (about 60 Ω, constant or decreasing with time) of the bottom plane was inferred, based on the assumption that a conical conductor could support propagation of unattenuated waves in either direction. We have shown, using the FDTD simulations, that a current pulse suffers no attenuation when it propagates downward from the apex of the conical conductor to its base, but it attenuates significantly when it propagates upward from the base of the conical conductor to its apex. We show that the current reflection coefficient at the base of the conical conductor is close to 1, so that the equivalent grounding impedance of the conducting plane is close to zero. Our analysis suggests that the relatively high grounding impedance of conducting plane inferred from the small-scale experiments is an engineering approximation to the neglected attenuation of upward propagating waves. When the dependence of cone's waveguiding properties on the direction of propagation is taken into account, the results of small-scale experiments simulating lightning strikes to towers can be interpreted without invoking the fictitious grounding impedance of conducting plane. Representation of a vertical strike object by a uniform transmission line terminated in a fictitious grounding impedance appears to be justified in computing lightning-generated magnetic fields and relatively distant electric fields, but may be inadequate for calculating electric fields in the immediate vicinity of the object. This study was motivated by the growing interest in extending lightning return stroke models to include a tall strike object and calculating associated electric and magnetic fields. View full abstract»

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  • Investigations on voltages and currents in lightning protection schemes involving single tower

    Page(s): 543 - 551
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    A reliable protection against natural lightning has become very essential for modern critical systems. For very vulnerable systems, the protection system is physically isolated from them. In such cases, towers taller than system being protected are generally employed. The maximum allowable bypass current and the so-called rise in potential during the strike decide the height and location of such towers. For tall towers, TM modes dominate at least during the rising portion of the current making the analysis very complicated. In view of this, for a better assessment of the potential at the top and the base currents, experimental investigation in the frequency domain is carried out on the electromagnetically scaled model of the actual tower. The possible reduction in the tower base currents with the connection of ground wires and the influence of neighboring structures on the tower surge response are also studied. Investigations are also carried out on an alternative design involving mast insulated from the supporting tower and a separate set of ground wires acting as down conductors. Some analysis on the electric withstand capabilities of the insulating support is also made. The findings of the present work are believed to be quite useful to lightning protection engineering. View full abstract»

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  • Prompt nuclear EMP and Synchrotron radiation: a resolution of two approaches

    Page(s): 552 - 558
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    The geomagnetic component of nuclear EMP generated by the prompt (tmax∼2 μs) γ-ray, neutron, and X-ray radiation from a nuclear explosion has been the subject of intense scrutiny for over 40 years. Recent work by certain members of the scientific community has suggested that a discrepancy exists in the calculations/derivation of nuclear EMP between treatments based on Maxwell's equations and the high-frequency approximation and those derived from a summation over particles emitting synchrotron radiation. In principle, the two approaches should be identical simply because the well-known Lie´nard-Wiechert potentials for accelerating particles are derived from Maxwell's equations. In this paper, we start from the Lie´nard-Wiechert potentials and derive an expression for nuclear EMP that is identical to previous work based on a solution of Maxwell's equations. Thus, the putative discrepancy between the two approaches is resolved and Maxwell's equations in this regard are again vindicated. View full abstract»

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  • Novel procedure to determine statistical functions of impulsive noise

    Page(s): 559 - 568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the problems found when measuring impulsive noise is to distinguish this kind of noise from Gaussian noise. Usually, a threshold level is used to make the difference. The problem is that a high threshold level will miss low amplitude pulses, while a low level will include Gaussian noise samples as being impulsive noise. In this paper, results of a novel radio UHF impulsive noise measurement procedure are presented. This work exhibits the peculiarity that data was taken in both horizontal and vertical polarizations simultaneously. One polarization is used to determine the presence of impulsive noise so analysis can be performed in the other polarization considering this circumstance. Measurements were made in four different locations on UHF TV channels around 800 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 MHz, demodulating the in-phase and quadrature phase components in each polarization. When environments are constituted by varied and scattered impulsive sources, horizontal and vertical polarizations show similar statistical behavior. However, horizontal and vertical emissions may be different when a single source is individually measured. The conditional amplitude probability density function (pdf) and conditional amplitude cumulative distribution function (cdf) found for the amplitude in all the locations lead to the conclusion that the variable that best fits the results is a lognormal one. View full abstract»

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  • EMI reduction in switched power converters using frequency Modulation techniques

    Page(s): 569 - 576
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    Frequency-modulation techniques have been used to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) produced by the clock of digital systems working in the range of hundreds of megahertz. The working principle consists of modulating the original constant clock frequency in order to spread the energy of each single harmonic into a certain frequency band, thus reducing the peak amplitude of EMI at harmonic frequencies. Nowadays, the switching frequency of power converters has increased up to values that make interesting the application of such techniques to reduce EMI emissions due to switching of power circuits. This paper presents the theoretical principles of frequency modulation using deterministic profiles for the modulating function. It shows the effectiveness of such methods in terms of EMI reduction for different modulation profiles and other parameters. The method is compared with other methods using random modulation. Tests carried out on a buck converter are presented for experimental validation of the method. A short discussion on optimal modulation profiles and parameters is also included. View full abstract»

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  • An analytical method for determining the optimal modulating waveform for dithered clock generation

    Page(s): 577 - 584
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method for determining the optimal modulating waveform for spread spectrum clock generation (SSCG) is proposed to minimize the peak amplitude of the harmonic spectra measured in electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests. The optimal waveform can be easily obtained as a solution of a first-order differential equation that includes the impulse response of the receiver filter used for the spectrum measurement. To verify the validity of the proposed method, modulating waveforms and the resultant harmonic spectra are calculated for various modulating frequencies and resolution bandwidths. Results show that the optimal modulating waveform becomes similar to a simple triangular waveform if the modulating frequency is much lower or much higher than the resolution bandwidth. It is also found that dithering is most effective when the modulating frequency is equal to or slightly higher than the resolution bandwidth. The proposed method is applicable to and especially effective for dithered clock systems with a programmable modulating waveform. View full abstract»

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  • A revision of the traveling-wave monopole model

    Page(s): 585 - 588
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    Two time-domain electromagnetic emanation models are introduced into emission security (EMSEC) researches. The standing-wave dipole model can be easily gotten from some other references. But the traveling-wave monopole model addressed by Rothwell cannot be applied directly. A charge release coefficient Cq(t) is introduced into this model, which makes the model more adaptive. Near-zone and far-zone fields are discussed of the revised traveling-wave monopole model through an example. View full abstract»

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  • On the shielding effectiveness of enclosures

    Page(s): 589 - 601
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    This paper deals with new definitions of shielding effectiveness, in particular for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields. They are practicable and supposed to better characterize the shielding ability than the commonly used definitions. From the ratio of the time-averaged input power of the unshielded load to that one of the shielded load, in the limiting case of a vanishing load the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is derived. This is a simple combination of the commonly used and easily measurable electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness. A similar procedure is then employed for the transient case, where in the limiting case of a vanishing load the ratio of the absorbed energies turn into the transient shielding effectiveness. Numerical results are shown for closed as well as for nonclosed cylindrical shields. View full abstract»

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  • Nanolayered lightweight flexible shields with multidirectional optical transparency

    Page(s): 602 - 611
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    New nanolayered coatings are designed and deposited on flexible plastic substrate having the thickness of 100 μm, in order to realize lightweight ultrathin transparent shielding foils. The structure of the coating is optimized considering three figures of merit: the average transmittance in the visible range for normal incidence, the normalized average transmittance for oblique incidence at 550 nm, and the transmittance quality factor. The nanotechnology exploited for the deposition of the transparent metals is the dual ion beam sputtering. Tests of durability, optical transmission, and shielding effectiveness demonstrate that the film has a high adhesion under mechanical solicitation, high resistance against aging, peak transmittance in the visible range higher than 70%, omnidirectional properties in the range 0°-60°, and shielding effectiveness of 40 dB up to 6 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • A closer look at reverberation Chambers - 3-D Simulation and experimental verification

    Page(s): 612 - 626
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    This paper presents three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave simulations of the electromagnetic field inside a medium-sized reverberation chamber. A frequency-domain method-of-moments approach based on the electric field integral equation is used. A synopsis of the computational challenges particular for reverberation chambers is described and a detailed overview on the chamber modeling procedure is given. The electric field inside the chamber is computed and the influence of small geometric details and asymmetries is investigated as well as the effect of different excitations and stirrers. It is demonstrated that a statistics-based validation of reverberation chamber simulations is insufficient. To validate simulation results, therefore extensive near-field measurements inside the prototype reverberation chamber are performed. The complete 3-D reverberation chamber simulation, considering stirrers, door, and various practical excitations, accurately predicts the fields within the chamber in the important lower-to-medium frequency range and thus represents a reliable tool facilitating reverberation chamber optimization. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch